Petroleum

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Petroleum:

Petroleum

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1). What is petroleum? 2). Formation of petroleum 3). History of petroleum 4). Who Finds Petroleum 5). Petroleum facts INDEX

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What is Petroleum ? In a lay man’s language, PETROLEUM is FUEL. Fuels are materials that give off heat when they are burned. A fuel may be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Fuels that come from the remains of living things are called fossil fuels. Wood, coal, natural gas and the liquid fuel petroleum are common fossil .

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TYPES OF ENERGY – THE FUEL OF LIFE

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Petroleum is energy, stored deep in the earth by nature. This is a non-renewable energy source because petroleum supplies are limited and they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle. Petroleum includes crude oil, condensate and natural gas. Consumption of Energy by Mankind Back to index

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How is Petroleum formed? Petroleum is made primarily of mixtures of hydrocarbons, compounds of carbon, and hydrogen. Scientists believe petroleum hydrocarbons come from the remains of tiny animals and plants that lived millions of years ago. The idea that oil was created from dinosaurs is a myth, there simply were not enough of them to create such large amounts of oil.

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STAGE 1 When tiny organisms die, they sink to the bottom of the sea and are mixed with mud and silt.

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STAGE II Bacteria removes most of the oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, leaving mainly hydrogen and carbon. . STAGE III Lack of oxygen at the bottom of sea keeps the animals and plants from decaying completely. The partially decomposed organisms create a slimy mass, which is then covered with layers of sediments.

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STAGE IV Over millions of years, many layers of sediment pile on top of the once-living organisms. When the depth of burial reaches about 10,000 feet, natural heat of the earth and intense pressure combine to act upon the mass. The end result, over time, is the formation of petroleum

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Petroleum deposits are locked in porous rocks almost like water is trapped in a wet sponge .When crude oil comes out of the ground , it can be as thin as water or as thick as tar. BACK TO INDEX

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People died but history remained

The first Petroleum Well:

The first Petroleum Well The first petroleum was drilled in Pennsylvania, USA in 1859. Early modern discoveries of petroleum relied on these small surface wells. In the United States, bores that were used for water began producing crude oil. At that time, petroleum was called coal oil. The discovery of petroleum eventually closed the nineteenth century whale-oil industry. Petroleum was discovered at a shallow depth of only 21 metres through “Drake’s well” You could say that the oil and gas industry has helped to save the whale!

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WHO FINDS PETROLEUM AND WHERE?

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FINDING PETROLEUM WAS ONCE A JOB FOR PROSPECTORS WHO DUG WELLS IN PLACES THAT THEY THOUGHT WOULD BE SUITABLE - PERHAPS A LINE OF HILLS OR A SWAMP. SO THEY DRILLED A HOLE THERE AND IT WAS KNOWN AS A “WILD-CAT” WELL. BUT THE DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM BECAME TOO GREAT TO RELY ON GUESSWORK. WILD­CAT PROSPECTORS HAD TO GIVE WAY TO SPECIALIST SCIENTISTS. THESE SCIENTISTS ARE GEOLOGISTS AND GEOPHYSICISTS.

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GEOLOGISTS STUDY ROCKS AND SOILS IN THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST

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Back to index

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Of every 100 new wells drilled only about 44 produce oil. When scientists think there may be oil in a certain place, a petroleum company brings in a drilling rig and they need to drill a well. The typical oil well is about one mile deep.

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Petroleum is found in three forms: as a solid, called bitumen; as a liquid, which is usually called crude oil or condensate; and as a gas, such as methane and ethane. Both liquid oil and natural gas are generally found together. Whether a discovery becomes an oil or a gas field depends solely on whether there is more of one fossil fuel or the other fossil fuel in the area.

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We can’t use crude oil as it comes out of the ground. We must change it into fuels that we can use. The first stop for crude oil is at an oil refinery. A refinery is a factory that processes oil. The refinery cleans and separates the crude oil into many fuels and products. The most important one is gasoline. Other petroleum products are diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel. Industry uses petroleum to make plastics and many other products.

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Petroleum facts

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Petroleum Producing States

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Major Petroleum Products Ink Hand lotion Dashboards Heart valves Toothbrushes Luggage Crayons Guitar strings DVD’s Parachutes Movie film Balloons Enamel Aspirin Paint brushes Antiseptics Sunglasses Footballs Purses Glue Dyes Deodorants Artificial limbs Antihistamines Pantyhose Ballpoint pens Skis Oil filters Golf balls Perfumes Pajamas Contact lenses Shoe Polish Cassettes Dice Fertilizers Fishing Rods Trash bags Insecticides Electrical tapes Shampoo Cold Cream Floor wax Cameras Detergents Tires Toothpaste Nail polish

Oil and the Environment:

Oil and the Environment Petroleum products –gasoline, medicines, fertilizers, and others have helped people all over the world. But there is a trade-off.

Fuel for thought:

Fuel for thought Phd scholar at the Center Energy and Environment, TERI University, Aditi Banerjee is currently pursuing her research in the area of biomass utilization for ethanol production . There has been widespread concern over global warming and climate change caused by use the use of fossil fuels. In this regard, biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel have emerged as a sustainable and greener alternative in fossil fuels. Ethanol is a type of an alcohol, used in whisky, bear, rum, wine, etc. However, ethanol can also be blended with petrol as a fuel additive to make it more fuel efficient and help reduce air pollution. Generally, ethanol is produced from sugarcane molasses ( a waste stream for sugar production factory). But it’s not an adequate source to meet the rising demand for ethanol production which Is required to blend with petrol. Therefore, new source or feedstocks are explored for production of ethanol. Back to index

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Made By Pradyumn Agarwal

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