Boost Your Energy

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Method Boost Your Energy Nicole Abapo, Rubina Haroutonian, Gloria Haywood, Christy Nicholas Azusa Pacific University Literature Review Results Carbohydrates are the key to high energy (Woolston, 2004). Although Americans realize that the right foods will give energy, many Americans are still crashing in the afternoon (Woolston, 2004). People on low carbohydrate diets usually feel sluggish (Woolston, 2004). A balanced diet features carbohydrates as the body's chief source of fuel. It is suggested to eat often, eat small, and eat green (Woolston, 2004). Vitality is a matter of body, mind, and spirit (Lehrman, 1998). The experts in the fields of nutrition, exercise, sleep, and psychology offers tips of eating frequent, small meals every few hours to keep the metabolism steady versus surges (Lehrman, 1998). Participants: The participants for this survey were 19 females, ages 26-29. They were all California locals who live in the Southern California area. Each has a different lifestyle ranging from very active to sedentary. 30 Min of Exercise in a 7 Day Period Daily Energy Levels Overall, the data gathered from the survey indicated that the average female living in the United States ages 26-29, has average eating habits and energy levels. They consumed almost as many saturated fats as healthy fats; consumed the same amount of protein as processed foods, and slightly more in fruits and vegetables. They try to consume breakfast daily, eat moderately healthy and exercise at least once a week. Therefore, they have average energy levels. Discussion References The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether eating healthy would result in increased energy. Our hypothesis stated, ‘If people eat healthy on a regular basis, then their energy levels will be much higher than those who do not eat healthy. Biltoft-Jensen, A. A., Christensen, T. T., Ygil, T. T., Fagt, K. H., Matthiessen, J. J., & Tetens, I. I. (2008). Development of a recommended food intake pattern for healthy Danish adolescents consistent with the Danish dietary guidelines, nutrient recommendations and national food preferences. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics , 21 (5), 451-463. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2008.00903.x

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Literature Review Nicole Abapo Carbohydrates are the key to high energy ( Woolston , 2004). Although Americans realize that the right foods will give energy, many Americans are still crashing in the afternoon ( Woolston , 2004). People on low carbohydrate diets usually feel sluggish ( Woolston , 2004). A balanced diet features carbohydrates as the body's chief source of fuel. It is suggested to eat often, eat small, and eat green ( Woolston , 2004). Vitality is a matter of body, mind, and spirit ( Lehrman , 1998). The experts in the fields of nutrition, exercise, sleep, and psychology offers tips of eating frequent, small meals every few hours to keep the metabolism steady versus surges ( Lehrman , 1998). In addition, people who exercise regularly have a number of built-in energy advantages ( Lehrman , 1998). According to researchers, loss of sleep by one hour can cause one third of normal alertness to be depleted the next day ( Lehrman , 1998). According to Saltz , the following tips help to improve energy levels: 1) eating smaller meals, 2) eating breakfast every day, 3) eating a snack or a meal every 3-4 hours, 4) finding the right balance between carbohydrates, protein and good fats, 5) drinking lots of water, 6) eating enough calories, and 7) avoiding caffeine ( Saltz , 2005). Eating healthy meals and choosing healthy snacks will also help to boost your energy ( Saltz , 2005). Some examples of healthy snacks are: yogurt, a handful of nuts and an apple, veggies and hummus, and fresh or dried fruit with cottage cheese ( Saltz ,, 2005).

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Literature Review There are many benefits to eating healthy. Maintaining a healthy diet can prevent health risks, and gives lists of foods to avoid and enjoy (Honisett, Woolcock, Porter, & Hughes, 2009). Other benefits include: having energy throughout the day, obtaining vitamins and minerals, strength for sports and other activities, and maintaining a healthy weight (CYWH Staff, 2009). To achieve these benefits, one must be mindful of the correct times of the day to eat; eat healthy small snacks throughout the day and drink plenty of liquids (CYWH Staff, 2009). It is also important to understand what is considered to be a healthy snack and which snacks are high in fiber (Romeo, 2007). Romeo also reports that eating healthy can give also more energy. According to Rangan, Schindeler, Hector, Gill, & Webb, 'extra' foods contribute excessively to the energy, fat and sugar intakes of Australian adults while providing relatively few micronutrients (Rangan, Schindeler, Hector, Gill, & Webb, 2008 ) . The objective of this article was to identify the types and quantities of 'extra' foods, or energy dense nutrient poor foods consumed by Australian adults, and assess their contribution to total energy and nutrient intakes (Rangan, Schindeler, Hector, Gill, & Webb, 2008).

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Literature Review Along with these benefits, Kemp, Paul, & Smith discuss healthy eating and tips on how to begin to incorporate a healthy diet into your lifestyle. Some of these tips include: moderation, filling up on colorful fruits and vegetables, eating more healthy carbohydrates and whole grains, enjoying healthy fats & avoiding unhealthy fats, understanding protein, including calcium into your diet, and limiting your sugar and salt intake (Kemp, Paul, & Smith, 2011). Case studies have reported the effectiveness of incorporating a healthier lifestyle with physical activity among children (Biltoft-Jensen, Trolle, Christensen, Ygil, Fagt, matthiessen, Groth, & Tetens, 2008; Honisett, Woolcock, Porter, & Hughes, 2009). A case study assessing the connection between healthy eating and physical activity in children reported the effectiveness of supporting healthy eating and physical activity. The focus of the program was to prevent obesity in early childhood services and primary schools (Honisett, Woolcock, Porter, & Hughes, 2009).  Another case study focused on adolescents in the Danish culture and the need to consume considerably less sugary foods such as sodas, cakes, cookies, and other snacks. Reports showed that avoiding these types of foods will increase their energy and physical activity level (Biltoft-Jensen, Trolle, Christensen, Ygil, Fagt, matthiessen, Groth, & Tetens, 2008).

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Literature Review Another study indicated that changing a child’s environment to accommodate a healthier lifestyle in their school, after-school program, neighborhood, health care, marketing, and advertising produced healthier lifestyles for children living in those communities. (Samuels, Craypo, Boyle, Crawford, Yancey,& Florez). Additional studies showed that adopting obesity provoking behavior resulted in affecting their relationship with others, depression, low self-esteem, physical discomfort, anxiety and stress (Ernersson, Lindstrom, Torbjorn, Fredrick, Frisman, & Gunilla, 2010). During this study, participants were asked to reduce their physical activity to 5000 steps per day and eat out every day (Ernersson, Lindstrom, Nystrom, Fredrik, Frisman, & Gunilla, 2010). Much of the lack of energy, exhaustion, and stress can be attributed to a lack of nutrition in women’s diets (Finn, 2001.  Multitasking has contributed to the cause of women becoming stressed and tired (Finn, 2001).  Finn describes how healthy eating is linked to boosting energy levels and health risks. Each nutrient functions by producing energy (Finn, 2001). The benefits of strategic eating are: preventing future disease, but also includes having more energy (Finn, 2001).

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Method Rubina Haroutonian and Christy Nicholas Participants: The participants for this survey were 19 females, ages 26-29. They were all California locals who live in the Southern California area. Each has a different lifestyle ranging from very active to sedentary. Instruments: The experimenters utilized The Psychologist as Detective . This textbook was used as a guide for the hypothesis, which included the dependent and independent variables. In conjunction, the course’s eCourse web page was used. The instructions for the experiment were provided at this site. Each week, there were detailed instructions and videos that were followed in order to conduct the experiment. To conduct the research for this experiment, a qualitative, open-ended, multiple-choice online survey was created. Through the use of a group blog page, the researchers brainstormed a list of questions to be included on a survey that would be sent out to the participants who had been chosen for the research project. The experimenters used Survey Monkey, an online survey website to conduct their experiment. The survey questions were created on Survey Monkey and the link was then emailed to all the participants. Procedure: The experiment was conducted through the use of an online, anonymous survey. A ten question, quantitative and qualitative survey was emailed to the 19 participants through a link provided by one of the researchers in email. Participants were asked to complete the survey by March 19, 2011. A few participants were sent a reminder email to fill out the survey a week before the deadline.

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Results Rubina Haroutonian and Christy Nicholas Overall, the data gathered from the survey indicated that the average female living in the United States ages 26-29, has average eating habits and energy levels. They consumed almost as many saturated fats as healthy fats; consumed the same amount of protein as processed foods, and slightly more in fruits and vegetables. They try to consume breakfast daily, eat moderately healthy and exercise at least once a week. Therefore, they have average energy levels. (See next slide for the questions that were included in the survey and emailed to the 19 participants)

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1.  I eat breakfast on a regular basis. 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = neither disagree or agree 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree 2.  How often do you exercise for at least 30 minutes in a 7 day period? 1 = 1 time per week 2 = 2 times per week 3 = 3 times per week 4 = 5 times per week 5 = 5-7 times per week 3.  Do you consume vitamin supplements and/or energy drinks on a regular basis? If so, list which ones you consume, and how often you consume them. 4. On an average, how many hours of sleep do you get each night? 5. Which category is the majority of your calories derived from? a.  Saturated fats (butter, cream cheese, eggs, ground beef, etc.) b.  Healthy fats (olive oil, nuts, avocado, etc.) c.  Processed foods (canned, foods, breads, pasta, packaged, snack foods, etc.) d.  Proteins (nuts, fish, turkey, chicken, beef, etc.) e.  Fresh fruits and vegetables 6.  Rate your daily energy level on a scale of 1-5; 5 being the highest energy level and 1 being the least. 1 = no energy 2 = some energy 3 = average energy 4 = above average energy 5 = excellent energy 7. How many times per week you do east fast food: a. 0 b. 1-2 times per week c. 2-4 times per week d. 5-7 times per week e. Over 8 times per week 8.What is your average daily caloric intake? a. less than 1,200 calories b. 1,200 - 1,500 calories c. 1,500 - 2,000 calories d. 2,000 - 2,500 calories e. over 2,500 calories 9. I usually eat healthy balanced meals. 1. strongly agree 2. agree 3. neither agree or disagree 4. disagree 5. strongly disagree 10. My overall lifestyle is a. very active b. active c. moderately active d. sedentary

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Results According to the study, almost half of the participants indicated that they eat breakfast on a regular basis (26.3% Strongly Agree, 21.1% Agree). In regards to exercise, all of the participants exercise for thirty minutes at least once a week if not more (see graph entitled “30 Minutes of Exercise in a 7-Day Period”). Overall, 53% do not consume any vitamins or protein/energy shakes on a regular basis; 21% of the participants consume daily vitamins; 16% consume vitamin C and other daily vitamins; and only 10% consume protein drinks. Regarding sleep patterns, the results indicate that 63% of the participants get at least 7-9 hours of sleep every night (21% - 7 hours, 37% - 8 hours, 5% - 9 hours). It is interesting to note that 32% of the participants get at least 6 hours of sleep each night. The researchers thought it was important to find out the type of foods that the participants consumed on a daily basis as the type of food can affect a person’s energy levels according to the literature that was reviewed. Question number 5 addresses this concern. It asked “Which category is the majority of your calories derived from? The results of this question were a tie of 36.8% between consuming processed foods (canned foods, microwaveable foods etc) and proteins (nuts, fish, turkey, chicken, beef, etc.); 15.8% fresh fruit and vegetables; 5.3% consume saturated fats and healthy fats. (See chart entitled “Major Source of Caloric Intake” on the next slide)

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Chart # 1 Christy Nicholas

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Chart # 2 Christy Nicholas

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Results One of the most important questions of the entire survey had to do with daily energy levels. (See chart entitled “Daily Energy Levels” on the next slide). Through the use of a Likert Scale, the experimenters asked the participants to rate their daily energy levels on a scale of 1-5. Originally, the Likert Scale was supposed to look like the following: 1=no energy, 2=some energy, 3=average energy, 4=above average energy, 5=excellent energy. Unfortunately, Survey Monkey asked the participants to rate each option (no energy, some energy, etc.) on a scale of 1-5 which caused some confusion regarding the results. This glitch may have tainted the results of the survey as not all of the participants answer the question due to the confusion. The researchers realized that question six should have been clarified by stating, choose one answer. Ten of the participants were disqualified because of the multiple answers, or not answering question. The remaining nine participants consisted of six participants in the healthy eating group and three participants in the unhealthy eating group. Comparisons were made between the two groups based on the reported energy levels. According to the survey results, the mean energy level of the participants (who answered the question) was 3 on a scale of 1-5. So, the results show that their energy levels were average.

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Chart # 3 Christy Nicholas

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Results Finally, the researchers wanted to find out whether the participants eat fast food on a regular basis, what their daily caloric intake was, whether the participants eat healthy, balanced meals, and whether they consider their lifestyle to be active or sedentary. Of the survey participants, the results indicated that 42.1% consumed fast food 1-2 times per week; 31.6% did not consume fast food; 26.3% consumed fast food 2-4 times per week. Regarding daily caloric intake, the results showed that 47.4% of the survey participants consumed 1,600-2,000 calories each day; 31.6% consumed 1,200-1,500 calories each day; 21.1% consumed 2,100-2,500 calories each day. Almost half (47.4%) of the participants neither agree nor disagree that they eat a healthy, balanced meal on a regular basis. A little less than half (42.1%) consider themselves active and about half (47.4%) of the participants consider themselves moderately active and. (See next slide for a table of the mean scores for each question).

Healthy eating increases energy:

Healthy eating increases energy

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Survey Questions Table Christy Nicholas Survey Item M SD 1. I eat breakfast on a regular basis 3.2 1.5 2. How often do you exercise for at least 30 minutes in a 7 day period? 2.1 1.04 3. Do you consume vitamin supplements and/or energy drinks on a regular basis? If so, list which ones you consume, and how often you consume them. (1 = No Vitamins or Supplements, 2 = Daily Vitamins, 3 = Vitamin C and other supplements, 4 = Energy Drinks, 5 = Protein Shakes) 1.6 0.83 4. On average, how many hours of sleep do you get each night (1 = 5 hrs , 2 = 6 hrs , 3 = 7 hrs , 4 = 8 hrs , 5 = 9 hrs ) ? 3.2 1.1 5. Which category do the majority of your calories derive from? (1 = Saturated Fats, 2 = Healthy Fats, 3 = Processed Foods, 4 = Proteins, 5 = Fresh Fruits and Veggies) 3.5 1.02 6. Rate your daily energy level on a scale of 1-5; 5 being the highest energy level and 1 being the least. 3.0 1.32 7. How many times per week do you eat fast food? 1.94 0.78 8. What is your average daily caloric intake? 2.9 0.74 9. I usually eat healthy balanced meals. 2.7 0.88 10. My overall lifestyle is: 1=Very Active, 2=Active, 3=Moderately Active, 4=Sedentary or 5=Very Sedentary 2.56 0.7

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Discussion Gloria Haywood The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether eating healthy would result in increased energy. Our hypothesis stated, ‘If people eat healthy on a regular basis, then their energy levels will be much higher than those who do not eat healthy. Our hypothesis was based on previous literature reviews such as The Secrets to Eating for Energy, Energy to Go, and several reviews that shown a correlation between eating healthy food and increased energy. The data from this study confirmed the hypothesis and supported the initial prediction. The survey consisted of 19 female subjects between the ages of 26 to 29. The researchers emailed the subjects a 10 question questionnaire. The questions centered around eating breakfast, exercising for 30 minutes daily, consumption of vitamin supplements, amount of sleep daily, types of food eaten, self report of daily energy level, fast food consumption, average daily caloric intake, eating healthy balanced meals, and overall lifestyle. By limiting the survey to women between the ages of 26 to 29, this ensured that the women were relatively within the same population, eliminating some extraneous variable. To ensure the validity of the study, the researchers were careful not to compare the energy levels of men to women; or of young women in their late teens; to women in their 20s, 30s, 40s, or 50s.

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Discussion Collectively, the result of the survey shows that the subjects were average in their eating habits and energy levels. The average female between ages 26 to 29 consumed almost as many saturated fats as they consumed healthy fats; consumed the same amount of protein as processed foods; and slightly more in fruits and vegetables. Specifically, the researchers took five questions to determine the healthy eaters from the unhealthy eaters. Once these two groups were formed, two of the questions were key determining factors to either prove or disprove the hypothesis. These key questions were questions five and six. These questions asked the participant which category is the majority of your calories derived and to rate their daily energy level on a scale of 1 to 5. Ten of the participants were disqualified because of the multiple answers, or not answering question six. The researchers realized that question six should have been clarified by stating, choose one answer. The remaining nine participants consisted of six participants in the healthy eating group and three participants in the unhealthy eating group.

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Discussion Comparisons were made between the two groups based on the reported energy levels. The point system used to denote levels of energy allowed the researchers to determine the mean for both groups. The results were 2.8 for healthy eating on a regular basis, and 2.6 for unhealthy eating. The results proved the hypothesis that, “If people eat healthy on a regular basis, then their energy levels will be much higher than those who do not eat healthy.” However, the margin was not very significant. The data retrieved was relevant to the topic in light of the high obesity rate and the sedentary life that has been adopted in the advent of technology (computers, video games, cellular phones, etc). This study could be generalized with any population as long as the population retains validity. A concern exists about other extraneous variables that may not be accounted for in regards to energy. These variables could include the occupation of the participant, genetic background, individual physiological makeup, family size, and roles. Further research in this area is certainly warranted.

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References Gloria Haywood Biltoft-Jensen, A. A., Christensen, T. T., Ygil, T. T., Fagt, K. H., Matthiessen, J. J., & Tetens, I. I. (2008). Development of a recommended food intake pattern for healthy Danish adolescents consistent with the Danish dietary guidelines, nutrient recommendations and national food preferences. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics , 21 (5), 451-463. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2008.00903.x CYWH Staff at Children’s Hospital Boston. (n.d.). Healthy Eating. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.youngwomenshealth.org/healthyeating.html Ernersson, A., Lindstrom, T., Nystrom, F., & Frisman, G. (2010). Young healthy individuals develop lack of energy when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks: a phenomenological analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences , 24 (3), 565-571. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00750x Finn, S. (2001). Eating for Energy. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-based Medicine , 10 (5), 429-431. Retrieved March 3, 2011 from EBSCO host Honisett, S., Woolcock, E., Porter, C., & Hughes, I. (2009). Developing an award program for children’s settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity. BMC Public Health , 9345-355. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-345 Kemp, G., Paul, M., & Smith, M. (n.d.). Healthy Eating: Easy Tips for Planning a Healthy Diet & Sticking to it. Help Guide . Retrieved from http://helpguide.org/life/healthy _eating_diet.htm#authors

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References Lehrman, S. (1998). Energy to go. Health (Time Inc. Health ), 12 (2), 80. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from EBSCO host Rangan, A. M., Schindeler, S., Hector, D. J., Gill, T. P., & Webb, K. L. (2008). Consumption of extra foods by Australian adults: types, quantities and contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr , 63 (7), 865-71. Retrieved March 3, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18957970 Romeo, K. (2007, July 30). How Eating Healthy Can Give You More Energy. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/328405/how__eating_healthy _can_give_you_more_.html Saltz, B. (Sep 2005). Eat for Energy. Better Nutrition , 67 (9). Retrieved March 1, 2011 from EBSCO host Samuels, S. E., Craypo, L., Boyle, M., Crawford, P. B., Yancey, A., & Flores, G. (2010). The California Endowment’s Healthy Eating, Active Communities Program: A Midpoint Review. American Journal of Public Health . 100 (11), 2114-2123. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.192781 Woolston, C. (2004). The secrets to eating for energy. Health . (Time Inc. Health ), Retrieved March 3, 2011 from http://www.faqs.org/abstracts/Sports-and-fitness/The-secrets-to-eating-for-energy-Eating-to-live-longer.html#ixzz1JWmYNaFH

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