Unit 1 - Earth Systems

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Unit 1 Notes

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By: longdrv (88 month(s) ago)

Chad, nice PPT on Unit 1, I am teacher in VA, how can I get a copy of your PPT

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Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE : 

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens 

Chapter 1 : 

Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science

1.1 What Is Earth Science? : 

1.1 What Is Earth Science?  Encompasses all sciences that seek to understand Earth Earth's neighbors in space Physical world - visible level Large scale forces and effects

1.1 What Is Earth Science? : 

 Earth science includes astronomy, the study of the universe meteorology, the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather geology, the study of Earth Golden child! oceanography, the study of the ocean 1.1 What Is Earth Science?  All of these depend on one another!

1.1 What Is Earth Science? : 

 Most researchers conclude that Earth and the other planets formed at essentially the same time.  More detail later… 1.1 What Is Earth Science?

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth Four major spheres • Interact constantly • “Sphere” signifies a system of individual parts that make up a complex whole.

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth 1. Hydrosphere - water in any form • Ocean is the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere. - Holds about 97% of Earth's water • Also includes fresh water found in streams, lakes, and glaciers, as well as that found underground • Needed by almost all living things

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth 2. Atmosphere • Thin, tenuous blanket of gases (air) • Up to 100 Km high 3. Biosphere • Includes all life • Ocean floor upward for several kilometers into the atmosphere • 90% within 16 Km • Affects and is affected by other spheres

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth 4. Geosphere • Based on compositional differences, it consists of the crust, mantle, and core. - Crust—the thin, rocky outer layer of Earth. - Mantle—the 2890-kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crust. - Core—the innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle. • Most is solid, not liquid!

Earth’s Layered Structure : 

Earth’s Layered Structure

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth Plate tectonics is the theory that proposes that Earth’s outer shell consists of individual plates that interact in various ways and thereby produce earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and Earth’s crust itself.

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth Theory = ? Hypothesis = ? Law = ?

1.2 A View of Earth : 

1.2 A View of Earth Destructive Forces Break down Weathering, Erosion Constructive Forces Mountain building, Volcanism Build new crust - from where? Powered by earth’s inner heat

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science Closed systems are self contained (e.g., an automobile cooling system). Moves Energy, cycles matter  A system is any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  A system is any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.  Open systems allow both energy and matter to flow in and out of the system (e.g., a river system).  What are most earth systems?

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Earth is a dynamic body with many separate but highly interacting parts or spheres.  Earth system science studies Earth as a system that is composed of numerous parts, or subsystems.

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Sources of Energy • Sun—heat drives external processes such as weather, ocean circulation and erosional processes • Earth’s interior—heat drives internal processes including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Consists of a nearly endless array of subsystems (e.g., hydrologic cycle) that affect each other  Mt. St. Helens - 1980

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science Earth as a System Volcano blocks valley with lava (Geo) Creates lake by blocking river (Hydro) Ash pollutes air (Atmo) Pollutants dissolve into acid rain, kills plants (Bio)

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Humans affect every system Burn Fossil Fuels – Atmo/Hydro Channel Rivers – Mississippi Delta (Hydro)

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Environment • Surrounds and influences organisms Physical environment encompasses water, air, soil, and rock The term environmental is usually reserved for those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment.

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Resources • Include water, soil, minerals, and energy • Two broad categories 2. Nonrenewable—cannot be replenished in the near future (e.g., metals, fuels) 1. Renewable—can be replenished (e.g., plants, energy from water and wind)

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Population • Population of the planet is growing rapidly Logistic curve coming? • Resource use growing even faster than pop. Why?

Growth of World Population : 

Growth of World Population

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Caused by people and societies • Urban air pollution • Acid rain • Ozone depletion • Global warming  Local, regional, and global

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Caused by natural hazards • Landslides • Earthquakes  Problem for humans, not for nature • Floods • Forest Fires

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science  Further proof of interconnectedness • Nitrogen • Carbon • Hydrologic

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science Biogeochemical Cycles Further proof of interconnectedness Carbon (Pg.85) Nitrogen (Pg. 137) Hydrologic Cycles Tables Sheet

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science Carbon Cycle Geosphere - limestone rock Atmosphere - CO2 Hydrosphere - carbonic acid Biosphere - plant/animal tissue (carb, lipid, protein)

1.4 Earth System Science : 

1.4 Earth System Science Nitrogen Cycle Geosphere - NH4 & NO3 Role of Bacteria Atmosphere - N2 gas Hydrosphere - NH4 & NO3 Biosphere - Protein, NH4 (waste)

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