BIOLOGY PROJECT : BIOLOGY PROJECT SUBMITTED BY
CLINTA P VARGHESE
CLASS 9TH A
ROLL NO 06 DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS : DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY : BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Diversity of plants and animals-basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification . Hierarchy of categories /group, major group of plant,[salient features] (bacteria , thallophyta , bryophyta , gymnosperms and angiosperms).Major groups of animals(salient features)(non-chordates up to phyla and chordates up to classes) IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS : IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
The use of important distinguishing features forms the basis of classification.
SIMILARITIES and DISSIMILARITIES forms the basis of classification. 2. IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION : 2. IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION The science of classification is an important branch of biological science . Classification of living organisms has the following advantages:
Makes the study of a wide variety of organisms more easy and convenient.
Projects before us a picture of all life forms at a glance.
Helps us to understand the interrelationships among different categories of living organisms. Provides information about their evolution. All biological sciences depend upon a system of classification for study of organisms, e.g.; Biogeography, Ecology, Pathology ,ForestryGives a system for identification of known and unknown organisms : Provides information about their evolution. All biological sciences depend upon a system of classification for study of organisms, e.g.; Biogeography, Ecology, Pathology ,ForestryGives a system for identification of known and unknown organisms Classification Of Living Organisms : Classification Of Living Organisms 3.CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION : 3.CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION The idea that all present day forms have been developed due to accumulation of changes in body design is contained in the concept of evolution as proposed by CHARLES DARWIN in his book ‘THE ORGIN OF SPIECES’ The concept of evolution shows that: : The concept of evolution shows that: Some groups of organisms have ancient body design which has not much changed
Some groups of organisms have only developed a particular body design recently e. g ; primates
Primitive or older organisms are simpler while recent or younger organisms are more complex CHARLES DARWIN : CHARLES DARWIN Charles Darwin was greatly influenced by the geologist Adam Sedgwick and naturalist John Henslow in his development of the theory of natural selection, which was to become the foundation concept supporting the theory of evolution. Darwin’s theory holds that environmental effects lead to varying degrees of reproductive success in individuals and groups of organisms. Natural selection tends to promote adaptation in organisms when necessary for survival. This revolutionary theory was published in 1859 in Darwin’s now famous treatise On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Evolution of Modern Primates : Evolution of Modern Primates The order Primate consists of two suborders, prosimians and anthropoids. Anthropoids arose from the descendants of early prosimians, but prosimians themselves have changed very little in 50 million years. Characteristics shared by primates include opposable thumbs (and usually big toes), frontally directed eyes with binocular vision, large and convoluted brains, and complex social behavior. 4. BIODIVERSITY : 4. BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the existence of a wide variety of species or other taxa of plants , animals and micro organisms in a natural habitat within a particular environment 5.REGION OF MEGADIVERSITY : 5.REGION OF MEGADIVERSITY It is the region of warm and humid tropical region of the earth , between the TROPIC OF CANCER and TROPIC OF CRAPICON , where there is rich diversity of plants and animal life. 6.HIERARCHY : 6.HIERARCHY System of arrangement or framework for classification in which taxonomic categories are placed in order of logical sequences. 7.TAXON : 7.TAXON The unit classification of organisms which can be recognized to a definite category at any level of classification e.g.; fishes,, insects, etc 8.TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES : 8.TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES Banks or grouping of organisms developed in any system of classification on the basis of their fundamental similarities and dissimilarities the important taxonomic categories are kingdom, division /phylum ,class, order ,family, genus and species. 9.HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION : 9.HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION Biologist such as Ernst Haeckel , Robert Whittaker and Carl Woese have tried to classify all living organisms into boreal categories called kingdoms.
Classification proposed by Whittaker haws five kingdoms : monera ,protozoa ,fungi ,plantae and animalia and is widely used.
The groups are formed on the basis of their cell structure mode and source of nutrition and body organisation. The taxa of living organisms are ranked in a hierarchy of categories as follows:- : The taxa of living organisms are ranked in a hierarchy of categories as follows:- : Here scientific name of human beinga is homo sapiens.
Thus we reach the basic unit of classification , i.e. species by separating organisms on the basis of a hierarchy of characteristics into smaller and smaller groups. 10.SPECIES : 10.SPECIES A group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring species is the lowest or the basic taxonomic category e g Solanum ,Tuberosum [potato] 11. GENUS : 11. GENUS Group of closely related species that forms a taxonomic category higher than spices ,e.g., dog ,jackal and wolf are placed in the same genus Canis. 12.FAMILY : 12.FAMILY A number of genera having several common characters that form a family,e.g.,Solanum and Datura have some characters in common, so they are placed in same family SOLANACEAE 13. ORDER : 13. ORDER A number of families having common characters are placed in an order ,e.g., cat , tiger , etc belong to a family FELIDEAE : FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION : FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION Robert Whittakerhas classified all the living organisms into following five kingdoms.
Kingdom monera: Unicellular, prokaryotes like bacteria blue green algae and mycoplasma .
Kingdom protista: unicellular eukaryotes like protozoan's and algae.
Kingdom fungi: multicellular eukaryotic non green heterotrophy lacking chlorophyll. : 4. Kingdom plantae: multicellular eukaryotic green plants containing chlorophyll having autotrophic mode of nutrition like algae mosses ferns and flowering plants.
5. Kingdom animila: multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophic animals lacking chlorophyll and having ingressive mode of nutrition like corals insects earthworms birds reptiles and mammals. FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION can be represented in terms of cell structure as follows : FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION can be represented in terms of cell structure as follows : Whittaker based his scheme of classification on the following three levels of organisation:
Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cell structure
Three different modes of nutrition –photosynthesis [plants] absorption from the environment [fungi] and ingestion[animals]
Unicellular versus multicellular organisation KINGDOM MONERA : KINGDOM MONERA These organisms are prokaryotic,
i.e., they do not have well-defined nucleus and lack cell organelles
Some organisms have cell walls[like bacteria and blue green algae]while others lack cell wall[mycoplasma]
Mode of nutrition is either autotrophic[as blue green algae and some bacteria]or heterotrophic [mycoplasma and most bacteria] Examples : Examples MYCOPLASMA : MYCOPLASMA BACTERIA : BACTERIA ANABAENA : ANABAENA BLUE GREEN ALGAE : BLUE GREEN ALGAE SOME GREEN ALGAE : SOME GREEN ALGAE KINGDOM PROTISTA: : KINGDOM PROTISTA: These organisms are unicellular and eukaryotic [as well defined nucleus and other cell organelles are present]
Mode of nutrition is either autotrophic [as in algae and diatoms] or heterotrophic [as in protozoan's]
Some of the organisms use appendages such as hair like cilica are whip like flagella for movement in some protests like amoeba movement takes placed by pseudopodia[false feet]
examples: algae diatoms euglena and protozoan's [amoeba] EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES AMOEBA : AMOEBA EUGLENA : EUGLENA CILIATED PROTOZOANS : CILIATED PROTOZOANS PROTOZOA : PROTOZOA KINGDOM FUNGI : KINGDOM FUNGI Fungi are eukaryotic non green [lacking chlorophyll]
They are heterotrophic in nature and obtain food from decaying organic matter and so called saprophytes
Many become multicellular organisms at certain stages in their lives
They have cell wall made of a tough complex sugar called chitin
Some fungi live in symbiotic[mutually dependent]relationships with blue green algae as in lichens
Examples: yeast, agaricus, aspergillus , pencillium EXAMPLES OF FUNGI : EXAMPLES OF FUNGI MUSHROOM : MUSHROOM YEAST : YEAST PENICILLIN : PENICILLIN Penicillium Growing in Agar KINGDOM PLANTAE : KINGDOM PLANTAE These are multicellular eukaryotes with cellulose cells walls
They are autotrophs and use chlorophyll [present in chloroplasts] for photosynthesis
All palnts are included in this group forming visible forms of biodiversity
The first level of classification among plants depends on whether the plant body has well differentiated distict components [like root , stem, leaf etc……] Slide 50: The next level of classification among plants depend upon whether the differentiated plant body has vascular tissue for the transport of water and other substances within it
Further classification ts based on the ability to bear seeds and whether the seeds are enclosed within fruits : THALLOPHYTA[THALLUS-UNDIFFERENTIATED,PHYTA-PLANT] : THALLOPHYTA[THALLUS-UNDIFFERENTIATED,PHYTA-PLANT] Plants do not have well –differentiated body design
The plants in this group are commonly called algae
These plants are predominantly aquatic
Algae are green thallophytic(autotrophic)that contain chlorophyll EXAMPLES OF THALLOPHYTA[ALGAE] : EXAMPLES OF THALLOPHYTA[ALGAE] CLADOPHORA : CLADOPHORA BRYOPHYTA[broyon-moss,phyta-plant] : BRYOPHYTA[broyon-moss,phyta-plant] The first plants to live in land and water so they are called amphibians of the kingdom
The plant body is differentiated to form stem and leaf like structures
No specialised tissue for conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES MARCHANTIA : MARCHANTIA MOSS : MOSS FUNARIA : FUNARIA PTERIDOPHYTA : PTERIDOPHYTA The plant body is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots.
Vascular system is present.
Leaves usually have leaflets. Spores are borne on the undersurface of the leaf.
They grow in damp cool shady places. EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES FERNS : FERNS MARSILEA : MARSILEA HORSE TAIL : HORSE TAIL THANKYOU : THANKYOU