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Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend. TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION : TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION In India, much of its forest and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by the government through the Forest Department . These are classified are Reserved forests, protected forests, unclassed forests. flora and fauna : flora and fauna India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity, and has nearly 8 per cent of the total number of species in the world. These diverse flora and fauna are so well integrated in our daily life that we take these for granted. At least 10 per cent of India's recorded wild flora and fauna threatened list. Slide 7: Dimensions of forest cover in the India is estimated at 637,293sq.km,which is 19.39% of the geographical area.ie; DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF SPECIES : DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF SPECIES Normal species : species whose population level are considered to be normal for their survival. Endangered species: species which are in the path of extinction. Vulnerable species: species which are likely to move in to the endangered category. Rare species: species with small population which may move in to the endangered or vulnerable category. : Endemic species: species which are found in isolated areas Extinct species: species which have been vanished from the earth Examples Of Different Categories Of Species : Examples Of Different Categories Of Species Normal species.- e.g. cattle, Sal, pine Endangered species. -e.g. black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass Vulnerable species. -e.g. blue sheep, Asiatic elephant Rare species. –e.g. wild Asiatic buffalo Endemic species.- e.g. nicobar pigeon Extinct species.- e.g. pink head duck Causes of depletion of flora and fauna : Causes of depletion of flora and fauna 1951-1980 forest area converted into agricultural land all over India. 1951 over 5000 sq km of forest cleared for river valley projects. Mining another factor behind deforestation. Grazing and fuel-wood collection are degrading factors. Conservation of forest and wildlife in India : Conservation of forest and wildlife in India Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems-water, air and soil. 1960s and 1970s conservationists demanded a national wildlife protection programme. Central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals including tiger, three types of crocodiles These projects focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components. Project tiger : Project tiger Tiger is one of the key wildlife species in the faunal web. “Project tiger” one of the well- publicised wildlife campaigns in the world, was launched in 1973 Corbett national park in Uttaranchal, Sunder bans National Park in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh are some of the Tiger reserves of India. Slide 14: The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific , economic , aesthetic , cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Main objectives under the scheme include wildlife management, protection measures and site specific ecodevelopment to reduce the dependency of local communities on tiger reserve resources. : Initially, the Project started with 9 tiger reserves, covering an area of 16,339 sq.km., with a population of 268 tigers. At present there are 27 tiger reserves covering an area of 37761 sq.km., with a population of 1498 tigers. This amounts to almost 1.14% of the total geographical area of the country. The selection of reserves was guided by representation of ecotypical wilderness areas across the biogeography range of tiger distribution in the country. Project Tiger is undisputedly a custodian of major gene pool. It is also a repository of some of the most valuable ecosystem and habitats for wildlife. : Tiger Reserves are constituted on a 'core-buffer' strategy. The core area is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations, where collection of minor forest produce, grazing, human disturbances are not allowed within. However, the buffer zone is managed as a ‘multiple use area’ with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to the spill over population of wild animals from the core conservation unit, and to provide site specific eco developmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on the core. Except for the National Parks portion if contained within, normally no relocation of villages is visualized in the buffer area, and forestry operations, NTFP collection and other rights and concessions to the local people are permitted in a regulated manner to complement the initiatives in the core unit : Project Tiger has put the tiger on an assured course of recovery from the brink of extinction, and has resurrected the floral and faunal genetic diversity in some of our unique and endangered wilderness ecosystem. The population of tigers in the country has increased significantly to about 4000 from less than 2000 at the time of launch of the project. : The effective protection and concerted conservation measures inside the reserves have brought about considerable intangible achievements also, viz. arresting erosion, enrichment of water regime thereby improving the water table and overall habitat resurrection. Labor intensive activities in tiger reserves have helped in poverty alleviation amongst the most backward sections, and their dependence on forests has also reduced. The project has been instrumental in mustering local support for conservation programmed in general. : THANK U! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.