Pedigrees and Sex-Linked Traits

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3.3.2 Pedigrees and Sex-linked traits:

3.3.2 Pedigrees and Sex-linked traits

OBJECTIVES:

OBJECTIVES Use a pedigree to interpret patterns of inheritance within a family. Explain why X-linked traits are more often expressed in males. List three traits that are only carried on sex chromosomes.

Pedigree Basics:

Pedigree Basics It is important to study how the trait is passed from one generation to the next. A pedigree chart, which shows the relationships within a family, helps geneticists do so. Symbols: Squares- males Circles- females Completely shaded in- affected Half shaded in- carrier Not shaded- not affected Horizontal line- marriage Vertical Lines- children

PowerPoint Presentation:

A circle represents a female. A square represents a male. A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents a marriage. A vertical line and a bracket connect the parents to their children. A half-shaded circle or square indicates that a person is a carrier of the trait. A completely shaded circle or square indicates that a person expresses the trait. A circle or square that is not shaded indicates that a person neither expresses the trait nor is a carrier of the trait. A black X represents death of the individual.

Pedigree for Attached Earlobes:

Pedigree for Attached Earlobes How many males have attached earlobes? Label each individual’s genotype. Can you determine if the trait for attached earlobes is dominant or recessive from this pedigree? Explain your answer.

Answer to Second Question:

Answer to Second Question

Sex Linked Inheritance:

Sex Linked Inheritance X chromosome is always female Y chromosome is always male XXY, XY represents males Sex-linked trait Trait that is carried on the X chromosome Y chromosome is unaffected Sex-linked traits can be dominant or recessive Dominant- has one or both dominant alleles Recessive- has both recessive alleles

Sex-Linked Traits:

Sex-Linked Traits Remember that humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and that the 23 rd pair are the sex chromosomes. Females are XX and males are XY. The traits found on the 23 rd X chromosome are called X-linked traits. If an X-linked trait is recessive, females have a 1 in 3 chance of inheriting that trait. Males have a 1 in 2 chance of inheriting that trait. For this reason, these recessive phenotypes are more often expressed in males. Ex: colorblindness, hemophilia, and baldness

Baldness Example:

Baldness Example If B= normal hair growth and b=baldness… Possible Female Genotypes with their Phenotypes X B X B Normal hair growth X B X b Normal hair growth X b X b Baldness Possible Male Genotypes with their Phenotypes X B Y Normal hair growth X b Y Baldness

Identifying Sex-Linked Traits by Analyzing a Pedigree:

Identifying Sex-Linked Traits by Analyzing a Pedigree To determine if a pedigree is illustrating the inheritance of a sex-linked trait, there are three characteristics you should look for: More males than females are affected Only females are carriers Trait is usually passed from mother to son

Pedigree for Colorblindness:

Pedigree for Colorblindness

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