the mobile phone learning program

Category: Education

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Cherrina Gilbert August 21, 2011 Mobile Phone Learning Program

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A Agenda Adoptor Categories and the S-Curve Mobile Phone Learning Organizational Innovations Perceived Attributes of Innovations Critical Mass and Change Agents 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mobile Phone Learning Decision Process Stages of the Innovation Process

Why is mobile phone learning needed in the classrooms?:

Why is mobile phone learning needed in the classrooms?

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Mobile Learning - use of mobile devices during instruction Mobile devices (Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, tablet PCs, iPad, etc. (Listening and Skills Improvement Service, 2011). Mobile Phone Learning Stems from the idea of mobile learning. consists of smart phones Other types of cell phones with Internet Access and texting abilities. Who developed mobile phone learning?

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Smart Phone History The idea of the initial smart phone was modified and improved around 2002. The Blackberry 5810 which was a phone that had the capabilities of voice, checking email, and surfing the web (Reed, 2010). Smart Phones The First Smart Phone t Apple iPhone , Android, HTC, etc. Educational Apps iBooks Graphing Calculator eTextbooks Google Apps (Blogs, Docs, Mail, and Calendar) Faster connectivity Provide immediate access to information on the World Wide Web Email Capabilities Educational Games Smart Phones of 2011 In 1993, the IBM Simon was the first smart phone that included voice and data features (Reed, 2010). These phones were not designed for everyone. Basically, it was available to the businesses and corporations because they could afford the costs of the phones. . 3 2 1

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Who did the developers have in mind for the Mobile Phone Learning Program? What problems did they encounter? Lack of data to support student achievement Opinion leaders believe that mobile phones will cause a distraction in the classroom Digital Divide Inappropriate Internet Usage Problems Educators Administrators Parents Students Community Leaders School Board Members Targeted Audience 1 2

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Mobile Phone Learning Decision Process Time Line (Rogers, 2003). Knowledge Stage : Conceptions of Mobile Phones Decision Stage: Engage in Promoting Adoption or Rejection of Mobile Phone Learning Confirmation Stage: Continuation of Final Decision or Reverse Final Decision Persuasion Stage: Advantages of Mobile Phone Learning Implementation Stage: Ways It Is Used In School District 5 4 3 2 1 1

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Wikipedia (2011). History of Smartphones . Retrieved from: Radio Telephone Radio Communication during Wartime 2007 2003 2002 2000 1997 1983 1959 1946 1972 Knowledge: Mobile Phone Timeline Radio Telephone Service for Motorist Portable Phone 1st Commercial Use Cell Phone The Synergy: Digital Smart Phone t Errickson R380 Smartphone with Camera Android iPhone Blackberry Time (2011). A photographic history of mobile phones. Retrieved from:,29307,1636836_1389495,00.html Wikipedia (2011). History of Smartphones . Retrieved from:

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Students are able to learn algebra by collaborating with one another about concepts in mathematics. Tasks and projects are assigned to students based on their readiness level. The tasks are leveled based on an on-level activity, enrichment activity, and intervention activity. Real-life activities allows students obtain meaningful life experiences . This will allow students to apply and retain new concepts. Decision Making Stage Collaboration. Authentic Learning Differentation

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Implementation Stage Mobile Phone Learning provides students with the opportunity to learn without being limited to a classroom setting. The professional development courses that are being offered in the school district are: Is there an app for that? Bring your on technology and Google Docs Professional Development 2 1 Distance Learning

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Confirmation Stage Discontinuation Dissonance Teachers will need training in order to implement mobile phone learning in the classroom. Additional empirical evidence must be included to assist with the school district making up its mind about continue with mobile phone learning. 2 1 The board members, superintendent, and staff members may decide to make modifications to the mobile phone learning program based on the formative, summative, formal and informal teacher observations.

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What is the S-Curve Shaped Curve? - It is a graphical display that represents data in the shape of an S ”It shows thenumber of individual adopters who plotted on a cummulative frequency over a a period of time” (Rogers, 2003, p. 23). Diffusion The s-curve shows the rate of adoption. -Rapid diffusion = steep slope -Slow diffusion = gradual slope (Rogers, 2003)

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Diffusion of Innovation Slow diffusion = gradual slope (Rogers, 2003) Slow Diffusion Rapid Diffusion = steep slope (Rogers, 2003) Rapid Diffusion 1 2

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Cell Phone or Mobile Phone History The cell phone was invented in 1973 by Dr. Martin Cooper (Federal Communications and Commisions, 2004). Rate of Adoption for Cell Phones This innovation diffused at a much slower rate. 2 1

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Attributes of Innovations Social prestige, economic gains, over adoption, preventive innovations Relative Advantage C Compatibility Compatibility 3 Unable to understand and use the innovation Complexity 2 1 Availability is limited Trialability The way society views an innovation. Observability 5 4 Compatible with values and beliefs, previous ideas, client needs

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Innovators and Early Adopters t Teacher leaders, Title I Coaches, Math Coaches, Language Arts Coaches, Principals, and Teacher Support Specialists, and Grade Level Chairpersons, Title I Math and Reading Specialists are those who are willing to train others. Early adopters have positive attitudes. They are patient and willing to assist their peers. The early adopters also have higher goals (Rogers, 2003, p. 298). Early Adopters In elementary education, the innovators consist of the technology specialist, technologically savvy teachers, magnet school teachers, professional development specialists, students and other change agents. Innovators in the field of education are flexible and willing to take on challenges. They are willing to learn about the new technology. In addition, they are willing to apply new knowledge to the classrooms willingly. Innovators 1 2

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More students own cell phones. Cell phones prevent students from bringing home heavy textbooks. Textbooks can be accessed online using the mobile phone. The mobile phone can be used everywhere at anytime. It costs less to replace a cellphone than a textbook. Mobile phones are able to access the Internet. Microsoft Office Documents can be viewed on the mobile phones. Mobile phones are no longer bulky, but small. The school district provides principals with mobile phones in order to have 24 hour access in case of emergencies or deadlines. Persuasion of Innovators and Early Adopters Observability Relative Advantage . Compatibility . Mobile phones are highly visible because people can talk on them at anytime in any place. Adults and children are seen with mobile phones daily. Smart phones are seen more often because the various applications, text features, Internet Access, and organization tools. The mobile phone can been seen and heard (when in public places) (Rogers, 2003, p. 264).

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Laggards The laggards are often seen as those educators who are not able to accept changes in education. ”Teacher quality is insufficient. Data-driven innovation is far too rare. These shortcomings are unacceptable and spell trouble for the economic prospects of individual Americans and for the competitiveness of the country as a whole” (Center for American Progress, 2007, para . 2). At other times, they are afraid to use the new technologies. They believe that the students do not need the disstraction of a mobile phone in the classroom. Who are the laggards? Lack of experience with mobile phones ”Strong pro-innovation bias” (Rogers, 2003, p. 285). Unable to purchase a smart phone. Resistance to change Reasons for Rejection 1 2

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More students own cell phones. Cell phones prevent students from bringing home heavy textbooks. Textbooks can be accessed online using the mobile phone. The mobile phone can be used everywhere at anytime. It costs less to replace a cellphone than a textbook. It increases parent, student, and teacher communication One-on-One training for teachers and administrators It is similar to operating a regular phone (Rogers, 2003). Persuasion of Laggards Trialability Relative Advantage . Complexity . “A friend’s phone can be borrowed for trial use” (Rogers, 2003, p. 263). Professional Development Courses on Mobile Phone Learning Mobile Application Training and Google Docs Training

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Relative Advantage Observability. Compatibility Best Perceived Attributes to use in Education Trialability

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Centralized or Decentralized Approach Decentralized diffusions systems consist of expert members such as architects, teachers, surgeons, or those who have technical expertise (Rogers, 2003, p. 398). For example, one central concern in education is developing ways to instruct students so they can be successful on the standardized tests. A lot of the students in the classroom are interested in technology based activities. The students are entertained daily by the latest technology gadgets such as the mobile phone, iPad, and video games. Innovations in the field of education are based on the needs of the educators and students. Decentralized Approach “Centralized diffusion systems are based on a one way model of communciation” (Rogers, 2003, p. 398). In mobile phone learning, the centralized diffusion system consists of the school board members, superintendent, instructional leaders, and chairpersons. These administrators and teacher leaders are in control of diffusing the information to their new ideas. Centralized Approach 1 2 Or

Key Change Agents in Education:

Key Change Agents in Education Key Agents of Change Teachers Community Educators Principals Parents Students Area Coordinators Superintendent Instructional Coaches Professional Development Liasons

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It is important to understand the reasons teachers won’t adopt mobile phone learning. If change is to occur, the change agent should listen to their client’s concerns and needs. By being concisous of the teacher’s needs, diffusion activites can be indiviudalized for any group or organization. A change agent must be able to see through eyes of others by placing himself in the shoes of another person (Rogers, 2003). In addition, good customer service skills are neccessary to increase the adoption rate of the innovation. One of the main problems with implementing mobile phone learning is the digital divide. Students are in the low socioeconomic status are the ones who may not have immediate access to mobile phones that have internet capabilities. According to Rogers, (2003), change agents overlook those families are in the low socioeconomic category. In order to implement mobile phone learning in the classroom to all students, it is essential to ensure that all students have access to mobile phones. Seven Roles of a Change Agent Develop a need for change Diagnose problems. Establish a relationship with the client

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Everyone is not susceptible to change. Positive interaction between the change agent and client will encourage others to adopt the new innovation. It is vital to break the barriers of distrust to diffuse an innovation. The intentions of the change agent can be made known to the client through demonstrations. A pilot program in selected classrooms, can be used as a form of an experimental demonstration. Potential adopters can observe and analyze how mobile phone learning impacts student learning. Mobile phone learning can have a permanent residence in the field of education if data is collected throughout the pilot program. Evaluation is the key to stabilizing an adoption. If feedback is not provided, then it will increase the risk of discontinuance. Seven Roles of a Change Agent Intent to Change Stablization of the adoption and prevention of discontinuance Turn intentions into actions

Achieve a Permanent Relationship with Clients:

Your own footer Your Logo A change agent should employ centralized and decentralized diffusion systems. Innovations can be diffused and adopted effectively as long as clients and organizations contribute to the diffusion equally. Achieve a Permanent Relationship with Clients

Critical Mass:

Your own footer Critical Mass Mobile Phone Learning has not reached critical mass. It is being rejected by educators. The four strategies that would be recommended to the Board are: Reshape the perceptions of the mobile phone learning. Provide incentives to school district by offering free trials for mobile phone learning. Encourage the state department of education, local school boards, and superientendents to adopt mobile phone learning. (Rogers, 2003, p. 361.

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Why is mobile phone learning needed? Mobile Phone learning is the path to good jobs and higher paying salaries (U.S. Department of Education, 2010) Learning experiences does not align with reality outside of classroom Provide extended learning time that goes beyond the regular school day

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Benefits of Mobile Phone Learning Any Time Any Place Learning Increase Organizational Skills Voice and Text Communication Increase Collaboration One on One Learning Cost Effective Google Docs 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Mobile Phone Uses Since the mobile phone use is spent mostly on communication and information seeking, it can be used in the classroom to collaborate in groups. Due to budget cuts on all governmental levels, mobile phone learning may be used as a means to save money on print materials and conducting conf erences. 2 1

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Your own sub headline Redefine/Restructure to prevent resistance Your own footer Your Logo Solutions Increase chances of cheating Increase the digital divide between faculty and students Disadvantage for non technical faculty and students Cons t 1 Cheating Prevention Texecution App iZup app Txtblocker App Cell Safety App ZoomSafer App PhonEnforcer App Ending the Digital Divide Teacher and Student Training Professional Development Courses for mobile phones National Broadband Plan 2 Retrieved from:

Support and Adopt the Mobile Learning Program:

Support and Adopt the Mobile Learning Program Mobile Phone Learning is the way of the future. All students will become excited about engaging in student centered lessons. Adopting the Mobile Phone Learning Program will provide students and the school district with a new outlook on learning. In addition, it will allow students to be prepared for the globally competitive world.

References :

References Center for American Progress (2007). Leaders and laggards: A state by state report card on educational effectiveness. Retrieved from Davis, V. ( n.d .). Social media syndication part I. Retrieved from Federal Communications and Commisions (2004). History of cell phones. Retrieved from Listening and Skills Improvement Services (2011). Mobile Learning. Retrieved from Reed, B. (2010). A brief history of smart phones. Retrieved from Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5 th ed.). New York: Free Press. Time (2011). A photographic history of mobile phones. Retrieved from:,29307,1636836_1389495,00.html Wikipedia (2011). History of Smartphones . Retrieved from:

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