Digital Inequality

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A Vision for Digital Learning in Wisconsin: 

A Vision for Digital Learning in Wisconsin Vanessa Botts Jennifer Byzewski Betty Clevenger Hanna Coleman Christopher Dechter Digital Inequality Task Force

A Vision for Digital Learning in Wisconsin: 

A Vision for Digital Learning in Wisconsin Tony Evers, PhD State Superintendent of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction “ The skillful use of technology will have enormous payoffs in terms of every child’s readiness for further education and the workforce. Digital tools are essential to student learning, as they connect our efforts to identify what students should know and be able to do, as well as help students and educators assess progress toward achieving academic goals.”

Digital Divide: 

Digital Divide What is Digital Inequality?

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Why is it important? Digital Divide

Proposals: 

Proposals 1. Install computers in all public libraries in the state and expand the hours when the computers are available . 2. Expand staffing and other resources so that public schools can be open to the public after normal school hours, on weekends, and during the summer months . 3. Provide individuals in disadvantaged communities with computers . 4. Provide high-speed Internet and mobile access for all state residents . 5. Subsidize Internet Service Providers to provide low-cost Internet to all state residents . 6. Provide information literacy courses to enhance computer skills and enable knowledgeable use of digital technologies . 7. Develop free online educational content, giving first priority to content most relevant to lower socio-economic groups before content that is relevant to the rest of the public.

First Recommendation - Proposal 4 : 

First Recommendation - Proposal 4 What We Know : Wisconsin is 65,000 sq. miles, much of it rural. Wireline access is provided in all population centers, from small towns to major metro areas . Wireless access is much more wide spread and covers all but a few smaller area in northern and central parts of the state . FCC recently determined that these areas may be eligible for federal funding to bring broadband to areas that are currently underserved by Internet providers . $ 50 million won't address the necessary infrastructure to provide >4mbps access to all residents in Wisconsin, but when combined with federal funding, it will go a long way towards providing broadband Internet access to underserved communities . Rationale for Rating : Provides autonomous Internet access for any purpose. Provide high-speed internet and mobile access for all state residents.

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Wired Broadband Internet Access

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Wireless Broadband Internet Access

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Areas currently underserved by Internet Service Providers

Second Recommendation - Proposal 1: 

Second Recommendation - Proposal 1 What We Know : Wisconsin’s population is 5,711,767 ; at least 5,785 of those are homeless Wisconsin has 423 public libraries Increasing the number of computers to an average of 21 per library will allow for 1 computer for every 600 residents Libraries are available to all—including the homeless Rationale for Rating : Public libraries are considered safe, neutral territories. Providing expanded internet availability through additional computers and library hours would allow service to a greater percentage of the population. Install computers in all public libraries in the state and expand the hours when the computers are available.

Third Recommendation - Proposal 5: 

Third Recommendation - Proposal 5 What We Know: Computers and high speed access to the internet are now a must for job searching, generating income, investigating health options for self and family, banking, online education, and obtaining government services Research indicates that around 1/3 of the American public does not have high speed internet access at home. Surveys report that cost is the main reason for not subscribing to internet service at home, which in Wisconsin costs between $40 and $80 a month. Rationale for Rating: High monthly internet charges may not be affordable for families, so providing low cost high speed access to all state residents will help ensure Wisconsin citizens have the opportunity to improve their economic situations, regardless of whether they can currently afford home broadband or not . Subsidize internet service providers to provide low-cost internet to all state residents.

Fourth Recommendation - Proposal 2 : 

Fourth Recommendation - Proposal 2 What We K now : Computers are used for research and schooling, looking for jobs, starting businesses, applying for social services, inquiring about Social Security or military benefits, and education Using school facilities for community computer use would be an efficient use of these facilities any time school is not in session . Rationale for Rating : It would be beneficial to the members of any community to be provided public access to school facilities for computer and internet usage after hours. This would include use of computers, printers, and other ancillary equipment as well as expanded staffing so that these may be available after normal school hours or when school is not in session. Because there already is community support and general agreement that using school facilities after hours for community use is money well spent, this is one of the top alternatives that should be considered. Expand staffing and other resources so that public schools can be open to the public after normal school hours, on weekends, and during the summer months.

Fifth Recommendation - Proposal 6: 

Fifth Recommendation - Proposal 6 What We K now : The ability to access the internet and other technologies is not sufficient in decreasing digital inequality. According to Hargittai (2003), increasing the number of users with a high level of digital literacy is imperative and must happen through purposeful training. Rationale for Rating : Users must first have access in order to learn and apply technology skills. Provide information literacy courses to enhance computer skills and enable knowledgeable use of digital technologies.

Sixth Recommendation - Proposal 7: 

Sixth Recommendation - Proposal 7 What We Know : Developing free educational content, with the intention of being most relevant to lower socio-economic groups, is highly dependent on several factors. Trend data by Hargittai (2003) shows that internet usage in the U.S. directly correlates to education and income. Rationale for Rating : Once users have access, skills, and confidence to effectively use digital technologies, then the purpose of the usage can be tailored to individual or group needs. Develop free online educational content, giving first priority to content most relevant to lower socio-economic groups before content that is relevant to the rest of the public

Seventh Recommendation - Proposal 3: 

Seventh Recommendation - Proposal 3 What We Know : 713,000 total households in Wisconsin 114,000 households are below the poverty line, leaving $ 438.60 per household That funding does not accounting for setup, support, training, or Internet access. Rationale for Rating : Addresses access to equipment only, but no internet. Does provide autonomous access for any purpose as long as they don't need online access. Does not address skills to use the equipment, or a peer support structure . Provide individuals in disadvantaged communities with computers.

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Recommended Proposal: Provide high-speed Internet and mobile access for all state residents.

References : 

Barzilai-Nahon , K. (2006). Gaps and bits: Conceptualizing measurements for digital divides. The Information Society, 22 (5), 269-278. Bohn , D. (2012, February 11). FCC plans $300 million reverse auction for rural mobile access, releases map of 3G dead zones. Retrieved from http://www.theverge.com/2012/2/11/2790841/fcc-300-million-reverse-auction-rural-mobile-access Cooper , M. (2004). Expanding the digital divide and falling behind in broadband . 
Consumer Federation of America and Consumers Union. 
Retrieved from http:// www.consumersunion.org/pub/ddnewbook.pdf Decarlo , M. (2010, July 23). FCC: “Broadband” now means 4Mb/s down, 1 Mb/s up. Retrieved from http://www.techspot.com/news/39757-fcc-broadband-now-means-4mb-s-down-1mb-s-up.html DiMaggio , P., & Hargittai, E. (2001). From the 'digital divide' to 'digital inequality: Studying Internet use as penetration increases. Princeton University Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Working Paper Series number, 15 . 
Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP15 - DiMaggio+Hargittai.pdf DiMaggio , P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C., & Shafer, S. (2004). From unequal access to differentiated use: 
A literature review and agenda for research on digital inequality. Social Inequality , 355-400. 
Retrieved from http:// www.eszter.com/research/pubs/dimaggio-etal-digitalinequality.pdf Eschenfelder , K. R., & Smith, C.A. (2011, June 8). Public library internet access in Wisconsin is integral to job seeking and improving employment opportunities. Retrieved from http://siftingandwinnowing.org/2011/06/08/public-library-internet-access-in-wisconsin-is-integral-to-job-seeking-and-improving-employment-opportunities / Federal Communications Commission. (n.d.). Connect america fund. Retrieved from http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/connecting-america Gottheimer , J., & Usdan, J. (2011, October 13). FCC and connect to compete tackle broadband adoption challenge [web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.fcc.gov/blog/fcc-and-connect-compete-tackle-broadband-adoption-challenge Hargittai , E. (2003). The digital divide and what to do about it. New Economy Handbook , 821-839. 
Retrieved from http:// www.eszter.com/research/pubs/hargittai-digitaldivide.pdf References

References: 

Homelessness Research Institute. (2012). The state of homelessness in America 2012 . http :// msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/MSNBC/Sections/NEWS/z-pdf-archive/homeless.pdf National Telecommunications and Information Administration. (n.d.) [Map illustration of broadband coverage]. National broadband map. Retrieved from http://www.broadbandmap.gov Smith , A. (2010). Homebroad 2010 | Pew research center’s internet and American life project. Retrieved from ( http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Home-Broadband-2010.aspx ) United States Census Bureau. (2011). State and county quick facts . Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/55000.html U.S . Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration. (2004). A nation online: Entering the broadband age . Retrieved from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/report/2004/nation-online-entering-broadband-age U.S . Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. Retrieved from http:// www.ed.gov/sites/default/files/netp2010-execsumm.pdf United States Census Bureau (2011). State and county quick facts . http:// quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/55000.html United States Census Bureau. (2009). Income, expenditures, poverty, and wealth: Income and poverty - - state and local data [data file].Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/income_expenditures_poverty_wealth/income_and_poverty--state_and_local_data.html Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2012, February 2). A vision for digital learning in Wisconsin. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/a/dpi.wi.gov/wi_digital_learning_plan/home Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2012). Wisconsin public library websites . http:// dpi.wi.gov/pld/wis_lib.html References

References: 

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2011). Department of public instruction state superintendent press release. Retrieved from http://www.wispolitics.com/index.iml?Article=238671 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2009). Wisconsin public library service data: Statistics at the public library level [data set]. Retrieved from http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/pld/dm-lib-stat.html Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction's Division for Library Services. (1998). Combined school & public libraries: Guidelines for decision making, 2nd ed. Retrieved from http://dpi.wi.gov/pld/comblibs.html Ziegler , C. ( 2011, October 31). FCC votes unanimously for USF overhaul, proposes new Connect America Fund and Mobility Fund. Retrieved from http:// www.theverge.com/2011/10/31/2526667/fcc-usf-connect-america-fund-mobility-fund References