Grammar classes

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Grammar classes 3 years of english

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Grammar topics BE- present simple Demonstrative adj ( this , these …) Possessive adjectives ( my , your …) Some, any , no Present continuous Present simple Present perfect Simple past Adjective degrees Reflexive pronouns Reported speech

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Verb BE: (PRESENT SIMPLE) She is English - AFFIRMATIVE She is not English - NEGATIVE Is she English ? – INTERROGATIVE VERB BE I AM – I’M YOU ARE – YOU’RE HE/ SHE/ IT IS – HE’S /SHE’S/ IT’S WE ARE YOU ARE THEY ARE The verb be NEVER needs the auxiliary “DO” to form interrogative nor negative forms !!!

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DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES THIS – THESE – are used with people , animals or objects that are NEAR you : Ex. THIS is a notebook (singular) THESE are notebooks (plural)

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DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES THAT - THOSE – are used with people , animals or objects that are FAR from you : Ex: THAT is a notebook (singular) THOSE are notebooks (plural)

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POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES: My/ your /his /her/ its /our/ their Possessive adjectives , also known as possessive determiners , are a part of speech that modifies a noun by attributing to someone or something. Possessive adjectives/determiners can eliminate repetition in a sentence by replacing a determiner phrase Back

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POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES: My/ your /his /her/ its /our/ their Complete: 1. The boy likes ______ school. 2. Mary sees ______mother every day. 3. My friends bring _______children to our place on Saturdays. 4. The cat eats ______food quickly. 5. I often forget______ key. 6. You write in ________book in class. 7. We bring ________pencils to class. 8. The men always bring ________wives to the party. 9. Mr Adams teaches ________class in the morning. 10. She likes to give presents to ________grandchildren

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SOME / ANY/ NO … Affirmative Interrogative Negative Countable some any Not any / no Uncountable some any Not any / no SOME – usa-se na afirmativa tanto com substântivos contáveis no plural como com substântivos incontáveis ( algum/a/alguns/algumas) EX. I need some notebooks and some pencils ANY – usa-se na negativa e interrogativa tanto com substântivos contáveis no plural como com substântivos incontáveis. EX. There isn’t any sugar in the cupboard Ex: Are there any T-shirts on the shelf ? (nenhum/nenhuma/ nenhuns/ nenhumas)

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SOME / ANY Complete: 1 Have you got ______ change? 2 I like ______ pop music but not all. 3 I don't like ______ pop music. I hate it all. 4 I love the Beatles. I love ______ song by them. 5 ______ people don't like Bill Clinton. 6 I love ______thing with chocolate in it. 7 ______body told me the news but I cannot remember who it was. 8 You mustn't tell ______body. 9 I don't drink ______ alcohol at all. 10 I'm afraid I haven't ______ solution to the problem. 11 All the buses from here go to Trafalgar Square. You can take ______ bus. 12 I never go ______where any more. I always stay at home

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS BE ( Present ) + ING FORM O present continuous usa-se: Para ações a acontecer no momento em que se fala Peter’s watching TV now 2. Para ações temporárias Peter’s working very hard these days 3. Para encontros marcados num futuro próximo I’m flying to London next weekend 4. Com always para expressar desagrado em relação a ações que acontecem repetidamente He’s always listening to loud music !!!

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS Practice : John __________(read) a book now. What _____________(you do) tonight? Jack and Peter _______________(work) late today. Silvia ____________(not listen) to music. Maria ____________(sit) next to Paul. How many other students _________(you study) with? The phone __________(not ring).

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PRESENT SIMPLE - Affirmative O present simple forma-se com o sujeito (I, you , he , she , it , we , you , they ) e o verbo (play, run , work …) Regra geral, na 3ª pessoa singular acrescenta-se um “S” ao verbo na afirmativa O Present Simple usa-se para: estados permanentes / verdades científicas ações repetidas rotinas diárias (estado permanente) (verdade científica) ( ação repetida ) (hábito / rotina) ( rotina diária) She works in a bank Water boils at 100 degrees She usually goes shopping on saturdays She has a cup of tea in the afternoon She gets up at 6 o’clock in the morning

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PRESENT SIMPLE – negative and interrogative All verbs except “TO BE” and (in some cases) “TO HAVE”, need the AUXILIARY “DO” to form the negative and interrogative forms : I DON’T DO NOT INFINITIVE WITHOUT “TO” ( study , play, listen …) YOU HE DOESN’T DOES NOT SHE IT WE DON’T DO NOT YOU THEY DO DON’T I YOU INFINITIVE WITHOUT “TO” ( study , play, listen …) ? DOES DOESN’T HE SHE IT DO DON’T WE YOU THEY

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PRESENT SIMPLE – Practise I usually _________________a good mark. (to get) Rita  _______________an exercise everyday. (to do) We  ________________the table at the weekends. (to lay) Tim and Pat __________________ text messages . (to send) Maria _______________ their room. (to tidy up) He _________________ a new MP3 player. (to buy) You  _________________your glasses to read. (to need) ____________Tom  ________________stamps? (to collect) You ________________________ songs in the bathroom. (not/to sing) ______________Julie ______________ in the garden? (to work) I  ________________________at the bus. (not/to sit) _____________ Tina and Kate  ___________the windows eveyday ? (to open) Adam  ___________________French. (not/to speak) His sister __________________ lemonade. (not/to like)

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE We use the Present Perfect to : Say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now . The exact time is not important. Ex: I have seen that movie twenty times We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet … Ex: They haven’t finished the exercise yet Ex: She has already been to London

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. – SIMPLE PAST I HAVE HAVEN’T PAST PARTICIPLE ( Been , made , finished , studied , done …) YOU HE HAS HASN’T SHE IT WE HAVE HAVEN’T YOU THEY HAVE HAVEN’T I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY PAST PARTICIPLE ( Been , made , finished , studied , done …) HAS HASN’T HAVE HAVEN’T

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE – Practice Karen  _________me an e-mail. (to send) _________Dave and Pat  __________the museum? (to visit) I __________ at the pet shop yet. (not/to be) They  ________already  ________their rucksacks. (to pack) Marcus  ___________an accident. (to have) We  ________________the shopping for our grandmother. (not/to do) I  ________just__________  my bike. (to clean) Emily ______________ her room. (to paint) Lisa and Colin  _____________to a concert. (to go) My friends ________________ smoking. (to give up)

Simple Past: 

Simple Past we use the Simple Past : To talk about actions or situations that occur in a DEFINITE, PRECISE MOMENT IN THE PAST To talk about a COMPLETED FINISHED ACTION ( ex stories ) To talk about HABITS or ROUTINES in the past ; With specific adverbs or adverbial expressions : At 9 o’ clock At half past six … Yesterday / the day before yesterday Last Saturday / Monday … Last week / month / year … A few minutes/ hours ago …

Simple Past: 

Simple Past Examples : She bought a new dress last week (precise moment in the past ) 2. “A man walked into a police station and asked …” ( Finished action ) 3. Last year I walked to school everyday ( used to walk ) – ( Past routine ) 4. They got married two months ago ( specific adverbs ) HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST?

Simple Past: 

Simple Past HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST?

Simple Past: 

Simple Past HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST?

Simple Past: 

Simple Past HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST?

Simple Past: 

Simple Past HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST? To form the NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORMS IN THE PAST SIMPLE, we need the auxiliary DID Ex: She didn’t study in Portugal Did they go to the cinema? I DIDN’T DID NOT INFINITIVE WITHOUT “TO” ( study , play, listen …) YOU HE DIDN’T DID NOT SHE IT WE DIDN’T DID NOT YOU THEY DID DIDN’T I YOU INFINITIVE WITHOUT “TO” ( study , play, listen …) ? DID DIDN’T HE SHE IT DID DIDN’T WE YOU THEY

Simple Past: 

Simple Past HOW DO WE FORM THE SIMPLE PAST? Exercises : I________ ( get up ) around seven o'clock , _________( have ) a shower and ( make ) myself a cup of tea and some toast. After breakfast , I _________( put on ) my clothes for work . It _____________( not take) long as I ____________( iron ) them on Sunday night.I then _______________( get ready ) to leave the house.I ______________( pick up ) my lunch box containing some sandwiches I _______________( make ) the night before . As I _________________( open) the front door the phone _____________( ring) . It ___________( be ) my sister . We _______________( arrange ) to meet that evening for dinner but she _____________( call ) to say she _________________( can not make ) it because her car ___________( break down ) and she _____________( need take) it to the garage .

Adjective degrees: 

Adjective degrees Examples : Mary is taller than Susan ( tall ) A Porsche is more expensive than a VW ( expensive ) White is prettier than black ( pretty ) An orange is bigger than a strawberry ( big ) Inferiority - less + adjective + than Equality – as + adj + as Superiority – more + adj + than (2 or more syllable adjectives ) adj-er + than Comparative Examples : Mary is as tall as John PSP is as expensive as Nintendo Susan is as pretty as Veronica Comparative of EQUALITY

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Adjective degrees – practice Example: I have a fast car, but my friend has a ______ car. Answer: I have a fast car, but my friend has a faster car. This is a nice cat. It's much  _____________than my friend's cat. Here is Emily. She's six years old . Her brother is nine, so he is_______________ . In the last holidays I read a good book, but father gave me an even __________one last weekend. The blue car is ______ ________ as the red car ( fast ) School is boring , but homework is__________________  than school. Skateboarding is a dangerous hobby. Bungee jumping is________________  than skateboarding. This magazine is cheap , but that one is_____________ . We live in a small house, but my grandparents' house is even  _________________than ours. Peter is as ___________________ Victor ( optimistic )

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6. Who is the tallest , Marina or Sachiko? ADJECTIVE DEGREES: Comparative Superlative Superiority Two or more syllables – THE MOST + ADJECTIVE One syllable – THE ADJECTIVE-EST

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives): 

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives)

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives): 

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives)

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives): 

Adjectives – Practise (Irregular comparatives and superlatives)

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SUPERLATIVE OF SUPERIORITY ( adjective degrees ) Exercises 1. The _________ mountain in continental Portugal is in Serra da Estrela ( big ) 2. _______ _________ ____________ girl in class is Italian . ( beautiful )

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS I - my self You - your self He - him self She - her self It - it self We - our selves You - your selves They - them selves We use the reflexive pronouns …: When the object is the same person / thing as the subject : Ex: I cut myself making a sandwich this morning We must ask ourselves some questions Do it yourself 2. To emphasize Ex: It’s best to do it yourself I answer all the emails mysellf Tom and Anne built the house themselves

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS vs RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS vs RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS I - my self You - your self He - him self She - her self It - it self We - our selves You - your selves They - them selves 9th grade book – page 73 ( exercise )

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS vs RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS vs RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 9th grade book – page 73 ( exercise )

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech Reported / Indirect speech is used to TELL people WHAT SOMEBODY SAID OR THOUGHT Tenses and pronouns CHANGE in indirect speech if the TIME and the SPEAKER are different !!! “ I’m happy ” -----------------------------------Bill said that he was happy “I have a problem ” -------------------------- She said that she had a problem “ My hands are cold ” ---------------------- Mary said that her hands were cold

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech What changes in verb tenses ? DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED/INDIRECT SPEECH Simple present ( he goes ) Simple past ( he went ) Present continuous ( he is going ) Past continuous ( he was going ) Simple Past ( he went ) Past Perfect ( he had gone) Present Perfect Past perfect ( he had gone) Future ( will ) Conditional ( would ) Imperative ( Go away !) Infinitive ( he told me to go away )

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech What changes in MODAL VERBS ? DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED/INDIRECT SPEECH Can could May might Might Could could Would would must must Had to

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech What changes in other words and pronouns ? DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED/INDIRECT SPEECH Here there this that these those now then today ( on ) that day tonight ( on ) that night tomorrow The next day / the following day yesterday The day before / previous day Next ( week , month , year …) The following ( week , month , year …) ago before

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech

Reported/ Indirect speech: 

Reported / Indirect speech