George Orwell

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LIFE REAL NAME: Eric Blair DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: in India in 1903 (his father was an English minor colonial official) EDUCATION: first in England at St. Cyprian's preparatory school and after at Eaton. PERSONALITY: could not stand discipline, independent, indifferent to accepted values COLONIAL EXPERIENCE: in Burma as an officer in the Indian Imperial Police; developed an anti-imperialistic attitude OTHER IMPORTANT EXPERIENCES: social experiment of poverty; stay in Paris; fought in the Spanish Civil War; broadcast for the BBC; was the editor of a socialist weekly. CHOICE OF PSEUDONYM: “George” was very English and suggested common sense; “Orwell” was the name of his favourite river. REPUTATION: internationally known thanks to Animal Farm. DEATH: 1950.


WORKS Shooting an Elephant(1934) Down and Out in Paris and London(1933) A Clergyman’s Daughter(1935) Homage to Catalonia (1938) Animal Farm(1944) Nineteen Eighty-Four(1948) The Road to Wigan Pier(1937)


COMMENTARY ORWELL was the writer of dystopia Dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος, alternatively, cacotopia,[1] kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society that is the opposite of utopia- Some academic circles distinguish between anti-utopia and dystopia. As in George Orwell's 1984, a dystopia does not pretend to be utopian, while an anti-utopia appears to be utopian or was intended to be so, but a fatal flaw or other factor has destroyed or twisted the intended utopian world or concept by human misery, poverty, oppression, violence, disease, and/or pollution.

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In general, dystopias are seen as visions of "dangerous and alienating future societies," often criticizing current trends in culture. It is a culture where the condition of life is "extremely bad," as from deprivation, oppression, or terror. Dystopian politics are often characterized as one or several types of governments and political systems. These systems include, but are not limited to, bureaucracy, socialism, communism, chaos, capitalism, fascism, totalitarianism, dictatorships and other forms of political, social and economical control.[These governments often assert great power over the citizens, dramatically depicted in 1984 as the authority to decree that Two + two = five.


RULES FOR WRITERS In "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell provides five rules for writers: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive voice where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

Influence of other poets and writers : 

Influence of other poets and writers In an autobiographical sketch Orwell sent to the editors of Twentieth Century Authors in 1940, he wrote: The writers I care about most and never grow tired of are: Shakespeare, Swift, Fielding, Dickens, Charles Reade, Flaubert and, among modern writers, James Joyce, T. S. Eliot and D. H. Lawrence. But I believe the modern writer who has influenced me most is Somerset Maugham, whom I admire immensely for his power of telling a story straightforwardly and without frills.

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His urge to inform, to reveal facts and draw conclusions from them, had led him to believe that writing interpreted reality and therefore served a useful social function, the writers of the Twenties had concerned themselves with language and form to express a tragic , post-ward pessimism, those of the THIRTIES had valued social purpose and content over form , and had sympathized whit the COMMUNIST PARTY. In contrast ORWELL believed that the writer should be independent , and that no good writing could come from allowing the party line. He insisted on tolerance, justice and decency in human relationship , and warned against the increasing artificiality of urban civilization. He presented a devastating critique of totalitarianism , warning against the violation of liberty and helping his readers to recognize tyranny in all its form.


THE ROAD TO WIGAN PIER In early 1936, Victor Gollancz, of the Left Book Club, commissioned George Orwell to write an account of working class poverty in economically depressed northern England. His account, The Road to Wigan Pier was published in 1937. Orwell did his leg-and-homework as a social reporter: he gained entry to many houses in Wigan to see how people lived; took systematic notes of housing conditions and wages earned; and spent days in the local public library consulting public health records and reports on mine working conditions. The first half of The Road to Wigan Pier documents his social investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire. It begins with an evocative description of working life in the coal mines. The second half is a long essay of his upbringing, and the development of his political conscience, including a denunciation of the Left's irresponsible elements. He blames the intellectual , book-trained Socialist arguing that socialism is not an economic creed but a philosophy of life which must unite people .


ANIMAL FARM Animal Farm was published in 1945. The story of the farm represent an allegory of the Russian Revolution. In fact every characters or events corresponds to an exact event or character of the historical reality.


SHORT PLOT In the Manner Farm the domestic animals rebelled victoriously against the farmer who overworks them, and set up a commune society based on the equality of everybody. But soon the Pigs, more clever than others, take the control and the power of the community and establish a dictatorship.

Seven Commandments : 

Seven Commandments Whatever goes upon two legs is a enemy Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend No animal shall wear clothes No animal shall sleep in a bed No animal shall drink alcohol No animal shall kill any other animal All animals are equal

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…“All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others”…

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The phrase which closes the novel is: ”the creatures outside look from the pig to the man, from the man to the pig and again from the pig to the man, but it was already impossible for them to distinguish one from another”.

Characters : 

Characters Old Major Marx / Lenin Napoleon Stalin Snowball Trotsky Dogs Secret Police Sheep Common People

About Style : 

About Style Like the fables of Esopo and Fedro Simple terms Complex message He thinks as an animal’s mind Humour Sarcasm Horrifying scenes Atmosphere of pain and hardship

“War is Peace Freedom is Slavery Ignorance is Strength…” : 

“War is Peace Freedom is Slavery Ignorance is Strength…” Nineteen Eighty-Four : is an English novel about life in an authoritarian regime as lived by Winston Smith, an intellectual worker at the Ministry of Truth, and his degradation when he runs afoul of the totalitarian government of Oceania, the state in which he lives in the year that he presumes is 1984.It was one of the most important novel after the second word world. STRUCTURE AND PLOT: The novel describes a future England, no longer the head of en Empire, but en outpost of Oceania, a vast totalitarian system including north America and the British empire. The work is divided into three parts. Part one introduces the main character, Winston Smith, in the context of a regimented, oppressive world. Part two describes his love for Julia, and the temporary happiness for their relationship. Part three tell about the imprisonment and torture of Winston by the thought police.


ANALISYS While still writing 1984, Orwell defined it as “a novel about the future, in a sense a fantasy, but in the form of a naturalistic novel”. Set in a grotesque, squalid, and menacing London, 1984 creates a nightmarish world where there is no privacy. In fact the slogans of the party is “big brother is watching you”, in which the party has absolute control of the press, communication and propaganda. The language, history and thought are controlled in the interests of the state; where rebellion against the rules in punished with prison and torture.


THE CARACTHER OF WINSTON SMITH The first impression of Nineteen Eighty-Four is the sense of loss and the all the finer emotion and values, belong to the past. This is the symbolized by the protagonist, Winston Smith, the last man to believe in humane values in a totalitarian age. Smith is the commonest English surname, suggest his symbolic value Winston evokes Churchill’s patriotic appeals for “blood, sweat and tears” during the Second World War He works at the Ministry of Truth where he alters the records of the past to fit current Party policy. In private he writes on the creamy paper of an old diary.


STYLE Orwell combined various genres and styles in an original way. In fact he used parody and satire. The tone of the book becomes pessimistic, violent and even sadistic in the last part, where Orwell presents Winston’s final defeat. The novel does not consolation but reveals the author’s acute sense of history and his sympathy.

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BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU the caption beneath it ran. Inside the flat a fruity voice was reading out a list of figures. The voice came from an oblong metal plaque like a dulled mirror. The instrument (the telescreen, it was called) could be dimmed, but there was no way of shutting it off completely.[...] The telescreen received and transmitted simultaneously. Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it, moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard. There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment. How often, or on what system, the Thought police plugged in on any individual wire was guesswork. You had to live in the assumption that every sound you made was overheard, and, except in darkness, every movement scrutinized. Winston kept his back turned to the telescreen . It was safer, though, as he well knew, even a back can be revealing. A kilometre away, the Ministry of Truth, Minitrue, in Newspeak... War is peace Freedom is slavery Ignorance is strength

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IL GRANDE FRATELLO VI GUARDA, diceva la scritta appostavi sotto. Dentro all'appartamento una voce dolciastra leggeva un elenco di cifre. La voce proveniva da una placca di metallo oblunga, simile ad uno specchio opaco. Quell'apparecchio (che veniva chiamato teleschermo) si poteva abbassare ma mai annullare del tutto. Il teleschermo riceveva e trasmetteva simultaneamente. Qualsiasi suono che Winston avesse prodotto, al di sopra di sommesso bisbiglio, sarebbe stato colto; per tutto il tempo, inoltre, in cui egli fosse rimasto nel campo visivo comandato dalla placca di metallo, avrebbe potuto essere, oltre che udito, anche veduto. Naturalmente non vi era nessun modo per sapere esattamente in quale determinato momento vi stavano guardando. Quanto spesso e con quali principi la Psicopolizia veniva a interferire sui cavi che vi riguardavano, era pura materia per congetture. Si doveva vivere tenendo presente che qualsiasi suono  prodotto sarebbe stato udito, e che, a meno di essere al buio, ogni movimento sarebbe stato visto. Era più sicuro: sebbene, come anche lui sapeva benissimo, perfino un paio di spalle può essere rivelatore. Un kilometro lontano, il ministero della Verità, Miniver, in Neolingua... La guerra è pace La libertà è schiavitù L'ignoranza è forza

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