Slide 1: WILLIAM
SHAKESPEARE Slide 2: Source There are many possible texts that Shakespeare could have used in writing The Merchant of Venice.
His chief source was a tale in an Italian collection entitled Il Pecorone or The Simpleton, written in 1378 by Giovanni Fiorentino, and published in 1565.
In addition, Shakespeare could have relied upon a play called The Jew. He also could have used a novel called Zelauto, written by the English playwright Anthony Munday in 1580. Lastly, in approximately 1591, Christopher Morlowe wrote the Jew of Malta. Slide 3: The story in Il Pecorone tells of a wealthy woman at Belmont who marries a young gentleman. Her husband needs money and has a friend who goes to a money-lender to borrow the required cash for him. The money-lender, who is also a Jew, demands a pound of flesh as payment if the money is not paid back. When the money is not paid in time, the Jew goes to court to ensure he receives what he is owed. The friend's life is saved when the wealthy wife speaks in court of true justice and convinces the judge to refuse the Jew his pound of flesh. Shakespeare adds the casket story line. Il pecorone Slide 4: The Duke of Venice
T he Prince of Marocco
suitors of Portia
The Prince of Aragon
Antonio, a merchant of Venice
Bassanio, his friend, suitor of Portia
Portia, the lady of Belmont
Shylock, a jew of Venice
Salerio friends of Antonio e Bassanio
Lorenzo, in love with Jessica Balthasar
Nerissa, Portia’s waiting-woman Stephano servants of Portia
Jessica, daughter of Shylock
Tubal, a jew of Venice, Shylock’s friend Launcelot Gobbo, servant of Shylock
Leonardo, servant of Bassanio Old Gobbo, father of Launcelot The characters in the play Slide 5: Shylock Who He is
A successful Jewish moneylender who is much maligned over his religion and the practice of moneylenders such as himself of charging interest. What He does and what happens to He?
He lends the 3000 ducats Bassanio needs to court Portia and hopefully, pay off his debts to Antonio. There is however a catch; if the debt is not repaid, Antonio as security will forfeit one pound of his flesh. It is Shylock who is responsible for the immortal lines, "If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?" Slide 6: Duke of Venice Who He is
As judge over the court case between Shylock and Antonio, he has the power to pardon a death sentence What He does and what happens to Him
In the play, he is put in a difficult position by Shylock; he doesn't want Antonio to die, but to ignore Shylock's legal rights would be to place all of Venice in disrepute as a place to conduct business. Slide 7: Antonio Who He is
A Venetian merchant of considerable wealth, he makes his money from "ventures", or mercantile enterprises using his fleet of ships. What He does and what happens to Him
Much liked by his friends, Salanio, Gratiano and Salarino, Antonio is owed money by his friend Bassanio. The title of this play is considered to be derived from this character as well as the character of Shylock. Slide 8: Jessica Who She is?
The daughter of Shylock What She does and what happens to She?
Her eloping with the "Christian" Lorenzo and her stealing of his property, angers Shylock greatly. Slide 9: Portia Portia Who She is
The heroine of this play, Portia is a wealthy and beautiful woman who is desired by many, so much so that her father has devised an ingenious test all suitors must perform to win her hand in marriage This consists of a suitor choosing one of three chests in which her portrait lies. What She does and what happens to Her
Far from being merely beautiful, Portia also possesses a sharp mind, one, which saves Antonio from doom at the hands of Shylock. Slide 10: Nerissa Who is She
Portia's waiting-maid. What She does and what happens to her
She tends to Portia and also helps Portia save Antonio's life. She later marries Bassanio's friend Gratiano. Slide 11: The prince of Morocco Who He is
He’s one of Portia's suitors. What He does and what happens to Him
He chooses the gold casket, which is the wrong one and loses the right to marry Portia. Slide 12: Launcelot Gobbo Who He is
A clown and servant to Shylock. What He does and what happens to Him
He aids in the escape of Jessica from Shylock and works for Bassanio. Slide 13: The prince of Arragon Who He is
As one of Portia's suitors. What He does and what happens to He
This suitor also fails to win the fair Portia's hand in marriage when he incorrectly chooses the silver casket. Slide 14: 14 The play begins in Venice with Antonio a wealthy merchant who is worried about his ships at sea which could be at peril from rough seas or pirates.
Antonio's friend Bassanio owes Antonio money but unable to repay his debts, asks Antonio for more money so he may marry the wealthy and beautiful Portia and so pay back his friend. Antonio hasn’t money to spare but tells Bassanio to use his good name to try to get a loan….. ACT. I Slide 15: 15 The Prince of Morocco is willing to take the challenge set by Portia's father for Portia's hand in marriage.
Launcelot Gobbo, Shylock's servant hates his boss. Bassanio arrives and Launcelot becomes Bassanio's new servant. Jessica, Shylock's daughter, plans to elope with Lorenzo and reveals her shame for her father’s job… ACT. II Slide 16: 16 Shylock makes it clear that he no longer wants repayment of Bassanio's debt of three thousand ducats. He would prefer his pound of flesh from Antonio instead since he sees Antonio as the source of all his miseries and wants Antonio to pay for this. ACT.III Slide 17: 17 The Duke of Venice attempts to convince Shylock to let Antonio pay back Bassanio's debt. Shylock refuses, threatening the Duke that if he ignores their agreement, Venice will lose its credibility as a place for merchants... Portia, now disguised as a man, defends Antonio, winning his life, through the defense that Shylock can take only a pound of flesh and no blood, a clearly impossible task. ACT. IV Slide 18: 18 Bassanio and Gratiano give their wedding rings, important symbol of their love and fidelity, to their two wives in disguise. Much comedy ensues as the two men attempt to make excuses for this. Portia ends Bassanio's and Gratiano's suffering by producing a letter which explains their role in Venice. The two men are embarrassed that they didn’t recognize their own wives... ACT. V Themes : Self-Interest Versus Love The main difference between the Christian characters and Shylock seems that the Christian characters value human relationships over business ones, whereas Shylock is only interested in money while it is not at all so-. The Divine Quality of Mercy The conflict between Shylock and the Christian characters comes to a head over the issue of mercy. The other characters acknowledge that the law is on Shylock’s side, but they all expect him to show mercy, which he refuses to do… Themes Themes : Hatred as a
Cyclical Phenomenon Shylock claims that he is applying the lessons taught to him by his Christian neighbors; this claim becomes an integral part of both his character and his argument in Court.His entire plan seems to be born of the insults and injuries Antonio has inflicted upon him in the past Themes Slide 21: Motifs The Merchant of Venice depends upon the laws of the state of Venice and the rules stipulated in contracts and wills. Laws and rules can be manipulated for cruel purposes, but they can also produce good … The Law Cross-dressing Twice in the play, escapes are executed with the help of cross-dressing. Jessica escapes Shylock’s house by dressing as a page, while Portia and Nerissa rescue Antonio by posing as officers of the Venetian court. This device was not familiar to Renaissance drama Filial Piety The Merchant of Venice seems to endorse the behavior of characters who treat filial piety lightly, even though the heroine, Portia, sets the opposite example by obeying her father’s will… Slide 22: SYMBOLS The Three Caskets The contest for Portia’s hand, in which suitors from various countries choose among a gold, a silver, and a lead casket, resembles the cultural and legal system of Venice. Like the Venice of the play, the casket contest presents the same opportunities and the same rules to men of various nations, ethnicities, and religions. The hidden bias of the casket test is Christian... The Pound of Flesh The pound of flesh lends itself to multiple interpretations: it emerges as a metaphor for two of the play’s closest relationships, but also calls attention to Shylock’s inflexible adherence to the law. Slide 23: THE MONOLOGUE OF SHYLOCK SHYLOCK:
To bait fish withal: if it will feed nothing else,it will feed my revenge. He hath disgraced me, andhindered me half a million; laughed at my losses,mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted mybargains, cooled my friends, heated mineenemies; and what's his reason? I am a Jew. Hathnot a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs,dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed withthe same food, hurt with the same weapons, subjectto the same diseases, healed by the same means,warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, asa Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed?. Slide 24: THE MONOLOGUE OF SHYLOCK if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poisonus, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we notrevenge? If we are like you in the rest, we willresemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian,what is his humility? Revenge. If a Christianwrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be byChristian example? Why, revenge. The villany youteach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but Iwill better the instruction. Slide 25: FAMOUS QUOTES "If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?". – (Act III, scene I). "The devil can cite scripture for his purpose". -(Act I, sce. III). "I like not fair terms and a villain's mind". - (Act I, scene III) I hold the world but as the world, Gratiano, A stage, where every man must play a part; And mine a sad one. (Act i. scene. 1.) Superfluity comes sooner by white hairs, but competency lives longer. (Act i. sce. 2. ) I dote on his very absence. (Act i. scene. 2.) Slide 26: The devil can cite scripture for his purpose. (Act i. sce. 3.) Mislike me not for my complexion, The shadow’d livery of the burnish’d sun. (Act ii. scene. 1. ) It is a wise father that knows his own child. (Act ii. sce. 2.) In the twinkling of an eye. ( Act ii. scene. 2. ) But love is blind, and lovers cannot see The pretty follies that themselves commit. (Act ii. sce. 6.) All that glisters is not gold. (Act ii.) Commentary : Commentary The Merchant of Venice is classified as a comedy in the first folio but the play is more remembered for its dramatic scenes, and it is best known for the character of Shylock.
We consider the Merchant of Venice one of the best Shakespearean plays, because through the characters Shakespare represents many features of the English society, such as friendship, love and racism. So we recommend this play to those who want to know more about key issues in the English Renaissance society, which are also extremely up-to-date. Slide 28: FILMOGRAPHY THE MERCHANT OF VENICE AT THE ARGENTINA THEATRE : THE MERCHANT OF VENICE AT THE ARGENTINA THEATRE The Merchant of Venice, famous Shakespearean play , in De Luca Fusco’s production , turns into a mysterious and melancholy story set in an exotic Venice, a city of trade, adventurers and spies. The director manages to evoke all this also thanks to Antonio Fiorentino’s imaginative scenery and Vera Marzot’s costumes. Eros Pagni is back in the role of Shylock and is flanked by Gaia Aprea, Max Malatesta and Sebastiano Tringali. EROS PAGNI AS SHYLOCK : EROS PAGNI AS SHYLOCK Eros Pagni, offers the difficult character of Shylock "a cold fury, the determination of a man torn between the desire for revenge against the hated Christians and the catastrophe of being deprived of everything " (“Il Gazzettino "). "Corriere della Sera“ adds: "His ruthlessness, made more ferocious by the painful shock at the punishment that breaks down on him during the trial, will remain in the history of theatre" Slide 31: A presentation by