Basic First Aid

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Process analysis Basic first aid:

Process analysis Basic first aid By Christian O’Brien 5/10/11

Basic First Aid-Introduction:

Basic First Aid-Introduction Accidents are a part of our daily reality as of 2010 almost 74 million Americans have been hospitalized for some reason at some point in time. First aid can literally mean the difference between life or death to one who is seriously ill or injured, due to accident or medical condition

Basic First Aid-Introduction:

Basic First Aid-Introduction Although it is rather unlikely that you will be involved in a situation where you be required to provide aid, the chance still exists. This presentation is to provide BASIC knowledge on what to do in mild to moderate injury situations.

First Aid/CPR Certification:

First Aid/CPR Certification Due to possible legal issues, it is imperative to be aware of the risks of performing Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) or first aid without proof of having gone through a licensed first aid class. Even with Good Samaritan laws and the pure intention to save someone’s life one still has every legal right to sue you if you attempt to perform aid either (1) without proper certification and/or (2) without their consent. Information on where you can get PROPER training will be displayed at the end of this presentation.

Contents:

In this section we will briefly be covering: Cuts/Bleeding Severe bruising Fractures (Broken bones) Burns Frostbite Hypothermia Heat Stroke CPR Overview Contents

First actions for all first aid situations:

First actions for all first aid situations Here are some actions you will have to take in ANY first aid or accident situation: Ensure the scene is safe. Are there any hazards to you or the injured person? Can you access the person without injuring yourself? Seek professional assistance (if necessary). If a person is injured bad enough to be hospitalized, have a passerby call 911, if there is no one else in the area you may have to call the EMS yourself, in this case this would be your first priority. And ALWAYS GET THE PERSON’S PERMISSION BEFORE YOU ASSIST THEM!

Cuts/Bleeding:

Cuts/Bleeding Blood loss can be a potential serious threat to the body’s condition, and an opening in the skin can be a gateway for infection. The main key to the treatment of bleeding is pressure. Using a rag or towel to apply pressure to minor cuts and than securely applying a sterile dressing is usually sufficient.

Cuts/Bleeding:

Cuts/Bleeding For more severe bleeding: Ensure the injured person is safe and send someone to dial 911, if necessary you may have to do this yourself. If possible have the person lay down with the legs elevated. This may prevent fainting. Use sterile gauze or cloth to apply direct pressure to the injury for at least 20 minutes If bleeding persists or seeps though the gauze DO NOT lift up, add more material and continue pressure

Severe bruising:

Severe bruising Bruising is the death of blood vessels due to direct, blunt force. Bruising can generally be prevented by INDERECTLY applying ice to the effected area for 15-20 minutes, or until swelling stops. ALWAYS place a cloth between the ice and the skin to prevent shock NEVER APPLY DIRECTLY OR UNCOVERED. COULD CAUSE SHOCK.

Fractures (broken bones):

Fractures (broken bones) Broken bones require professional medical attention. Call for an ambulance if an injury has cause a fracture. NEVER ATTEMPT MOVE THE FRACTERED LIMB IN ANY MANNER. For training to apply splints to immobilize fractures refer to the contact information at the end of this presentation. While waiting for EMTs stop any bleeding, and if the person feels faint place them laying down, with their legs up

Burns:

Burns For minor 1 st degree burns: Place under or immerse in cool (not cold) water until the pain stops Cover with a sterile gauze bandage, nothing cotton that could get lint in the burn For more serious 2 nd or 3 rd degree burns: Dial 911 (if deemed necessary) Remove the skin from contact of the burning material, but do not attempt remove burnt clothing If the skin tissue is destroyed DO NOT directly expose to cold water, doing so may cause hypothermia. Elevate the burnt body part or parts, if possible Cover the burn in a sterile cool moist (not wet) bandage or towel

Frostbite:

Frostbite When the skin is exposed to very cold temperatures (wind chill does count) skin tissue, especially in the hands and feet may freeze, prompting the risk of amputation. Signs of frostbite: Skin turns grayish or yellow, black in serious cases (to right) Skin feels numb or tingling. Skin may develop a hard waxy texture.

Frostbite:

Frostbite If you or someone else show these signs: Move person indoors if possible Gradually warm affected limbs with warm (not hot) water (between 104-107 F.) Do not use direct heat Wrap other areas in a warm blanket if possible Do not walk on frostbitten feet. This may cause further damage If the skin tingles, burns and turns red during the thawing, it may be painful, but the circulation is being restored. If not or the skin develops blisters seek medical attention.

Hypothermia:

Hypothermia Hypothermia is generally defined when the body’s temperature control mechanisms fail and the body’s temperature drops below 95 F. This may be the result of either prolonged exposure to cold weather (including the wind chill factor) or partial submersion in cold water for even a short period of time. Symptoms include: Confusion Slurred speech Loss of coordination Excessive shivering Cold pale skin Slow shallow breathing

Hypothermia:

Hypothermia If allowed to continue hypothermia may eventually stop a person’s breathing. If the individual’s breathing becomes dangerously shallow CPR may be necessary. If a person is displaying signs of hypothermia: Call for medical attention. Move the person indoors, if no shelter is available at least shield the person from the wind and insulate the body from cold ground. Replace wet clothing with warm dry covering. Warm compresses may be applied to the person’s sternum chest and neck, but never apply direct heat or any heat to the arms or legs. Doing so may place the individual into fatal shock. Do not give caffeine or alcohol. A warm drink, best of all warm or slightly hot water can be given, unless the person is vomiting.

Heat stroke:

Like hypothermia, heat stroke jeopardizes the body’s ability to control it’s internal temperature. Heat stroke is usually the result of heavy work or exercise in a hot environment without adequate hydration. It may also be caused by age, certain medication or disease, especially cardiovascular. Symptoms: Temperature above 105 F. Personality change Confusion Lack of sweat Fast shallow breathing Elevated pulse Change in blood pressure Nausea or vomiting Dizziness or lightheadedness Headache Fainting and unconsciousness, which in the worst case scenario may result in a short term coma. Heat stroke

Heat stroke:

If someone is displaying any of these symptoms seek medical attention. Move the person into an air conditioned building. If this is not possible at least try to move the person into shade Loosen or remove any tight outer clothing. Cool the person. Some ways of doing so include a light spray with cool water, directing a fan toward them or giving them cool damp cloths, or a combination of the above. Unless of vomiting, provide the person a non-caffeinated, non-alcoholic drink, most preferably water. Sugar may defeat the purpose of hydrating a person. Heat stroke

CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation:

CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving measure, that may either restore breathing or circulation to a non-responsive person. It is generally done by repeating a pattern of applying pressure 30 time in the center of the chest, just under the rib cage and blowing to exhalations from your own mouth in that of the person’s. However it is imperative and strongly recommended to receive training and practice on a non-human mannequin before actually doing this The correct hand placement for CPR

Contact information for CPR TRAINING IN SPRINGFIELD MO:

Contact information for CPR TRAINING IN SPRINGFIELD MO American Red Cross Greater Ozarks Chapter 1545 N West Bypass Springfield, MO 65803 Phone: 417-832-9500 redcross-ozarks.org American Heart Association Heartsaver first aid with CPR/AED Cox Medical Center Training Center ID: MO02640 3801 S National Ave Attn: Beth Keith Springfield, MO 65807-5210 417-269-4117 elizabeth.keith@coxhealth.com http://www.coxhealth.com

Conclusion:

To provide aid to someone in need is a choice. It is important to remember the person will often not even want your help. And even so you’re efforts may not be rewarded. However you aid does make a difference to save the person disability or even their life, you can give yourself credit in that. And remember ALWAYS get permission from the person if they are conscious. Stay calm and reassure the injured person. a panicked demeanor will not encourage the individual to allow you to help them. Conclusion

Credits:

First aid procedures checked through Mayo Clinic First aid mayoclinic.org First aid trading information from the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross. Pictures searched by google.com Credits

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