Brain Computer Interface

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BCI

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BCI :

B CI Brain Computer Interface By Chirag Palesha Swapnil kalhapure 1 9/27/2012

BRAIN:

BRAIN The brain is certainly the most complex organ we possess in our bodies The part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray, white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions. Made up of 100 billion of brain cells called neurons. On an Average weights up to 390 mg 2 9/27/2012

Working Of The Brain:

Working Of The Brain Neurons are made up of dendrites, axon & nucleus. The dendrites is input part, axon the output part & nucleus the processing part. Each neurons is connected to another with input dendrites & output axon having a gap called synaptic gap The communication between neurons is in lightening speed These 100 billion neurons are connected in different styles and patterns according to which human body learns Every individual has its on unique set of pattern connection. 3 9/27/2012

Computer :

Computer A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. 4 9/27/2012

Interface :

Interface A n interface is a concept that refers to a point of interaction between components. Interfacing with computer, means some how sending data to the computer which it understands.(HI) Why interface ?? Started when computer’s where developed. Eg . Mouse , keyboard , touch pad , BCI etc. Keyboard was one of the first commercial interface for a computer. 5 9/27/2012

Types of Interface :

Types of I nterface Keyboard Mouse Touch pad Multi touch Motion guidance Voice recognition Image recognition Brain Computer I nterface 6 9/27/2012

Keyboard:

Keyboard A keyboard is a typewriter style keyboard , which uses an arrangement of keys, to act as electronic switches. The invention of the first keyboard was in 1868 and was invented by Christopher , Samuel and Carlo.(not a QWERTY keyboard) 7 9/27/2012

Keyboard:

Keyboard Letter-pair frequency table also known as bigram table. A bigram or digram, is every sequence of two adjacent elements in a string. 8 9/27/2012

Mouse:

Mouse A mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting 2 dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. The first prototype of a computer mouse , as designed by Bill English in xerox . Mechanical mouse, optical mouse , wireless mouse etc. 9 9/27/2012

First Commercial Computer :

First Commercial Computer Apple introducing APPLE-II. 10 9/27/2012

Touch pad:

Touch pad A touchpad (or track pad ) is a pointing device featuring a tactical sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on screen. Was developed by Cirque ,only for apple pro-books but later the idea was copied. Resistive touch , capacitive touch etc. are technology used to sense the touch. 11 9/27/2012

Multi touch :

Multi touch Just like touch pad with a ability to sense multiple finger’s at a single instance. This make the touch pad more interactive to interact with the computer. 12 9/27/2012

Motion guidance :

Motion guidance A motion sensor is a device for motion detection or tilt detection. Interactive gaming,etc . Uses tactical motion sensor’s , convert’s them from analog to digital format. 13 9/27/2012

Voice Recognition (SR):

Voice Recognition (SR) A new tech. which enable’s a user to ‘talk’ to his computer. It is actually, the translation of spoken words into text, than the text is analyzed by computer and corresponding response is given. Eg . SIRI ,S VOICE , IRIS ,etc. 14 9/27/2012

Image Recognition (CV):

Image Recognition (CV) Computer vision is a field that includes methods for acquiring, processing, analysing, and understanding images and, in general, high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, e.g. , in the forms of decisions. The computer is able to recognize images or video’s and process them. Eg . Sixth sense device 15 9/27/2012

Brain Computer Interface:

Brain Computer Interface A brain–computer interface ( BCI ), often called a mind-machine interface ( MMI ), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA. The field of BCI research and development has since focused primarily on neuroprosthetics applications that aim at restoring damaged hearing, sight and movement 16 9/27/2012

History of B.C.I:

History of B.C.I The history of brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) starts with Hans Berger 's discovery of the electrical activity of the human brain and the development of electroencephalography (EEG). In 1974 Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG. By analyzing EEG traces, Berger was able to identify oscillatory activity in the brain. 17 9/27/2012

Types Of B.C.I.:

Types Of B.C.I. 18 Invasion Non - Invasion 9/27/2012

Invasion B.C.I.:

Invasion B.C.I. To get a higher-resolution signal, scientists can implant electrodes directly into the gray matter of the brain itself, or on the surface of the brain, beneath the skull. This allows for much more direct reception of electric signals and allows electrode placement in the specific area of the brain where the appropriate signals are generated. 19 9/27/2012

Harmful Effects:

Harmful Effects This approach has many problems, however. It requires invasive surgery to implant the electrodes, and devices left in the brain long-term tend to cause the formation of scar tissue in the gray matter. This scar tissue ultimately blocks signals. 20 9/27/2012

Non – Invasion B.C.I.:

Non – Invasion B.C.I. The easiest and least invasive method is a set of electrodes -- a procedure known as an electroencephalograph (EEG) attached to the scalp. The electrodes can read brain signals. However, the skull blocks a lot of the electrical signal, and it distorts. 21 9/27/2012

What is an EEG?:

What is an EEG? An electroencephalogram is a measure of the brain's voltage fluctuations as detected from scalp electrodes. It is an approximation of the electrical activity of neurons. 22 9/27/2012

WORKING OF BCI:

WORKING OF BCI Transmitter plate Receiver plate Output is in the form of some disturbed radio frequency Radio frequencies of a specified range are transmitted When neurons are inactive 23 9/27/2012

WORKING OF BCI:

WORKING OF BCI Transmitter plate Receiver plate Output is in the form of some disturbed radio frequency Radio frequencies of a specified range are transmitted When neurons are active 24 9/27/2012

Physical Mechanisms:

Physical Mechanisms EEGs require electrodes attached to the scalp. Require physical connection to the machine 25 9/27/2012

BCI device’s:

BCI device’s These are device which enable the EEG activity in the brain to be tracked by the computer. These device’s link up with computer which uses database system’s, algorithms etc. to track what we are thinking… These device’s are now available in online store’s and can be used. E.g. :- Emotiv EPOC 26 9/27/2012

BCI Application:

BCI Application Farwell and Donchin (1988) allowed the user to select a command when the desired command flashed. 27 9/27/2012

BCI Application:

BCI Application (McFarland 2004) allowed a user to move a cursor around a 2 dimensional screen ( Millán 2004) allowed a user to move a robot around the room .[EEPR] 28 9/27/2012

Best Application:

Best A pplication Stephen William Hawking , is a British theoretical physicist and author. Hawking has a motor neurone disease(similar to paralysis). He is now completely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device.(1978 IBM intercom). This sound generator device in actually connected to nerves in the brain. 29 9/27/2012

Future Work:

Future Work Improving physical methods for gathering EEGs Improving it commercially. Improving knowledge of how to interpret waves. 30 9/27/2012

Conclusion:

Conclusion While rapid advances in direct neural interfaces may ultimately offer high-precision, multidimensional control. It is still at primary level, but when it will reach its advanced stages it will revolutionize every field. It works on simple principal i.e. “ YOU THINK IT AND ITS DONE “. 31 9/27/2012

References :

References www.howstuffworks.com www.mit.edu\brain_CI\ www.wikipedia.com\Brain_Computer_Interface\ www.edisonnation.com\BCI\ 9/27/2012 32

B.C.I. :

B.C.I. Brain computer interface Thank you 33 9/27/2012

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