Electricity from windmill

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HOW WIND TURBINES GENERATE ELECTRICITY

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What are Wind Turbines?

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What are Wind Turbines? Wind turbines are devices that convert the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy .

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What are Wind Turbines? If it further converts the mechanical energy to electricity , then we call it a wind generator .

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Chart

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But they’re all composed of the same 3 basic parts .

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A. Rotor Blades B. Shaft C. Generator Basic Parts

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A. Rotor Blades The rotor blades are the “wind catchers” of a wind turbine . Basic Parts They’re long projections that have aerodynamic designs . When wind passes, it forces these rotor blades to turn .

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B. Shaft Its main purpose is to transfer the rotational mechanical energy of the rotor blades to the generator . Basic Parts

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C. Generator 3 Basic Parts Finally, the generator is a device designed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy . It uses the principle of electromagnetic induction . Now that you know its basic parts, let’s understand how wind turbines generate electricity .

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Basic Processes

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Basic Processes A. Capturing Wind Energy B. Converting to Electricity

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Basic Processes A. Capturing Wind Energy Wind energy is captured using the wind turbine’s rotor blades .

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Basic Processes A. Capturing Wind Energy When wind passes through the blades, two aerodynamic forces are at work . These two forces cause the rotor blades to turn , depending on how much force the wind exerts on them . The process converts the wind’s kinetic energy to mechanical energy (turning of rotor blades) After this, it’s time to convert the mechanical energy into electricity .

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B. Converting to Electricity The turning of the rotor blades would simultaneously cause the shaft to turn , which is connected to a generator. Basic Processes

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B. Converting to Electricity When the rotor blades turn, Basic Processes the shaft also turns.

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Basic Processes B. Converting to Electricity Which makes the generator produce electricity !

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Basic Processes B. Converting to Electricity In this process, the rotational mechanical energy of the shaft is converted to electricity by the generator.

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Other Processes Involved

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Increasing RPM Other Processes Involved Large wind turbines turn slowly . On average, their rotor blades rotate at a speed of 20 rpm (rotations per minute). 20 rpm is too slow to power up a generator ! Large wind turbines use a gearbox to increase the rpm from 20 rpm to as much as 2000 rpm !

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Increasing RPM Other Processes Involved Large wind turbines use a gearbox to increase the rpm from 20 rpm to as much as 2000 rpm ! In large wind turbines, they use a variety of gears (hence the name, gearbox) to multiply the rpm of the shaft.

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Other Processes Involved Yaw Adjustment (HAWT only) HAWTs (horizontal-axis wind turbines) should be directed the same direction as the wind to maximize the energy collected. So modern HAWTs use a yaw-adjustment system To position the rotor blades in the correct direction . and a motor to adjust turbine direction .

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Other Processes Involved Yaw Adjustment (HAWT only) The system usually consists of a sensor to monitor wind direction

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Braking Mechanism Finally, there are places where wind speeds can reach extremely high levels . Other Processes Involved Over speeding of the rotor blades can cause malfunctions on the wind turbine’s system. This is why a braking mechanism should exist to limit the maximum speed of the rotor blades .

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Thank you Sarika .C

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