Human Anatomy and Body Systems

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Human Anatomy and Body Systems


The Digestive System


The Excretory System


Respiratory System


Circulatory System


The Nervous System Purpose : to coordinate the body ’ s response to changes in its internal and external environment Major Organs and Their Functions Brain – control center of the body, where all processes are relayed through -- consists of cerebrum (controls though and senses) and cerebellum (controls motor functions) Spinal Cord – sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versa -- any organism with a major nerve cord is classified as a chordate Nerves – conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the body


Diagram of a Nerve Cell


The Endocrine System Purpose: to control growth, development, metabolism and reproduction through the production and secretion of hormones Major Organs -- hypothalamus -- pituitary gland -- thyroid -- parathyroid -- adrenal glands -- pancreas -- testes -- ovaries


The Skeletal System Purpose: to provide structure and support to the human body Bones are where new blood cells are generated (in the marrow), and require the mineral calcium for strength Major Bones of the Human Body -- femur (thigh bone) -- humerus (upper arm) -- radius and ulna (lower arm) -- cranium (skull) -- sternum (breastbone) -- clavicle (shoulder blade) -- fibula and tibia (calf) -- vertebrae (back) -- scalpula (shoulder) -- pelvic bone -- coccyx (tail bone) -- phalanges (fingers/toes)


The Muscular System Purpose: works with the skeletal and nervous system to produce movement, also helps to circulate blood through the human body -- muscle cells are fibrous -- muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary Major Muscles in the Human Body -- biceps -- triceps -- deltoids -- glutes -- hamstrings


The Immune System Purpose: to remove infectious diseases and other pathogens from the human body Major Organs and Their Functions Skin – also called the integumentary system, the skin is the body ’ s first line of defense White Blood Cells – recognize disease agents (antigens) and create antibodies to tag and remove these antigens -- phagocytes are the white blood cell type that actually eats and destroys these antigens Lymph Nodes – help restore fluid lost by the blood and return it to the circulatory system

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