Training & Development

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Training & DevelopmentBy Ms. Chitra KrishnanAIBS, Amity University Noida : 

Training & DevelopmentBy Ms. Chitra KrishnanAIBS, Amity University Noida


TRAINING DEFINED It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.

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Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it• It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVESThe principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.



Importance Of Training and Development : 

Importance Of Training and Development Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Development of Human Resources Development of Human Resources Productivity Team spirit Organization Culture Organization Climate Quality Healthy work-environment Health and Safety Morale Image Profitability Training and Development aids in organizational development

Importance Of Training Objectives : 

Importance Of Training Objectives Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives,1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator

Training As Consultancy : 

Training As Consultancy Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives.Estimation of Training OutsourcingIt has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education.

The training consultancies offer various benefits such as: : 

The training consultancies offer various benefits such as:

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Importance of Training Consultancies• It helps in enhancing company’s image• It helps in strengthening the team spirit• It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load• It helps in improving the work relations• It helps in developing focused and inspired staff• It leads to greater chances of success

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Consultants can provide help on following areas:• Management Development• Team Building Leadership• Health & Safety Training• Interpersonal Skills• Sales TrainingEXAMPLE: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.

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Role of HRD Professionals in TrainingThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:1. Active involvement in employee education2. Rewards for improvement in performance3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training

Models of Training : 

Models of Training Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).

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The three model of training are:1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model

System Model Training : 

System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:

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1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

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3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model : 

Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:

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1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

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3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

Transitional Model : 

Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

Methods of Training : 

Methods of Training There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.

The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: : 

The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: LECTURES DEMONSTRATIONS DISCUSSIONS

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Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.

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GAMES AND SIMULATIONSBEHAVIOR-MODELING Behavior modeling focuses on developing behavioral and interpersonal skills. This type of method can be used for training in Sales training Interviewee training Interviewer training Safety training Interpersonal skills training The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:

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BUSINESS GAMES Some of the benefits of the business games are: It develops leadership skills It improves application of total quality principles It develops skills in using quality tools It strengthen management skills It demonstrates principles and concepts It explores and solves complex problem

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CASE STUDIES Case Study method focuses on: Building decision making skills Assessing and developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Developing communication and interpersonal skills Developing management skills Developing procedural and strategic knowledge

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EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat, as closely as possible, the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: Air Traffic Controllers Taxi Drivers Telephone Operators Ship Navigators Maintenance Workers Product Development Engineers Airline Pilots Military Officers

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IN-BASKET TECHNIQUEIn-Basket Technique – It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator.


ROLE PLAYS Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. For instance, situation could be strike in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once the participants read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Role Plays helps in Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills Conflict resolution Group decision making Developing insight into one’s own behavior and its impact on others

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MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT – Management Development has become very important in today’s competitive environment. According to a survey, those companies that align their management development with tactical planning are more competitive than the companies who are not. It has also been indicated that 80% of the companies report MDP, compared with 90% that provide executive leadership training. For most of the companies 37% of the training budgets go to management development and learning programs. Therefore, it is important to consider management development as an important part of organizational competitiveness. Management development method is further divided into two parts:ON THE JOB TRAINING – The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on-the-job training. This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work place in informal manner. The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on-the job development are:

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It is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. Procedure of the CoachingThe procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach.Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback Repeat step 4 until performance improves For the people at middle-level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up-and-coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement. COACHING

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MENTORING Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. JOB ROTATIONThis approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.

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Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position


JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development Procedure of Job Instruction Technique JIT consists of four steps: Plan Present Trial Follow-up

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OFF THE JOB TRAINING – There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.

Procedure of Sensitivity Training : 

Procedure of Sensitivity Training

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TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSISTransactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual.

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There are basically three ego states:Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like “I guess”, “I suppose”, etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, silent, attention seeking, etc. Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.                                  Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision-making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.

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Training-Design :