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Premium member Presentation Transcript Management of Receivables: Management of Receivables Dr. Neeraj Chitkara Assistant Professor Samalkha Group of Institutions Email- email@example.com Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAintroduction: introduction The term receivables refers to debt owned to the firm by the customers resulting from the sale of goods or services in the ordinary course of business. There are the funds blocked due to credit sales. Receivables management refers to the decision a business makes regarding to the overall credit, collection policies and the evaluation of individual credit applicants. Receivables Management is also called trade credit management. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAObjectives of receivables management: Objectives of receivables management The objective of Receivables Management is to promote sales and profits until that point is reached where the return on investment in further funding receivables is less than the cost of funds raised to finance that additional credit i.e. cost of capita. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARATrade credit vs. consumer credit: Trade credit vs. consumer credit Trade Credit It occurs when one business sells goods to another business. Consumer Credit It occurs when a business sells goods to an individual. Trade credit terms are more liberal than consumer credit terms. A company may offer credit on open account or trade bill as documentation of the debt. Forms of Bank Credit Cash credits/overdrafts, loans, Purchase/discount bills, letter credit, working capital term loans. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARADifference between Trade credit & bank credit: Difference between Trade credit & bank credit Sr. No. Attribute Trade Credit Bank Credit 1 Length of Terms Relatively short usually 30,60 or 90 days Ignore 2 Security Usually Unsecured Higher standards for unsecured loans , otherwise secured. 3 Amount Involved Smaller larger 4 Resource transferred Goods or Services Money 5 Extent of analysis Extensive, when size of transaction is large In-depth analysis regarding safety and collectability Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAMotives for Extension of Trade Credits: Motives for Extension of Trade Credits Financial Motive Seller charge a higher price when selling on credit. Operating Motive Here suppliers respond to variable demand by the way in which they extend trade credit instead of using more costly response such as installing extra capacity building or depleting inventories of forcing customers to wait in line. Contracting Cost Motive Buyers can inspect the quantity as well as quality prior to payment. Pricing Motive If change in selling price is not possible due to oligopoly or govt. norms then by extending credit seller can charge varying amounts to their customers. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARACost & benefits of maintaining Receivables: Cost & benefits of maintaining Receivables Cost of Receivables Collection Costs : i.e. for maintenance of credit & collection department, expenses incurred for obtaining information about credit-worthiness of potential customers. Capital Cost/ Cost of Financing Delinquency Costs : i.e. cost of financing for an extended period, cost of extra steps to be taken to collect overdue e.g. reminders, legal charges etc. Default Costs E.g. Bad debts etc. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAbenefits OF RECEIVABLES: benefits OF RECEIVABLES Increased Sales Anticipated Profits A liberal policy can take two forms: Sales Extension Sales Retention Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARADetermination the appropriate receivables policy: Determination the appropriate receivables policy Our aim is to derive a techniques which the company can apply in order to determine an optimum credit policy. We can gain a greater appreciation for the credit granting process if we know the sequence of events initiated when a business makes a credit sales. While determining the credit policy the firm has to decide the following two things: Whether or not to extend credit to a customer. How much credit to extend . Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAPowerPoint Presentation: The following steps must be taken in determining the appropriate receivables policy: Credit Standards: The term credit standards represent the basic criteria for the extension of credit to customers. The quantitative basis of establishing credit standards are: Credit Ratings Credit References Average Payment Periods Financial Ratios Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARACont…..: Cont….. Here we have to find the trade-off between benefit and cost to the firm as a whole, so we have divided the overall standards into two parts i.e. Tight or restrictive Liberal or non-restrictive We have to check what happens to the trade-off between cost and benefit if these standards are relaxed or tightened. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAPowerPoint Presentation: The following factors are considered while deciding the credit standards: Collection Costs Investment in receivables or average collection period Bad debts expenses Sales Volume The effects of relaxed or tightened credit standards can be proved with an example in two manners. Long-Term approach Short-Term/ Marginal Approach Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARA Credit analysis & Decision: Credit analysis & Decision The second aspect of the receivables policy is credit analysis and investigation. Two basic steps are involved in the credit investigation process i.e. Obtaining credit information Analysis of credit information Obtaining credit information Internal Sources Filling up of various forms Trade references Internal records External Sources Financial Statements Bank references Trade references Credit Bureau reports Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAAnalysis of Credit Information: Analysis of Credit Information Quantitative i.e. ratio analysis of liquidity, profitability & debts capacity, Trend analysis of over a period of time to reveal the financial strength. Qualitative i.e. references from other suppliers, bank references and special bureau reports. It must be clear that the main purpose of credit analysis is to assess the credit worthiness of the customers. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARA The 5 c’s of credit analysis : The 5 c’s of credit analysis 1. Capital Aggregate Liquidity position Total Dept position 2. Character Willingness to pay the debts 3. Collateral 4. Capacity Management capacity to run the business Physical Capacity 5. Condition Economic condition of applicant Industry condition in general Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARACredit Terms: Credit Terms The terms under which goods are sold on credit are referred as credit terms. These relate to the payment of the amount under the credit sales. Thus, credit terms specify the repayment terms of receivables. Components of Credit Terms Credit Period Cash Discount Cash Discount Period These components are usually written in abbreviations such as 2/10 net 30. The effect of these components on the receivables management can be proved with the help of an example. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARA Collection Policies: Collection Policies The next step involved in the receivables management is collection policies. They refer to the procedures followed to collect accounts receivables after the expiry of the credit period. Components of Collection Policies Degree of collection efforts i.e. strict, lenient The effect on receivables management of the above degrees with example. Type of collection efforts Letters Telephone Calls Help of collection agencies Legal action Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAMarginal Analysis: Marginal Analysis It involves a systematic comparison between the marginal returns and the marginal cost from a change in the discount period or the collection process. The change should be accepted if the marginal return from a proposed change in the management of accounts receivables is greater than the marginal cost on additional investments in the receivables. Process of Marginal Analysis Determine the marginal benefit Determine required rate of return on marginal investment Compare marginal benefit with required return Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARACont…: Cont… The logic behind this approach of credit policy is to examine the incremental or marginal benefit and cost or required rate associated with any change in credit policy. If the change promises more profit than costs the change should be made or vice-versa. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAHeuristic Approach: Heuristic Approach This approach is based on a manufacturing company’s actual experience. To establish a credit limit and grant credit the following factors need to be considered. The formula or procedure described here has the weight of managerial experience and infusion behind it and therefore is heuristic in nature. The factors which should be considered are as follows Credit requirements Degree of dependence Discount <25% 0% 25-50% 5% .50% 10% Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARAPowerPoint Presentation: Paying Habits Payment during discount period 10% Payment during credit period 5% Late Payment (-)5% Duration of the Business Less than 3 years 0% 3-10 years 5% More than 10 years 10% Profit Margin If margin is less than 5% 0% Current Ratio Total debt to asset ratio Inventory turnover Ratio Qualitative Factor Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARADISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS: DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS Discriminant Analysis is a computer based technique for predicting whether a new credit applicant will prove to be good or bad credit risk. Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARASequential Decision Analysis: Sequential Decision Analysis Dr. NEERAJ CHITKARA You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.