Family Apidae: Family Apidae Honey bees (genus mellifera ) represent a small fraction of the 20,000 known species of bees. And yet they are used widely in agricultures Bumble Bee (genus Bombus ) - 250 species in Northern Hemisphere – genus Orchid Bee; Euglossine – 200 species Carpenter Bee (genus Xylocopa ) 500 species Stingless Bee Megachilidae – 100 species
Pathogens such as viruses, fungi and bacteria: Pathogens such as viruses, fungi and bacteria experiments revealed a system in which a group of naturally occurring honey bee viruses, that normally occur at low, non-epidemic levels, have become epidemic Honey bees are the number one insect pollinator on the planet, responsible for the production of over 90 crops. Apples, berries, cucumbers, nuts, cabbages and even cotton will struggle to be produced if bee colonies continue to decline at the current rate. Empty hives have been reported from as far afield as Taipei and Tennessee Colony collapse disorder ( CCD ) phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) : Colony collapse disorder ( CCD ) Diverse microflora including pathogenic, commensal and mutualistic organisms. Many pathogens are transported to new regions with their hosts Found no death bee in or out of beehives Insecticides used in forage of beekeeping farms show signs of apparent failure of the immune system, and disorientation Chalkbrood caused by fungus Ascophaera apis foulbrood caused by bacteria Paenibacillus larvae, microsporidian Nosema apis combination of the virus and fungus N. ceranae found in CCD Varroa destructor - parasitic mite by acting as a vector. A. cerana can coexist in the east while mite-infested colonies of Honey bee (A. mellifera ) collapse in the west. Israel acute paralysis virus Organic Consumers Association reported that bee colony losses were not occurring at organic beekeeping operations
Commercial Beekeeping (Bee Rental) Negative consequences of introductions: Commercial Beekeeping (Bee Rental) Negative consequences of introductions competition with native pollinator for floral resources competition for nest sites pathogens that may infect native organism pollination of exotic weeds disruption of pollination of native plants
Fight Range: Fight Range little known about basic aspects of ecology of most species( Urh .. find research grant) We have only a rudimentary knowledge of natural distribution. Almost certain that species have been transported by man to new location for apiculture. A. mellifera are social species with colonies attaining sizes of up to 50000 compared to A. terrestris with 500 In their natural range (without 18 wheeler truck) >70 nests/km2 and typical bees travel 8 km in distance from the nest Because introduced bees are widespread, deleterious effects are huge. Abundance of honeybees and bumblebees makes such effects more probable. Competition with native organisms is inevitable.
Restoration: Restoration Understanding the fundamental components defining these communities is essential if conservation and restoration are to be successful. Bees are dying in their millions. It's an ecological crisis that threatens to bring global agriculture to a standstill Help keep local bees healthy with all year long floral plants in your own backyard. Keep bees diversity in check. Get Closer to Nature.. Go Backyard Beekeeper