Bacterium Buildup

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Bacterium build-up in piped water supply. More than 80% of killer diseases are water-borne, of which 20% are bacteriologic in nature.


By: nizi (139 month(s) ago)

very good

Presentation Transcript

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-Chintan Daiya

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More than 80% of Killer Diseases Are Waterborne 80%

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WATERBORNE BACTERIA Vibrio Cholerae: A part of the vibrio family, V. Cholerae (as the name implies), is an agent of cholera, a devastating and sometimes lethal disease with profuse watery diarrhea. Like other vibrio, V. Cholerae moves actively. “Vibrio” in Latin means “To quiver”. Campylobacter: A part of the corkscrew family. A bacterium that typically infects the bowels. The leading cause of bacterial food poisoning, Campylobacter is most often spread by contact with raw or undercooked poultry. A single drop of juice from a contaminated chicken is enough to make someone sick. Disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni is termed Campylobacteriosis. Legionella: Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium. Considered to be a "facultative parasite," which in the last twenty years has been identified as the leading cause of Legionnaire's Disease. This disease was first discovered in 1976 among a group of men attending an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (hence Legionnaire's Disease). When this outbreak first occurred it shocked the world, because no one knew why all were being diagnosed with acute respiratory failure.

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WATERBORNE BACTERIA Shigella: A group of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestinal tract and cause infantile gastroenteritis, summer diarrhoea of childhood and various forms of dysentery including epidemic and opportunistic bacillary dysentery. Named for the Japanese bacteriologist Kiyoshi Shiga (1870-1957). Escherichia coli (E.Coli): A bacterium that commonly lives in the intestines of people and animals. There are many strains (types) of E. coli. Most of the E. coli are normal inhabitants of the small intestine and colon and are non-pathogenic, meaning they do not cause disease in the intestines. Nevertheless, these non-pathogenic E. coli can cause disease if they spread outside of the intestines, for example, into the urinary tract (where they cause bladder or kidney infections) or into the blood stream (sepsis). Salmonella: A group of bacteria that cause typhoid fever and a number of other illnesses, including food poisoning, gastroenteritis and enteric fever from contaminated food products. Named for the American pathologist Daniel Salmon (1850-1914).

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So how safe is the water you drink?

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Bhandup Water Treatment Complex Relax! Municipal Corporations / Civic Bodies around the world spend millions to provide the hard-working, tax-paying citizens with a clear glass of refreshing water. In fact, high-placed officials at Bhandup Complex, which is the treatment plant for Mumbai city, claim that the water leaving their complex is very much comparable to any reputed brand of bottled water. But don’t jump to conclusions yet, lets see what happens to your little glass of water on the way

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GROWTH FACTORS Pipe Lines passing Dharavi supplying to South Mumbai

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GROWTH FACTORS Water Connection provided to a reputed mall, from a main linewithin a “Gutter” ?!??!!

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GROWTH FACTORS Backflow & Cross-Connection

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GROWTH FACTORS Biological activity in a distribution system is normally most intense at the interface between the water and structural materials (in formations generally described as biofilms), and within deposits formed by particulate matter and corrosion. The growth of biofilms depends on the nature of the material, the hydraulic conditions and the physical and chemical characteristics of the water. Colonisation occurs from the first contact between certain microorganisms (mainly bacteria) and a new material. It then evolves through the integration of various levels and species that can cohabit and exchange nutrients by reacting to external conditions.

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GROWTH FACTORS Temperature — If nutrients are available, the microbial activity increases significantly at water temperatures above 15ºC, in the absence of a disinfectant residual. pH — Most microorganisms survive at the pH values normally found in drinking-water. Oxygen — Water supplies are normally well aerated, which reduces the risk of microbially-induced corrosion, denitrification, sulfide production and other consequences of anaerobic stagnation. However, oxygen may not penetrate to the bottom layers of biofilms, corrosion tubercles, and other pipe deposits and reservoir sediments where anaerobes such as sulfatereducing bacteria may proliferate. Nutrients — Although some microorganisms can survive on mineral elements, they are of little significance in distribution networks. However, many microorganisms can proliferate if there is sufficient dissolved or particulate organic matter containing carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus.

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The Solution! Drink Mineral Water OR

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Preventive Measures include but are not limited to: Hydraulics Excessive capacity Low-flow, dead-end and loops Negative pressures Inappropriate pressures Intermittent Supply Shape & Configuration of storage Shape & Dimension Depth of water Inlet / Outlet Baffles Piping Material Copper CPVC Cross-Connection / Backflow Control Air gap Break Tank Mechanical Control Valves Purification Processes Chlorine Ozone UV

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Hydraulics (1/2) Excessive Capacity: The system should not have excessive capacity (which will result in long transit times) unless this excess capacity is required to meet a known increase in future demand. Low-flow, Dead-end and Loops: Ideally, low-flow dead-ends and loops should be avoided, but in practice this is not always possible. Low-flow sections of dead-ends should be as short as possible. Both dead-ends and loops in the system may cause problems by creating long residence times and sections where sediments can collect. Changes in flow direction (“tidal flows”) in loops may disturb any deposits in the pipes. Negative Pressures: Situations that may give rise to negative pressures should always be avoided. Faecal organisms and culturable bacterium may be present in groundwater adjacent to a pipeline and drawn into a pipe during transient low or negative pressures. Such situation may occur where there are: • properties on high ground; • remote properties at the end of long lengths of pipe; • demands that are greater than the design demand; • pipes of inadequate capacity (too small diameter); • rough pipes (e.g. corroding iron pipes or pipes with a build-up of sediment); • equipment failures (e.g. pumps and valves)

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Hydraulics (2/2) Inappropriate Pressures: Pressure at any point in the system should be maintained within a range whereby the maximum pressure avoids pipe bursts and the minimum ensures that water is supplied at adequate flow rates for all expected demands. This may require pressure boosting at strategic locations in the network. Intermittent Supply: In some situations, water supplies are only available for a restricted number of hours per day or days per week. Although such systems are not desirable, they are the reality for a large proportion of the world's population. The control of water quality in intermittent supplies represents a significant challenge to water suppliers, because the risk of backflow increases significantly due to reduced pressure. The risk may be elevated in seasons with greater rainfall, where soil moisture conditions will increase the likelihood of a pressure gradient developing from the soil to the pipe. Within the supply, the most significant points of risk will be areas where pipes pass through drains or other places where stagnant water pools may form. Water quality may also deteriorate on recharging where surges may dislodge biofilm, leading to aesthetic problems.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Shape and Config of Storage Shape & Dimension: As the ratio of length to breadth of a reservoir is increased, it becomes more difficult to achieve the (desirable) fully mixed condition. In the extreme case of a long, narrow reservoir, it would be necessary to place the inlet and outlet at opposite ends; the flow would then approximate to plug flow. Therefore, the reservoir should be circular or rectangular, with a low ratio of length to breadth. For new reservoirs without baffles, a length to breadth ratio of less than 2:1 is considered optimal for water quality. Depth of Water: Generally, in reservoirs without baffles, water quality is better where the average depth is greater than 3 m, because this facilitates mixing. However, in situations where a deep reservoir creates long residence times, a depth of less than 3 m may be a compromise design. A reservoir with an exceptionally large or small volume would have a different critical level, which would need to be determined for each case, using a technique such as computational fluid dynamics. Inlet / Outlet: Inlets and outlets with proper velocity and discharge are required to ensure proper mixing of water and avoiding stagnation. Outlet points like overflows need to be protected from external sources like rodents and insects. Baffles / Compartments: It is ideal to include baffle walls or make compartments in reservoirs of larger capacities to avoid stagnation of water.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Piping Material (1/2) Copper A new study undertaken by KIWA, the Dutch water quality research Institute, has shown that using copper pipes reduces the growth and proliferation of the bacteria responsible for Legionnaire's disease. By simulating domestic usage of different hot water distribution systems for just under one year, the study analysed the proliferation of the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. The experiments showed that the Legionella concentration in the water conveyed by copper pipes was 10 times less than in xxxxxxx pipes. Copper's bacteriostatic and mechanical properties explain why it is used in many current applications, from piping, coins, door handles, not to mention cooking utensils and medical equipment. Other recent studies carried out by different microbiology research centres have also shed light on copper's positive role in combating Listeria, E.coli 0151 and staphylococci, three other highly pathogenic bacteria. The results of the KIWA study were published in the Netherlands in the May and June 2003 issues of the journal lntech and In the 30 May issue of the journal H20.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Piping Material (2/2) CPVC Studies carried out on CPVC: ‘Biofilm Formation Potential of Pipe Materials in Internal Installations’, June 1999, KIWA ‘Water Deterioration from extended stagnation conditions in steel, copper and CPVC pipes’, February 1996, Prof. F.L.Hart, for the US Fire Administration. ‘Bacterial Growth in drinking water systems’, October 1989, University of Bonn, Germany.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Cross-Connection / Backflow control (1/2) Typical degrees of cross-connection ratings are as follows: • High hazard — Any condition, device or practice that, in connection with the potable water supply system, has the potential to cause death. • Medium hazard — Any condition, device or practice that, in connection with the potable water supply system, could endanger health. • Low hazard — Any condition, device or practice that, in connection with the potable water supply system, would constitute a nuisance but would not endanger health or cause injury.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Cross-Connection / Backflow control (2/2) Break Tank: The air gap principle is extended to create a new supply head (pressure) and, if the tank is allowed to overflow, an air gap is maintained to the water inlet. The break tank provides a separated supply system that effectively isolates the potable water supply system from a new gravity head or a source for a pumped supply. A break tank is suitable for use in high, medium or low-hazard conditions. A simple example is the float-valve controlled toilet flushing cistern. Mechanical Control Valves: The following are types of mechanical backflow prevention devices that are typically installed downstream of the meter or stop valve at the property boundary. (There are other types designed for special operational conditions.) Dual Check Valve Double Check Valve Double Check Detector Assembly Reduced Pressure Zone Assembly

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Purification Chlorine: Chlorine is commonly used to maintain a residual. Its disinfecting power is a function of pH, because when chlorine is added to water it reacts to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl): Cl2 + H2O → HOCl + H+ + Cl- The hypochlorous acid will dissociate to the hypochlorite ion (OCl-) as the water increases in pH: HOCl → H+ + OCl- Ozone: Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid-cell membrane. Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria. Ultra-Violet Radiation: As water flows past the UV lamp in a UV disinfection system, microorganisms are exposed to Ultraviolet light energy at a 253.7nm wave length. Ultraviolet light alters the DNA material in cells so that bacteria, viruses, molds, algae and other microorganisms can no longer reproduce. The microorganisms are considered dead, and the risk of disease from them is eliminated. The process of UV Disinfection is accomplished without adding any harmful chemicals to your drinking water and does not distort the taste of your water on effect its pH value. UV Disinfection has an effective kill rate of 99.99% of most living microorganisms such as bacteria & viruses.

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Concluding, I’d like to say “Remember, the privilege of pure water was not conferred upon us by our ancestors,It was loaned to us to be handed over to the generations to come.” Thank you External References: Biofilm Formation Potential of Pipe Materials in Internal Installations’, June 1999, KIWA “Safe Piped Water” - A WHO Publication

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