Slums and Sanitation for IPA

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The slums sanitation programme of Indian Plumbing Association with BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation

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Slide 1: 

We Care An IPAMC Initiative – Because Slums' Sanitation - Indian Plumbing Association, Mumbai Chapter

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The day everyone of us gets a toilet to use, I shall know that Our country has reached the pinnacle of progress - Jawaharlal Nehru So, have we reached the pinnacle of Progress ?

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Mumbai – As we all know, the “City of Dreams”. Where every Indian aspires to be. A city already overflowing with population, reputed for housing one of the largest slum in the Asia – Dharavi. Here are few less-known facts. People living in Slums: 7,570,680 Area of Mumbai: 240 sq.miles Population of Mumbai: 12,691,836 Avg. Density: 16500 ppl / sq. mile Slum Pockets in Mumbai: 1959

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Mumbai or Slumbai ?!? Whether we like it or not, the fact is that Mumbai like other major cities has had slums for quite some time now. There have been plans for rehabilitation of slums as well which have proved to be successful, but they are very long term goals for making Mumbai at par with Shanghai. What one really dislikes about slums is that they are dirty and lack hygiene with less or improper civic facilities like Sanitation. One cannot just blame the civic authorities or the governance for this. The rate at which slums grow is much higher than the urbanization rate. So what can be done? Can’t live them, Can’t leave them either. There are projects conducted by Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations for the upliftment of these hutments. One of the projects which IPA, Mumbai Chapter has been closely associated with has been the Slum Sanitation Program being conducted by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai.

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So, that’s it! The Municipal Corporation is taking care of it, right? Yes, but there are lots of challenges.. As a whole, in Mumbai, as mentioned earlier, there are about 1959 slum pockets, which doesn’t include shanties which keep popping up every now and then. The total requirement for toilet seats for these slums is 1,25,055 considering 50 persons per toilet seat, which I personally feel is very high. Here is a breather, 77,526 toilet seats are either constructed or being constructed for these slum-dwellers, meaning a total of 9665 toilet blocks. Of which SSP (Slum Sanitation Program) has already constructed 328 toilet blocks consisting of 5547 toilet seats Not quite an achievement, but can definitely be considered the first step.

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Here are some of the Milestones already achieved:

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SO WHY IS THIS STILL THE CASE?? The very reason is,there are problems whichneed to be solved in order toget the system up and runningto its best performance and capacity

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Elicited below are some of the common most problems: Problem 1 As mentioned earlier 50 people have been considered per toilet seat. But at places such toilet blocks cater to a very large amount of people hence overloading the existing drainage system. In a particular instance in the M/East Ward of Mumbai: A toilet block of 30 seats 15 seats for Men 15 seats for Women 310 Passes Issued Avg. 9 People per pass A whopping total of 2790 people

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Elicited below are some of the common most problems: May arise from Problem 1. At places where Municipal Street Sewers are available, toilet blocks have been attached to the Municipal Sewer. In a case at Malwani, Malad , it is found that the toilet block is right in between the slums and the drainage line from the toilet blocks passes through these hutments. Due to the very fact that these drains are overloaded and have inadequate water supply Municipal Sewer lines get choked up since they do not get a self-cleansing velocity or are not able to discharge completely, the inspection chambers located along these slums overflow and fill up these slums with raw sewage. People are forced to evacuate their huts or go without food for days. Problem 2 Limited toilets IC Drainage Street Sewer

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Elicited below are some of the common most problems: Majority (about 85%) of these toilet blocks use Septic Tanks, due to the unavailability of street sewers in the vicinity of these slums. By this, we do mean to imply that Septic Tanks do not work. In fact, septic tanks are a very good option in the absence of Municipal Street Sewers, but only to the condition that they are constructed in a proper manner & used per the guidelines laid down for them. Many slum dwellers either do not have complete knowledge or are totally ignorant to the fact that the septic tanks need to be cleaned once in a year or once in two years depending on the design criteria. At places, these septic tanks are used as collection tanks only, of course no septic tank can cater to such a large population and some CBOs end up paying the BMC or private tankers up to Rs.18,000 per month, considering average 28 visits, for clearing these tanks at Rs.650 fee per visit (official), that too only in places where the hose pipes can reach to evacuate these tanks. Problem 3

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Here are some of the solutions: Solution 1 Adequate number of toilets be constructed, keeping in mind the number of users intended for the same and the same be informed to the CBOs. Solution 2 Adequate water supply be provided at subsidized rates and drainages be designed to handle loads for such heavy population. Solution 3 Proper septic tanks be constructed and education be imparted to users as to how the maintenance is to be done and the duration at what these tanks need cleaning. Solution 4 Probably, one of the best solution, Sewage Treatment Plants also known as STPs. This option solves the inadequacy of water supply for flushing and also manages the sewage output. The only problem here is the running and maintenance of such a plant requires a technically sound person. Of course a few NGO’s could come forward and help with such a situation.

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Enters IPA, Mumbai Chapter: Indian Plumbing Association, Mumbai Chapter, even before its official installation, took up the initiative and is striving to offer these slums the best possible solutions. IPAMC has conducted extensive research and study with area-wise CBOs, has visited many of the places and offered feasible and viable alternatives. Because IPA, Mumbai Chapter believes Cleanliness begins at home Charity begins at home

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Enters IPA, Mumbai Chapter: IPA, Mumbai chapter has also gone a step ahead and stepped into these slums to conduct training sessions and offered knowledge to the head of the CBOs. Education is imparted on how to maintain septic tanks, the Dos and Don’ts, community sanitation, etc. Shown alongwith are some of the pictures of such a training session.

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The IPA, Mumbai chapter is also striving to get sewage treatment plants installed at some toilet blocks as pilot projects. The result, disposal of sewage would no longer be a pain and the outcome would be amplitude of water supply. Presently, IPAMC is putting in all its efforts to bring down a treatment plant installed at Okhla by ION Exchange and get it installed at a toilet block in Dharavi, Mumbai. Needles to mention, such major tasks cannot take place in the absence of financial backing. IPAMC has approached corporate companies for the kind of help required and also plans to approach other global organizations. Enters IPA, Mumbai Chapter:

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Thank You Though our presentation ends here, the commitment to aid 60% of “Aamchi Mumbai” does not. Let us endeavor to reach the pinnacle of progress.

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