biochemical changes in piper betle leaves under phytophthora pathogene

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Biochemical Changes in Penols of leaves of Piper betle after the infection of Phytophthora in different varieties.

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By: chilesatish (122 month(s) ago)

Dear Pankaj ji Laet me know your email id so that I shall be able to mail u my presentaion.Mine is "chilesatish@gmail.com"

By: pankajdeore (122 month(s) ago)

Dear sir, I am a scientist and incharge of Betel vine research station, Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Pl mail me your presentation of biochemical changes in piper betle leaves under phytophthora pathogene

Presentation Transcript

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements Author is indebted to Late Prof K.M. Vyas, former Head of department of Botany, Dr. H.S Gour University, Sagar under whose guidance the thesis work was done.

Slide 2:

Biochemistry of disease resistance in Piper betle leaves against Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica S.K. Chile Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Seoni (M.P.) India E mail: - chile_satish@rediffmail.com

Phytophthora is not a Fungal Genus:

Phytophthora is not a Fungal Genus Class Oomycetes and Hyphochytriomycetes have been done away from the kingdom Fungi. A new kingdom ‘Stramenopila’ has been inducted to accommodate Oomycetes and the related organism. Thus genus Phytophthora is no longer a fungal genus.

Why not Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina ?:

Genomic study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis have revealed the nonexistence of Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina and merger of its isolates in Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica Why not Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina ?

Slide 5:

Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica causes leaf rot and foot rot diseases on Piper betle (Pan). Different varieties of betel leaf showed differential susceptibility against some isolates of Betelvine Phytophthora . Madras variety was least , Calcutta and Sagar varieties were intermediate and Kapoori variety was most susceptible to the leaf rot pathogen Betelvine Phytophthora .

Slide 6:

Varietal screening of Piper betle leaves against isolates of Betelvine Phytophthora by using mycelial disc as inocula.

Slide 7:

A positive corelationship was found between the amounts of pre-existing free phenols and OD phenols and the relative susceptibility of leaves of different variety of Pan to Phytophthora rot. The more was the amount of these phenolics, the least was the susceptibility of leaves and the least the was amount of phenolics, the most was the susceptibility to the rot pathogen.

Slide 8:

Total free phenols free OD phenols in healthy betel leaves Of different varieties extracted in different solvents.

Slide 9:

Rots developed in different Variety of Pan Phenols and OD phenols in different Variety of Pan Comparison of the susceptibility of four variety of Pan and the amount pre-existing phenols present in their leaves.

Slide 10:

Betelvine contained phenolic compounds; Cavicol (p-allyl-phenol; 4-allyl-phenol) , Cavibetol (betel-phenol; 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyallylbenzene) , Carvacrol or Cymophenol (2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol), C6H3CH3(OH)(C3H7) , Eugenol (allylguaiacol; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-allylbenzene; 2-methoxy-4-allyl-phenol) , and Allilpyrocatechol (2,4-dihydroxy-allylbenzene) .

Slide 11:

Different isolates of Betelvine Phytophthora ( Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica ) showed varied degree of virulence . Isolate ‘S’ was least virulent and isolate ‘M’ was most virulent while isolate ‘J’ showed intermediate virulence in causing betel leaf rot.

Slide 12:

Calcutta Kapoori

Slide 13:

Isolate ‘S’ forms incompatible system with Madras variety and developed only necrotic lesion. While other two isolates with madras leaf and all the three isolates with leaves of Calcutta, Sagar and Kapoori varieties form compatible systems and developed typical symptoms of Phytophthora betel leaf rot.

Slide 14:

Incompatible reaction on Madras leaves with isolate ‘S’ of Betelvine Phytophthora Necrotic lesions

Slide 15:

Betel leaf rot caused by P. nicotianae var. parasitica Betel leaf rot typical symptoms with concentric rings

Madras variety Versus isolate ‘S’ and ‘M’ :

Madras variety Versus isolate ‘S’ and ‘M’ Madras variety with isolate ‘S’ showed early steep rise followed by steep decline in the level of free total and free OD phenols. At the later stage with this isolate the post infection decline was slower and the inherent level was still maintained (Compare with the control). Isolate ‘M’ in the early stage caused very little rise in the level of phenolics. In the later stage, however, the decline was faster and the level goes below the control.

Slide 17:

Post infection changes in free phenols in Madras variety challenged by two isolates ’S’ &’M’ of Betelvine Phytophthora Free total phenols Free OD phenols

Kapoori variety Versus isolate ‘S’ and ‘M’ :

Kapoori variety Versus isolate ‘S’ and ‘M’ Kapoori variety with isolate ‘S’ showed early little rise followed by fast decline in the level of free total and free OD phenols. At the later stage the post infection decline was slower but the level went below the control. Isolate ‘M’ from the early stage caused decrease in the level of phenolics which was faster and the final level went much below than control. OD phenols completely disappeared at later stages.

Slide 19:

Post infection changes in free phenols in Kapoori variety challenged by two isolates ’S’ &’M’ of Betelvine Phytophthora Free total phenols Free OD phenols

Glycoside bound total and OD phenolics :

Glycoside bound total and OD phenolics In general in all the four systems of host pathogen in early stages when the amount of free phenols increases, there was concomitant decrease in the level of glycoside bound phenols. In later stages when the level of free phenols went down, increase was noticed in the amount of glycoside bound phenols.

Slide 21:

Post infection changes in Glycoside bound phenols in Madras variety challenged by two isolates ’S’ &’M’ of Betelvine Phytophthora Glycoside bound total phenols Glycoside bound OD phenols

Slide 22:

Post infection changes in Glycoside bound phenols in Kapoori variety challenged by two isolates ’S’ &’M’ of Betelvine Phytophthora Glycoside bound total phenols Glycoside bound OD phenols

Free + Glycoside bound phenols :

Free + Glycoside bound phenols When the pattern of post infection change in the level of sum total free & glycoside bound phenols are compared with the control, it was found that in case of madras leaf isolate ‘S’ induced additional amount of accumulation of phenols. Also in Kapoori leaves with isolate ‘S’ additional quantity OD phenols was found accumulated.

Conclusions:

Conclusions Varietal susceptibility in P. betle leaves to Phytophthora rot is directly related to the amount of the pre-existing phenols. Isolates of Betelvine Phytophthora vary in the degree of their virulence which in turn depends on their abilities (a) to reduce the accumulation of phenols in early infection stage and (b) to bring down the level of phenols in the course of pathogenesis.

Conclusions:

Conclusions Accumulation of free phenols may be due to hydrolysis of phenolic glycosides, movement from healthy parts and synthesis of phenols. Decrease in phenols may be due to glycosidation, utilization/ degradation by the pathogen, oxidation by phenolases and peroxidases.

Conclusions:

Conclusions Post infection changes in phenolases, peroxidases, catalase, dehydrogenase, ascorbic acid oxidase and other endo-oxidase have been already reported by Chile and Vyas (1981, 1982, 1983, 1986) in the leaves of Madras and Kapoori varieties infected with isolate ‘S’ and ‘M’ of Betelvine Phytophthora .

Slide 31:

Thank you

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