Agrobacterium transformation

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Moving genes into plants Researchers have developed several different methods for transforming (moving new genes into) plants. They sometimes use biological, sometimes physical methods to cause the transformation. Two methods are described below. Converted from a video, copyright remains with the original creator.

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens The first reliable way researchers found to transform plants was to use a bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which naturally attacks plants at the junction between the root and shoot at the soil surface and causes the plant to form galls (tumors) on the crown. Agrobacterium causes these tumors by transferring a piece of DNA from the bacterium to the plant. This DNA is called the T-DNA, which stands for "transferred DNA." The T-DNA is part of a plasmid, or ring of DNA, in the bacterium. Researchers have manipulated the T-DNA to include pieces of DNA that they want to transfer into plants Moving genes into plants

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Moving genes into plants Remove the T-DNA genes that normally cause tumor production. Add a marker gene for kanamycin resistance to the T-DNA. Include any other gene or genes that you want to transfer. Remove tissue explants from the plant. Incubate the wounded plant tissue with Agrobacterium carrying the modified plasmid. Put infected tissue on agar growth medium that contains kanamycin. Transformed cells grow; transfer these to medium that allows shoots to develop. Put shoots on a medium that promotes root growth, so plants grow. Transfer plants from agar medium to soil. Steps for transforming plants with Agrobacterium

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