Flower Structure

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FLOWER STRUCTURE : 

FLOWER STRUCTURE Copyright of all the figures taken from net and other sources lie with the original developer/author

WHAT IS A FLOWER ? : 

2 WHAT IS A FLOWER ? A Flower is a functional unit concerned with reproduction. A flower can be pictured as a very short stem(the receptacle) which holds the components of the flower in sequence at the very tip of this stem, so they appear in the center of the flower.

FLOWER STRUCTURE:- : 

3 FLOWER STRUCTURE:- 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PART 2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PART 3. CALYX 4. COROLLA

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4

FEMALE RERODUCTIVE PART : 

5 FEMALE RERODUCTIVE PART STIGMA STYLE OVARY CARPEL:-one of the flower reproductive system comprising stigma, style and ovary. GYNOECIUM:- Collective term for all the female reproductive organs Of a flower comprising one or more free or fused carpels.

1. FEMALE PART : 

6 1. FEMALE PART Stigma – the receptive part of the female reproductive organs on which pollen germinates. Style – the elongated part of a carpel bearing the stigma, usually at its tip. Ovary – the hollow basal region of a carpel, containing one or more ovules. Ovules – the structures in the chamber of an ovary containing the egg cell, within the embryo sac. The ovule develops into the seed after fertilisation.

Male reproductive part : 

7 Male reproductive part Anthers Filament Stamen – the male reproductive organ of a flower consisting of an anther and filament. Androecium – collective term for all the male reproductive organs of a flower (stamens) comprising One or more free or fused stamen.

Male part : 

8 Male part Anther – usually bilobed. Contains the pollen. Filament – the stalk bearing the anther.

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9 FLORAL DIAGRAM

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PERIANTH:- The floral envelop usually divisible into an outer whorl(calyx) of sepals and inner whorl of petals(corolla). Petal – a non-reproductive (sterile) part of the flower, usually brightly coloured. Sepal – a floral leaf or individual segment of the calyx of a flower, generally green, which usually forms the outer protective layer in a bud. Receptacle – flat, concave or convex part of the stem from which all parts of the flower arise. Corolla – collective term for all the petals of a flower Calyx – collective term for all the sepals of a flower

Terms used in connection with description of flower:- : 

11 Terms used in connection with description of flower:- Pedicel : Stalk of an individual flower. Pedicellate : A flower having a pedicel(stalk). Sessile : A flower without a pedicel(stalk). Staminate : An unisexual flower with stamens. E.g:-pearlmillet , maize. Pistillate: An unisexual flower with carpels. E.g:-maize

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12 Ovary position in relation to perianth:- Hypogynous (superior ovary) Cranesbill (Geranium sylvaticum) GERANIACEAE Perigynous (around ovary) Cherry (Prunus avium) ROSACEAE Epigynous (inferior ovary) Fuschia (Fuschia species) ONAGRACEAE

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13 Flower symmetry Actinomorphic (radially symmetrical) Mallow (Althaea cannabina) MALVACEAE Zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical) Perennial pea (Lathyrus latifolia) FABACEAE

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14 Inflorescence –reproductive shoot bearing flowers Cyme Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) BORAGINACEAE Raceme Shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) BRASSICACEAE The lowest structures are seed capsules Umbel Fool’s parsley (Aethusa cynapium) APIACEAE Capitulum – flower head Sea aster (Aster tripolium) ASTERACEAE

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15 Variations Parts free/ fused Sepals, petals, anthers & carpels free Creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens) RANUNCULACEAE Sepals fused Petals free, carpels fused. Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris) CARYOPHYLLACEAE Petals fused Sepals free, carpels fused. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) ERICACEAE

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16 ** Perianth parts absent, reduced or indistinguishable Sepals lost when flowers open Poppy (Papaver species) PAPAVERACEAE Reduced petals Petals reduced to nectaries. Hellebore (Helleborus viridis) RANUNCULACEAE Petals and sepals identical (tepals) – Monocot plants Lily (Lilium species) LILIACEAE

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17 orchid Red clover Strawberry flower Some common flowers

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18 Lily flower Rush flower Daffodil flower

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19 Jojoba male inflorescence

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20 THANKS