BREEDING AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: angraunaresh (42 month(s) ago)

sir, i saw your presentation on biotic and abiotic stress its a wonderful presentation. sir, please allow to download so, i can also give presentation in college

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 2: 

“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change” Charls Darwin CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 3: 

STRESS Stress can be defined as an influence that is outside the normal range of homeostatic control (Lerner, 1999). Any strain or interference that disturbs the functioning of an organism (Encyclopedia Britannica) When some factors of the environment interferes with the complete expression of genotypic potential , it is called stress. (Singh B. D.) BIOTIC STRESS Stress due to pathogens, pests, weeds, etc.(living entity) ABIOTIC STRESS Stress due to moisture ,temperature(high/low),mineral (deficiency/toxicity), salinity, soil pH etc CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING DEFINATIONS

Slide 4: 

Abiotic stresses are the main factors that limit crop productivity. drought, salinity and heavy metals stresses caused yield losses annually to a greater extent (Nafees A. Khan & Sarvajeet Singh, 2008) Abiotic stresses account for Ca. 78% of yield losses. It is estimated that only 10% of world arable area is not subjected to an abiotic stress Annually about 42% of the crop productivity is lost owing to various abiotic stress factors (Oerke et.al., 1994) The progressive salinization of soil, estimated at around 20% of irrigated land (Ghassemi et al.,1995) IMPORTANCE OF ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC STRESSES CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 5: 

Drought 26 Mineral (toxicity/ deficiency) 20 Freezing 15 No stress 10 Abiotic stress fraction(%) of arable land CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 6: 

Plant breeders and geneticists have utilized natural variability for stress tolerance within germplasm One special advantage of genetic engineering is the ability to transform plants with genes from other species rather than up regulating an already existing plant stress response BREEDING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 7: 

CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 8: 

CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 9: 

CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 10: 

Plasmid pPM5 contained an EcoRI-HindIII fragment of 1.75 kb with the reinforced 35S promoter, the HAL1 ORF, and the nos terminator Carmina et al., 2000, plant physiology , 123: 393–402, CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 11: 

Saccharomyces genes HAL1 and HAL3, which are involved in the regulation of K1 and Na1 transport respectively Introduction of the yeast HAL1 gene (using a modified plasmid with enhancer elements) in tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum cv P-73) TG plant growth was evaluated by measuring rooting capacity, shoot height, number of leaves, and total fresh (FW) and dry (DW) weight of plants after 28 d on culture media with or without NaCl. Carmina et al., 2000, plant physiology , 123: 393–402, CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 12: 

Plasmid pBY520 with bar gene Xu et al., Plant Physiol. (1996) 11 O: 249-257 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 13: 

HVA7, is a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene, from barley (Hordium vulgare L.) This gene was introduced into rice suspension cells using the Biolistic-mediated transformation method Barley HVA 7 gene regulated by the rice actin 1 gene promoter led to high-level, constitutive accumulation of the HVAl protein in both leaves and roots of transgenic rice plants Xu et al., Plant Physiol. (1996) 11 O: 249-257 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 14: 

Identification of a leucine-rich repeat RLKgene, Srlk(Salt-induced Receptor-Like Kinase) from the legume Medicago truncatula Srlk Is rapidly induced by salt stress in roots RNAinterference (RNAi) assays specifically targeting Srlk yielded transgenic roots whose growth was less inhibited by the presence of salt in the medium They propose a role for Srlk in the regulation of the adaptation of M. truncatula roots to salt stress Lorenzo et al., 2009, The Plant Cell, 21: 668–680 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 15: 

Over expression of stress responsive gene SNAC1 (STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC 1) significantly enhances drought resistance in transgenic rice In the field under severe drought stress conditions at the reproductive stage The transgenic rice also shows significantly improved drought resistance and salt tolerance at the vegetative stage Compared with WT, the transgenic rice are more sensitive to abscisic acid and lose water more slowly by closing more stomatal pores, yet display no significant difference in the rate of photosynthesis Hu et al., 2006, PNAS, 103(35):12987–12992 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 16: 

Introduced Arabidopsis thaliana hsp101 (Athsp101) cDNA into the Pusa basmati 1 cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Agrobacterium mediated transformation Diagrammatic representation of pUH-Athsp101 construct employed for rice transformation. Katiyar-Agarwal et al., (2003) Pt .Mol. Biol. 51: 677–686 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 17: 

Comparison of survival of transgenic lines after exposure to different levels of high-temperature stress with the untransformed control plants (a)45 ◦C for 3 h and then were placed at 28 ◦C The optimum temperature for rice growth throughout its life cycle is 25–31 ◦C Katiyar-Agarwal et al., (2003) Pt .Mol. Biol. 51: 677–686 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 18: 

Glycine betaine is an osmoprotectant that plays an important role and accumulates rapidly in many plants during salinity or drought stress Choline monooxygenase (CMO) is a major catalyst in the synthesis of glycine betaine. Zhang et al., 2009, Mol Breeding, 23:289–298 CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 19: 

HAIRINESS - Hairiness in many plants provide jassid resistance . ex cotton COLOUR - Colour also contributes to non preference in some cases. ex red cabbage less favoured than green by lepidopterian pests for oviposition. 1,MORPHOLOGICAL FACTORS INSECT RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 20: 

SOLIDITY - Solid stem stem confers resistance to saw fly in wheat. TOUGHNESS OF TISSUES –Thickness of leaf lamina in cotton contributes to jassid resistance. OTHER – Tree cotton having narrow lobes and leathery leaves are more tolerant to jassid. Long pedicil cotton varieties are more resistance to bollworm. CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

2, BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS : 

2, BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS High silica content in rice provide resistance to stem borer, by wearing of the mendibular mouth parts of the insect. High conc. Of benzyl alcohol in wheat and barley provide resistance to green bugs. Gossypol content in cotton is associated with bollworm resistance. DIMBOA content in maize is associated with resistance towards European corn borer. Ethanol content in leaves of tomato gives resistance towards tomato fruit worm and tobacco flea beetle. CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

3, PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS : 

3, PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS Osmotic concentration of cell sap and leaf exudates are also associated with insect resistance. Aphids and Colorado beetles get trapped in gummy exudates and are unable to feed and reproduce. Several Solanum species and tobacco secrete exudates from grandular leaf hairs which are toxic to various insect and mite pests. In Medicago desciformis the secondary tricomes on the leaves secrete antibiotic exudates, which kills alfa-alfa weevil at higher concentration. CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 23: 

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH The cry gene of B.thuringiensis produces a protein, which forms crystalline inclusions in the bacterial spores. This crystal proteins are responsible for the insecticidal activity of the bacterial strains. CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 24: 

MICELLANEOUS EXAMLES OF INSECT RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 25: 

MODE OF ACTION OF CRY PROTIENS CRYSTAL PROTIEN SOLUBILIZED CRY PROTIENS PROTOXIN INSECT MIDGUT Ph 12 PROTIIOLYTIC PROCESSING ACTIVE TOXIN CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 26: 

PATHOGEN HOST ENVIRONMENT DISEASE DEVELOPMENT CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 27: 

Generally resistance in plants is developed by Hypersensivity response. Hypersensivity response is generally common in case of biotrophic organism. Certain mechanical and/or anatomical features of the host may prevents infection by the spores of ovary infecting fungi. DISEASE RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 28: 

28 HC Ba Effector protein Type III secretion Resistance protein Ba = Bacterium HC = Host Cell THE HYPER SENSIVITY RESPONSE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 29: 

29 Host cell recognizes the bacterium and initiates programmed cell death to restrict the growth of the pathogen, which thus does not cause disease. Avirulent pathogen HR lesions Resistant plant Incompatible interaction, no disease HYPERSNSIVITY RESPONSE

Slide 30: 

30 HYPERSNSIVITY RESPONSE

Slide 31: 

31 Disease symptoms Susceptible plant Virulent pathogen Compatible interaction, disease HYPERSENSIVITY RESPONSE

Model of bacterial resistance in plants : 

32 Model of bacterial resistance in plants Kim et al. 2008 Mol Cells 25: 323

Slide 33: 

Genetic resistance refers to those heritable features of a host plant that suppress or retard development of a pathogen. It is governed by nuclear or cytoplasmic genes or both. There are two types of genetic resistance- 1.Horizontal resistance 2.Vertical resistance GENETIC RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 34: 

VERTICAL RESISTANCE- Specific resistance of a host to the particular race of pathogen is known as vertical resistance. This type of resistance is governed by one or few genes.(oligogenic resistance) It has high heritability and can be easily identified in the breeding programmes. It is usually short live or less durable .The resistance can easily break down when new race of pathogen is formed. VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 35: 

The host plant provides resistance from all the prevailing races of a pathogen. This type of resistance is governed by a number of genes.(poligenic resistance) It has low heritability and therefore identified of resistance types is difficult in the breeding programmes. The resistance cannot be easily overcome by new races of a pathogen due to polygenic control. HORIZONTAL RESISTANCE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 36: 

Ordinary host pathogen shows a gene for gene relationship. Thus for every gene for resistance possesesd by the host, the pathogen has a corresponding gene for virulense. Disease development depends on the specific interaction between the products of genes. The gene for gene relationship may be classified into the following two general groups- (1)Incompatible reaction (2)Compatible reaction RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL DISEASES CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 37: 

This type of gene for gene relationship is found in biotrophic pathogens. (obligate pathogens) ,e.g. rusts, smuts, etc. The alleles for resistance in host (R) and those for avirulence in the pathogen(A) produces specific compounds, which recognise each other ; when these specific compounds interact , they produce resistance response in the host. The alleles for suseptibility (r) in the host as well as those for virulense (a) in the pathogen either produces the compounds in the modified state or do not produce them at all. INCOMPATIBLE REACTION CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 38: 

This type of gene for gene relationship is found in heterotrophic pathogens .(facultative parasites),e.g. Helminthosporium leaf blight of sugarcane , maize etc.Victoria blight of oat etc In this system the allele for susceptibility (r) in the host and those for avirulense (a) in the pathogen produces specific compounds, which interacts with each other to produce the specific response. A lack of interaction between the products of r and a genes specifies resistance response to the host. COMPATIBLE REACTION CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 39: 

RESISTANCE Incompatibilty compatibility GENE A1 a1 A1 a1 R 1 R S R R r 1 S S R S TYPES OF GENE FOR GENE RELATIONSHIP IN HOST PATHOGEN INTERACTION CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 40: 

VIRUS RESISTANCE Several approaches have been used to engineer plants for virus resistance, which are as follows – 1.Virus coat protein gene 2. cDNA of satellite RNA 3.Defective viral genome 4.Antisense RNA approach 5.Ribozyme mediated protection CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 41: 

Transgenic plants having virus coat protein gene linked to a strong promoter have been produced in many crop plants e.g., tobacco, tomato, alfa-alfa, sugarbeet, potato, etc. The first transgenic plant of this type was tobacco produced in 1986; it contained the coat protein gene TMV strain U1. VIRUS COAT PROTIEN GENE CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 42: 

Some RNA viruses have small RNA molecules, called satellites, which depends upon viral genome for their replication , but not necessary for viral function. The cDNA copies of satellites eithere increase or decrease the severity of disease produced by the virus carrying it. cDNA OF SATELLITE RNA CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 43: 

Disruptive or deleted genomes of some RNA & DNA viruses disrupt the replication of complete genome of those viruses with which they are associated. For example, African cassave mosaic virus(ACMV) genome consist of two ssDNA molecules designated as A- & B-DNAs. Tobacco plants containing the deleted B-DNA integrated in their genomes showed reduced spread when they were infected with ACMV. DEFECTIVE VIRAL GENOMES CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 44: 

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing antisense RNA of the CMV coat protein gene showed reduced virus accumulation and prevention of systemic spread at low concentration of CMV inoculum. Ribozymes are the RNA molecule that exhibits enzyme activity. Ribozymes may be useful in producing resistance to several viruses. ANTISENSE RNA APPROACH RIBOZYME MEDIATED PROTECTION CCS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,DEPT. OF PLANT BREEDING

Slide 45: 

THANKS