Breeding Wheat

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Breeding of wheat : 

Breeding of wheat

introduction : 

introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the world’s leading cereal crops. Asia minor is the centre of origin of 9 species of wheat. Wheat, rice, maize contribute upto 3/4th of world’s grain production. Total area under cultivation of wheat is 212m ha. & India contribute 27m ha. 576m tonnes is the total production of wheat in the world & India shares about 74.2m tonnes in this. Wheat is a C3 plant. Its most important characteristic feature is its glutenaceous nature.

Slide 3: 

Major cultivation areas across the globe

taxonomy : 

taxonomy Division : Spermatophyta Sub-division : Angiospermae Class : Monocotyledonae Series : Glumaceae Family : Gramineae Genus : Triticum Species : aestivum

Floral Biology : 

Floral Biology The inflorescense of wheat is called Ear or Head. In botanical terms it is called as Spike. The unit is called Spikelet. Each floret consist of a lemma, a palea, androecium & gynoecium. Flowers are Bisexual & Zygomorphic. Each floret has three stamens with large anthers & a pistil bearing bifid feathery stigma. Wheat stamens are small & produce about 1,000-4,000 pollen grains per anther.

Slide 6: 

Wheat pollen is shed in 3-celled condition. The carpel is unilocular & has one ovule. There are 2 lodicules present at the base of ovary. swelling of lodicule leads to flower opening & anthesis. Fruit is of Caryopsis type.

Breeding Objectives : 

Breeding Objectives Yield potential Yield stability Maturity Lodging resistance Winter hardiness Drought resistance Aluminum tolerance Disease resistance Insect resistance Grain quality

Breeding Methods : 

Breeding Methods

Introduction and collection of germplasm : 

Introduction and collection of germplasm It consist of taking a genotype or a group of genotypes of plants into new environments where they were not being grown before. Germplasm collection is the collection of a large number of genotypes of a crop species and its wild relatives. It is also known as Gene Bank. For ex:- Institute Of Plant Industry, Leningard.

Pureline Selection : 

Pureline Selection It was given by Johannsen in 1903. A pureline is the progeny of a single, homozygous, self pollinated plant. In pureline selection a large number of plants are selected from a self pollinated crop & are harvested individually; individual plant progenies from them are evaluated & the best progeny is released as pureline variety. Characteristics of purelines : All the plants within a pureline have the same genotype as the plant from which the pureline was derived. The variation within a pureline is environmental & non heritable. Purelines become genetically variable with time.

Slide 11: 

Applications of pureline selection : Improvement of local varieties. Pureline selection in introduced varieties. Improvement of old pureline varieties. Selection for a new characteristic in a pureline. Selection in the segregating generations from crosses.

Slide 12: 

1st year Desi or old variety 2nd year Individual plant progenies 3rd year Preliminary yield trial 4th-7th year Multilocation yield trial 8th year Seed multiplication PURELINE SELECTION 200-3000 plants are selected on the basis of their phenotype Individual plant progenies are grown. Undesirable progenies are rejected. Remaining progenies are planted in a preliminary yield trial. Inferior progenies are rejected. Replicated yield trials are conducted at several locations. Inferior progenies are rejected. Disease resistance & quality tests are done. Best progeny is released as a new var. Seed is multiplied for distribution.

Advantages : 

Advantages Pureline selection achieves the maximum possible improvement over the original variety.This is because the variety is the best pureline present in the population. Pureline varieties are extremely uniform since all the plants in the variety have the same genotype and it is more liked by the farmers. Due to its extreme uniformity, the variety is easily identified in seed certification programmes.

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages The varities generally do not have wide adaptation & stability in production. Procedure requires more time, space and more expensive yield trials than mass selection. The upper limit on improvement is set by the genetic variation present in the original population

Slide 15: 

In it cytoplasmic male-sterility & fertility-restorer genes is used. A-line is maintained by pollination from the B-line,which is generally identical but is in normal cytoplasm. The hybrid seed is produced by pollinating the A-line from the R-line. The R-line has dominant fertility-restorer genes & combines with the A-line to produce a high yielding hybrid. Procedure for Hybrid Wheat

Important Wheat Cultivars : 

Important Wheat Cultivars

Hybridization : 

Hybridization The mating or crossing of two plants or lines of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. The seeds as well as the progeny resulting from the hybridization are known as hybrid. The chief objective is to create genetic variation.

Mutation Breeding : 

Mutation Breeding Mutation breeding is the use of mutagenic agents to increase the frequency of mutant plants useful in the breeding of improved varities. NP 836,Sharbati Sonara, Pusa lerma are developed through mutation.

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