Synthetic Seeds

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: abhinav0619 (30 month(s) ago)

plz sir send it to me

By: dasmeera (36 month(s) ago)

Very good presentation. Can I have the link

By: nawroz2008 (42 month(s) ago)

very good but how i obtain these slides?

By: diorde (42 month(s) ago)

excellent pressentation

By: petopart (42 month(s) ago)

very good work

Presentation Transcript

Synthetic Seeds: A New Conception in Seed Biotechnology : 

Synthetic Seeds: A New Conception in Seed Biotechnology A.K. Chhabra, Professor, Plant Breeding

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production Plant Seeds What is it? A plant seed consists of an embryo and its food store (endosperm), surrounded by a seed coat (testa). The seed ensures that the next generation of plants exists.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production The embryo The embryo is made up of one or two cotyledons attached to a central axis. The upper part of the axis contains a plumule at its tip. The plumule grows into the shoot system. The lower part of the axis consists of the hypocotyl and a radicle. The radicle grows into the root system.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production The endosperm The endosperm is the food reserve that the embryo uses during the early stages of germination. Before the embryo is able to produce its own food through photosynthesis, the endosperm provides vital nutrients to the embryo.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production The testa The testa protects the embryo from injury and drying out. It also makes sure that the embryo remains viable before germination. As germination occurs, water is absorbed and the seed coat breaks allowing the radicle to first emerge from the seed.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production Artificial Seeds Concept Artificial seeds were first introduced in the 1970s as a novel analogue to the plant seeds. The production of artificial seeds is especially useful for plants which do not produce viable seeds. It represents a method to propagate these plants. Artificial seeds are small sized and this provides further advantages in storage, handling, shipping and planting.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production What makes an artificial seed? Artificial seeds can be produced by encapsulating a plant propagule in a matrix which will allow it to grow into a plant. Plant propagules may consist of shoot buds or somatic embryos that have been grown aseptically in tissue culture. In culture, these plant propagules can easily grow into individual plants as we have the capacity to control its growth using chemicals provided in the culture media.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production What makes an artificial seed? In the production of artificial seeds, an artificial endosperm can be created within the encapsulation matrix. The encapsulation matrix is a hydrogel made of natural extracts from seaweed (agar, carageenan or alginate), plants (arabic or tragacanth), seed gums (guar, locust bean gum or tamarind) or microrganisms (dextran, gellan or xanthan gum.). These compounds will gel when mixed with or dropped into an appropriate electrolyte (copper sulphate, calcium chloride or ammonium chloride). Ionic bonds are formed to produce stable complexes. Useful adjuvants such as nutrients, plant growth regulators, pesticide and fungicide can be supplied to the plant propagule within the encapsulation matrix. In most cases, a second coat covering the artificial endosperm is required to simulate the seed coat..

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production Advantages of artificial seeds Artificial seeds have the potential for providing an inexpensive plant delivery system. The process of planting can be easily mechanised and this allows the direct delivery of tissue cultured plant propagules to the field. It also provides rapid bulking up for the production of individual genetically engineered plants.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production How are artificial seeds made? Shoot buds cut from shoot cultures can be used for artificial seed production. They are cut to 2-3mm in size and placed in the encapsulation matrix. Somatic embryos formed from cultured plant parts are ideal for artificial seed production. Using a sterile 10ml pipette, the shoot bud / somatic embryo is drawn up with some encapsulation matrix.

Artificial Plant Seed Production : 

Artificial Plant Seed Production How are artificial seeds made? The shoot bud or somatic embryo is dropped into the complexation solution and a capsule is formed and allowed to harden. Capsule hardness can be controlled by the concentration of the complexation solution and the complexation time. Size of the capsule is determined by the size of the shoot bud or somatic embryo and the inner diameter of the pipette used. The capsules or artificial seeds are collected by decanting off the complexation solution and rinsed in water. The artificial seeds should be pliable enough to cushion and protect the embryo, yet allow germination and growth of the shoot bud or somatic embryo. It should be rigid enough to withstand rough handling during manufacture, transportation and planting. For the artificial seeds to remain dormant until planting, a thin layer of water-soluble resin is used to coat the encapsulation matrix.

Micropropagation : 

Micropropagation Micropropagation is an area of plant tissue culture which has received maximum attention of researchers for its potential commercial applications. Basic steps of micropropagation

Micropropagation : 

Micropropagation The regeneration of plants through the techniques of plant tissue culture and their subsequent acclimatization and delivery to the field poses many problems to make tissue culture technology a viable alternative proposition. Hardening / Acclimatization to Field Conditions

Micropropagation : 

Micropropagation The successful demonstration of encapsulation of tissue culture derived propagules in a nutrient gel has initiated a new line of research on synthetic seeds.

Micropropagation : 

Micropropagation The successful demonstration of encapsulation of tissue culture derived propagules in a nutrient gel has initiated a new line of research on synthetic seeds.

Advantages : 

Advantages Economy in space, medium inputs, better cost-benefit ratio. — Potential delivery system. — Alternative to high-cost vegetative propagation technologies. — Direct sowing is possible with the seed sized propagules, thus eliminating the acclimatisation step normally required in transplanting of mericlones. — Uniformity in production is possible because somatic embroys are genetically identical; by contrast zygotic embryos contain unpredictable mixture of parental genes. Because of relative ease of producing large number of artificial seeds, they can be used in monocultures as well as mixed genotype methods of commercial planting. The essential advantages of artificial seeds are:

Sodium Alginate : 

Sodium Alginate Synthetic food: sodium alginate is the main material of seaweed, synthetic grape and synthetic cherry Iced food: sodium alginate is taken as a stabilizer of ice cream due to its dense organization and slow solution speed. Cake food: as a stabilizer of cake, cookies, bread, fine dried noodle, and chocolates, sodium alginate can keep sweet scent for cookies and avoid falling into pieces. It makes noodle smooth and reduces breaking ratio of noodles and fragmentation of bread. Sodium alginate is also a good thickener of jam, chili sauce, jelly, tomato ketchup, fishpaste, pudding and salad flavorin Sodium alginate is widely used in the food industry. Applications: 1) Synthetic food: sodium alginate is the main material of seaweed, synthetic grape and synthetic cherry 2) Iced food: sodium alginate is taken as a stabilizer of ice cream due to its dense organization and slow solution speed. It is also the main material of dainty cold powder and jelly 3) Cake food: as a stabilizer of cake, cookies, bread, fine dried noodle, and chocolates, sodium alginate can keep sweet scent for cookies and avoid falling into pieces. It makes noodle smooth and reduces breaking ratio of noodles and fragmentation of bread. Sodium alginate is also a good thickener of jam, chili sauce, jelly, tomato ketchup, fishpaste, pudding and salad flavoring 4) Drinking: sodium alginate can act as the stabilizer of beer and clarifier of wine 5) Cold storage and fresh keeping: when fruits, fish and other foods are covered with the film of sodium alginate to be kept isolated from air, the film will stop bacteria from invading, constraint water evaporation of food itself and prolong time of preservation

Synthetic Seed Vs. Natural Seed : 

Synthetic Seed Vs. Natural Seed Synthetic Seed Natural Seed Callus explants Embryoids Encapsulated in sodium alginate