SELFING AND CROSSING TECHNIQUES

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Emasculation and Pollination Techniques A.K. Chhabra Department of Plant Breeding CCSHAU, Hisar DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Flower Pollination and Fertilization DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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FLOWER DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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world's biggest flower – called Rafflesia, which grows to three feet in diameter and a weight of 24 pounds. Unfortunately it is blooming only 5 to 7 days (MALAYSIA) DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Rafflesia DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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It flowers very rarely and it first did so in 1889. The giant plant emits a sickening smell and this attracts insects to pollinate it. It is said that when the flower first bloomed in London, people fainted because of the smell. DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Titan Arum (Amorphophallus titanum) DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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SMALLEST FLOWERT HELOSIS DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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The exact procedures used to ensure self or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on: the floral structure manner of pollination. It is important that the breeder, master these techniques in order to manipulate the pollination according to his needs. DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Wind-pollinated plants Animal pollination Insect pollination Vertebrate pollination DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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eighty percent of the approximately 1,400 seed plants grown around the world require pollination by animals like the hummingbird DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Declining Pollinators Are Risking Plant Extinction DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Pollination, Sunbird DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Pollinating clusters - pollen is applied using a clean brush DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Pepper Flower DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Cross Section of a Pepper Flower        Insects like this Hoverfly are helping Pollination DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Orchard at anthesis Field crop at full bloom DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Harvesting seeds presents a problem. The fruits of euphorbias are hard, woody capsules, made up of three segments, each containing a relatively large seed. When the capsule ripens, it explodes and scatters the seeds over amazing distances. A tried and tested method is to put a cotton pad around the ripening capsule and so prevent the seed from flying away. Nylon stockings can be used in the same way. In the case of particularly valuable seed, the whole plant can be enclosed in thin gauze or nylon. Pollination of Euphorbia bupleurifolia

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A convenient and safer method to save the seed is to apply a thin layer of glue to the already ripened capsules to prevent them bursting open. Fully dried capsules can sometimes be collected whole and opened carefully from the base. DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Euphorbia and Monadenium seed DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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SP Crops No bagging required CP Crops bagging required Some crops In crops like cotton which have larger flowers the petals may fold down the sexual organs and fasten, there by pollen and pollen carrying insects may be excluded.. Selfing Seed set is frequently reduced in ear heads enclosed in bags because of excessive temperature and humidity inside the bags. wheat, rice, barely, groundnut

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In certain legumes which are almost insect pollinated, the plants may be caged to prevent the insect pollination. Selfing DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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In Brassica, selfed plants are tied together to prevent lodging Selfing DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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The removal of stamens or anther before they burst and shed their pollens or the killing of pollen grains of a flower without affecting the female reproductive organs is known as 'emasculation'. Emasculation DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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In bisexual flowers, emasculation is essential to prevent self-pollination. In monoecious plants male flowers are removed. (castor, coconut) or male inflorescence is removed (maize). In species with large flowers e.g. (cotton, pulses) hand emasculation is accurate and it is adequate. Emasculation castor castor maize

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M aize Floral Biology © A.K. Chhabra It has a determinate growth habit and the shoots terminate in inflorescences bearing staminate or pistilate flowers Tassel Cob Tassel Cob

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M aize Floral Biology © A.K. Chhabra Maize plants shed pollen for up to 14 days Anther dehiscence In tassels

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M aize Floral Biology © A.K. Chhabra Styles may reach a length of 30 cm, the longest known in the plant kingdom. Style (unfolded) Cob

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Castor DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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Castor Maize Cotton Emasculation

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Emasculation is not needed at all in unisexual Emasculation Bajra, Maize, Castor, Papaya etc.

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The efficiency of an emasculation technique may be tested by bagging the emasculated flowers without pollination. The amount of seed thus set would indicate the frequency of chance self pollination during emasculation. Emasculation

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Various Stages of Spike Development & Anthesis in Pearl millet Panicle emergence Protogyny First flush of anthesis Second flush of anthesis Third flush of anthesis Stigma Emergence Anther Dehiscence from staminate florets Anther Dehiscence from perfect florets Boot leaf stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Anthesis completed & grain formation started

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Generally, emasculation is done in the evening i.e. between 4 and 6 p.m., one day before the anthers are expected to dehisce or mature and stigma is likely to become fully receptive. Thus those flowers should be selected for emasculation that are likely to open the next morning. Time of emasculation

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Hand emasculation or forceps or scissor method Suction method Hot water emasculation Alcohol treatment Cold treatment Chemical method Genetic emasculation or male sterility method Methods of emasculation

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The method suitable for a particular species is determined by the following factors: a) The size of its flowers Cotton, gram, brassica etc. b) The amount of seed needed Variety seed for farmer, seed for experiment c) The number of seeds set per fruit Mungbean, wheat, gram etc d) The purpose for which the hybrid seed required Varietal release, experiment Methods of emasculation

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In this method, the corolla of the selected flowers is opened and the anthers are carefully removed with the help of fine tip forceps. Hand emasculation or forceps or scissor method

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(a) Pocket lens (b) Forceps (c) Needle (d) Scissor (e) Scalpel (f) Camel's hair brush (g) Bag (h) Label and tag (i) U-clip (j) Pencil The common tools being used in this method are:

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Flower should be larger in size Flowers which is to be emasculated should be in small quantities This is the best method, where accurate genetic studies are done because with other methods there may be some self-pollination. Conditions for hand emasculation:

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1) The crop species in which the androecium is epipetalous, in this case corolla is totally removed along with the epipetalous stamens, e.g. Cotton, Jute, Brinjal, Sweet potato, Tomato, Potato, Bhindi (Okra) etc. Special cases under hand emasculation:

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2) In cereals, one-third of the empty glumes may be clipped off with scissors to expose the anthers. In wheat and oats, only two large florets per spikelet are left; the other florets are removed. Special cases under hand emasculation:

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Emasculation in sweet peas:

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Pollination in sweet peas:

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Suction method In this method, the petals are generally removed with forceps exposing the anthers and the stigma. A thin rubber of glass tube attached to a suction base is used to suck the anthers from the flower. The tube is also passed over the stigma to suck any pollen grains present on their surface. The suction may be produced by an aspirator attached to a water tap or by a small suction pump. The amount of suction should as much that it sucks the stamens and pollen grains but not the gynoecium of flower.

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This method is useful in species having small sized flower. Condition of suction method

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are Hot or cold water or alcohol treatment Principle: Pollen grains are more sensitive than the female reproductive organ i.e. gynoecium to both genetic and environmental factors. The microsporophyte in the pollen-sac being less protected by the anther walls than the megasporophytes by the wall of ovary and the protective layer of the ovule.

Hot or cold water or alcohol treatment : 

Hot water treatment is given before anther dehisce and prior to the opening of flowers. In hot water treatment, the emasculation is done by dipping the panicles in hot water having a desired temperature for a definite period. In actual practice a thermal jug is filled with water having the desired temp. (450±530C) and taken into the field. The flowers or panicles to be emasculated are immersed in the jug for a particular time (1 to 10 min.) varying from species to species. Hot or cold water or alcohol treatment

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In the case of hot water treatment, the temperature of water and the duration of treatment vary from crop to crop and must be determined for every species. Examples: i) For jowar (Sorghum), treatment with water at 42- 480C for 10 min is suitable. ii) For rice, treatment with water at 40 - 440C for 10 min. is sufficient.

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In this method the inflorescence for flower is immersed in alcohol of a suitable concentration for a short period and followed by rinsing it with water. In this treatment, the duration of treatment is important. Even a slightly prolonged period of treatment more than the recommended, would greatly reduce seed set, because the female reproductive organs would also be killed by a longer treatment. So it is not commonly used method but it is a better method of emasculation than the suction method. Example: In sweet clover, immersion of inflorescence in 57% alcohol for 10 sec. is highly effective. Alcohol treatment

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In cold water treatment cold water kills pollen grains without damaging gynoecium. Cold treatment is less effective than hot water treatment. The amount of self-pollination is generally greater in cold treatment than in the case of hot water treatment. Example: i) In rice, treatment with cold water at 0-60C kills pollen grains without affecting gynoecium. ii) In wheat, keeping whole inflorescence at 0- 20C for 15-24 hours kills the pollen grains. Cold treatment

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There are many chemicals available which selectively kill or retard the development of pollen grains, known as gametocides. These are basically auxins/antiauxins, halogenated aliphatic acids, gibbrellins, ethephon, arsenicals and certain complex and patented compounds. Chemical method

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i) Ethrel a growth hormone has been successfully used in wheat, triticales and barley. The doses of chemical vary for different crops. Examples:

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The spray application of sodium 2, 3 dichloroirobutyrate (DCIB) causes male sterility after two weeks in care of cotton. Examples:

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The spray application of sodium 2, 3 dichloroirobutyrate (DCIB) causes male sterility after two weeks in care of cotton. Examples:

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iii) In sunflower, the spraying of 2mg gibberellic acid (GA) in 50 ml of water 10 days before head initiation followed by a spraying of 0.5 mg of G.A. in 50 ml of water 10 days after the first spraying results in the inactivation of anthers. The pollen grains can be directly rubbed on the stigma of the resultant male sterile flowers to effect pollination. Examples:

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Generally, the meiotic stage (reduction division) of the pollen mother cell is the best time for CHA application. Time of spraying gametocides:

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Many species are self incompatible. In such cases, emasculation is not necessary because self-fertilization will not take place. In barley, sorghum, onion and bajra the emasculation operation may be eliminated by the use of male-sterile plants which have sterile anther and do not produce any viable pollens Genetic emasculation

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Immediately after emasculation the flower or inflorescence is enclosed with suitable bags of appropriate size to prevent random cross-pollination. The pollen grains collected from a desired male parent should be transferred to the emasculated flower. This is normally done in the morning hours during anthesis. The flowers are bagged immediately after artificial crossing. Bagging

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The flowers are tagged just after bagging. They are attached to the inflorescence or to the flower with the help of a thread. The male parent name, date of pollination, etc. may be recorded on the tag with lead pencil. Tagging

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ROPE PULLING METHOD IN RICE

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LATERN METHOD IN SUGARCANE

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FACTS ABOUT FLOWERS

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