Objectives and role of plant breeding

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Slide 1: 

Some basic concepts Plant Breeding of

Slide 2: 

Some basic concepts of Plant Breeding Parents Hybrid Backcross F2, F3, F4, ………………………………………, Fn generations Inbreeding, inbred lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) Double haploids Consequences of selfing in: Cross-pollinated crops Self-pollinated crops P1 X P2 (always homozygous) F1 x P1/P2 (Backcross) F2 F3 Fn selfing selfing selfing Homozygosity increases At the cost of decrease in heterozygosity

Slide 3: 

Some basic concepts of Plant Breeding Parents Hybrid Backcross F2, F3, F4, ………………………………………, Fn generations Inbreeding, inbred lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) Double haploids Consequences of selfing in: Cross-pollinated crops Self-pollinated crops Cross Pollinated Crops Heterozygous Plant Homozygosity increases after each generation of selfing Vigour decreases after each generation of selfing Continuous selfings

Slide 4: 

Some basic concepts of Plant Breeding Parents Hybrid Backcross F2, F3, F4, ………………………………………, Fn generations Inbreeding, inbred lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) Double haploids Consequences of selfing in: Cross-pollinated crops Self-pollinated crops Near-isogenic Lines F1 Tall Dwarf NILs Continuous selfings for 9-12 generations and selection of tall and dwarf in the same genetic background T D T D T D T D SO ON……………………

Slide 5: 

Some basic concepts of Plant Breeding Parents Hybrid Backcross F2, F3, F4, ………………………………………, Fn generations Inbreeding, inbred lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) Double haploids Consequences of selfing in: Cross-pollinated crops Self-pollinated crops RILs F1 F2 Each F2 is a different genotype and is heterozygous (except the parental types) Go on selfing each plant generation after generation-9-12 generations Each line is homozygous and homogeneous but tremendous variability is among the lines

Slide 6: 

Some basic concepts of Plant Breeding Parents Hybrid Backcross F2, F3, F4, ………………………………………, Fn generations Inbreeding, inbred lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) Double haploids Consequences of selfing in: Cross-pollinated crops Self-pollinated crops DH F1 2n Anther culture n n n n 2n 2n 2n 2n n Colchicine treatment 2n DOUBLE HAPLOID

Objectives and role of plant breeding : 

Objectives and role of plant breeding A.K. CHHABRA

ORIGIN : 

ORIGIN PB originated with human civilization. (left) Breaking the ground with plough and hoe.(centre) Reaping. Scattering the seed.(right) Separating the grain from the chaff.

PLANT BREEDING IS: : 

PLANT BREEDING IS: ART Imagination Skill creativity SCIENCE Systematic knowledge Genetic principles Hybridization Selection Evaluation Release etc.

Field of Plant Breeding : 

Field of Plant Breeding May be divided into three main parts: Germplasm Breeding Techniques General techniques Special Techniques Seed Production Techniques Collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation and utilization of cultivated and wild species

Branches Of Plant Breeding : 

Branches Of Plant Breeding Agricultural Plant Breeding Horticultural Plant Breeding Tree Breeding Medicinal Plant Breeding Stress Breeding Quality Breeding Mutation Breeding Polyploidy Breeding Physiological Plant Breeding Introgressive Plant Breeding Transgenic Breeding Molecular Breeding Maintenance Breeding Plant Genetic Resources

Objectives of Plant Breeding : 

Objectives of Plant Breeding Higher Yield Improved Quality Biotic Resistance Abiotic resistance Earliness Photo and Thermosensitivity Synchronous maturity Desirable Agronomic Traits Removal of toxic components Wider adaptability Some other characters Boll bursting in cotton Dormancy Pod shattering in pulses etc.

Involvement of other disciplines : 

Morphology and taxonomy Plant Physiology Plant Pathology Entomology Agronomy Soil Science Biochemistry Agricultural Engineering Statistics and Biochemistry Computer Plant Biotechnology Involvement of other disciplines

Achievements : 

Achievements Golden rice

Achievements : 

Achievements Bt Cotton

Achievements : 

Achievements Golden pearlmillet An exciting finding has revealed that some of ICRISAT’s pearl millet genotypes with yellow endosperm (left) appear to have beta-carotene levels comparable to those of "Golden Rice".

Achievements : 

Achievements HHB 67 Downy mildew resistant Extra early maturity Drought resistant High yield Fits well in inter-cropping and multiple-cropping systems

Slide 18: 

Research Germplasm Registered Germplasm registered with INGR No. 19 Barley: 2, Raya: 1, Groundnut: 1, Sunhamp: 1, Castor: 1, Cotton: 1, Maize: 12

Slide 19: 

Varieties Submitted for Release

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High Ginning out turn of 41.6 per cent. Tolerant to Fusarium wilt. High yielder Red plant body. Desi Cotton Variety HD 324 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 21: 

High yielder Resistant to CLCuV Early maturing. American Cotton Variety H 1226 Variety Submitted for Release

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Genetic male sterility based. Easy economic seed production in north zone. Good fiber quality. Resistant to Cotton Leaf Curl Virus. Early maturing (160-170 days against 180-185 days of HHH 223) Higher lint recovery. Variety Submitted for Release American Cotton Hybrid HHH 287

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High yielder than IR 64 and HKR 46 Mid-early duration variety. Suitable for multiple cropping. Resistant to Blast and Brown Spot Rice quality similar to IR 64 but milling returns high. Rice variety HKR 47 Variety Submitted for Release

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Medium duration hybrid. Compact plant type. Broad and light green erect leaves. Long slender partly awned grains Compact panicle. Rice Hybrid HKRH-1 (HKRH-1008) Variety Submitted for Release

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High yielder, tall type. Resistant to powdery mildew, better tolerant to root rot Value addition: Green round and bold seeded Dark green canopy. Field pea Variety HFP 9426 Variety Submitted for Release

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Higher seed yield Small seeded Wider adaptation, Moderate resistance to insect-pests and diseases . Lentil variety LH 89-48 Variety Submitted for Release

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Erect compact to tall plants, early vigour. Resistant to Fusarian wilt and root rot High yield Suitable for mechanical harvesting. Gram H 96-99 (HC-5) Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 28: 

Bold seeded. High yield and wide adaptation Tolerant to wilt. Gram HK 94-134 (HK-2) : NEPZ Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 29: 

Bold seeded and high yielding. wide adaptation Tolerant to wilt. Gram HK 98-155 NWPZ Variety Submitted for Release HK 98-155

Slide 30: 

Suitable for salt affected soils and brackish water High grain yield Tolerant to major diseases Stable performance Stiff straw. Barley variety BH 331 BH 331 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 31: 

Suitable for late sown conditions-to replace BG 105 High grain yield Tolerant to yellow rust Early maturing Stiff straw Suitable for animal feed. Barely variety BH 338 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 32: 

Dark orange grain color, productive, medium maturity single cross hybrid. 15 – 20 % superior over state release check HHM-1 and national checks D-103, G-11 & Navjot (Kharif & Rabi). Suitable for baby corn cultivation. Resistant to maydis leaf blight in Kharif and common rust in Rabi season. Tolerant to frost/cold. Maize Hybrid HM -4 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 33: 

White grain, dent, cylindrical thick, medium maturity single cross hybrid. Suitable for intercropping in winter season. 12-14 % superior over HHM-2 and GS-2 (Kharif & Rabi). Resistant to maydis leaf blight in Kharif and common rust in Rabi Season. Tolerant to stem borer under natural field condition. Tolerant to frost/cold. Maize Hybrid HM-5 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 34: 

High yielding Superior to normal with respect to yield and quality (lysine and tryptophan) Resistant to maydis leaf blight in Kharif and common rust in Rabi Season Maize Hybrid HQPM 1 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 35: 

Bold seeded. High yield and wide adaptation Tolerant to wilt. Gram HK 94-134 (HK-2) Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 36: 

High yield potential Early maturing Resistant to diseases High oil yield Medium height Sunflower Hybrid HSFH 848 Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 37: 

Mid maturing Suitable for normal and late planting. Average cane yield is 74 t/ha Resistant to red rot disease. Recommended for whole of Haryana. Sugarcane Variety CoH119 (Haryana Ganna 119) Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 38: 

Late maturing Average cane yield 75 t/ha Suitable for spring and late planting. Require half of the recommended dose of N Resistant to red rot disease. Recommended for whole of the State. Sugarcane Variety CoH110 (Haryana Ganna 110) Variety Submitted for Release

Slide 39: 

Varieties Identified

Slide 40: 

High yield of seed and gum Medium maturing Tolerance to Bacterial Blight, Alternaria Blight and Root Rot Resistant to lodging Varieties Identified Guar variety HGS 867

Slide 41: 

High yield of seed and gum Early maturing Tolerant to Bacterial Blight, Alternaria Blight and Root Rot. Resistant to lodging. Guar variety HGS 870 Varieties Identified

Slide 42: 

Medium duration hybrid Compact Plant type. Long flag leaf Compact panicle Thick stem . Rice Hybrid HKRH 1059 (HKRH-2) Varieties Identified

Slide 43: 

Short duration hybrid Narrow and medium green leaves Long panicle. Rice Hybrid HKRH-1076 (HKRH-21) Varieties Identified

Slide 44: 

Resistant to all races of downy mildew 5 % higher yield than HHB 67 Presence of bristles saves from bird damage Bajra Hybrid HHB 67-2 Varieties Identified

Slide 45: 

45 Periwinkle (Catharahthus roseus): Prabhat (Selection 1) released in 2003 Varieties Developed

Slide 46: 

46 Variation for various morphological traits in Pearl millet CMS lines and their hybrids

Slide 47: 

47 MLU 1 WHI47M TD (E) Raj 3765 Date of Sowing: Dec 3, 2003 Date of photograph: Feb 26, 2004 Terminal Heat Tolerance in Wheat WHI47M Stays green in May

Slide 52: 

Dwarfism in wheat