Research Ethics

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Research ethics in Lab, animals, field, biotechnology

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A.K. CHHABRA Principal Scientist Oil Seeds Section Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCSHAU, Hisar

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ?

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? Competition between Heart and Brain

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? Which way to go? Heart or Brain

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? Strong Fight Between Heart and Brain

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ETHICS ? Mostly Heart Wins over brain If Heart wins......... May be wrong ........

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? If Mind wins......... May be wrong ........

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? Friendship is required between two

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? BALANCE BETWEEN TWO Ethics

ETHICS?:

ETHICS ? Moral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the conducting of an activity. or The branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles. Synonyms moral code morality morals moral stand moral principles moral values rights and wrongs principles, ideals creed credo ethos rules of conduct

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RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES AT NATIONAL LEVEL IN INDIA The aim of the RCSI Research Ethics Committee (REC) is to ensure the highest standards of conduct in our research and to support staff in pursuing this goal.

Research Ethics:

Research Ethics Lab Research Field Research Alternatives for Animals as a research specimen

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Laboratory Safety and Safety Ethics PART-1

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Safety in Research Laboratory Agricultural science is basically an applied science; so to conduct out research for experimentation we need laboratories. What is laboratory? It is a room or building used for scientific research, experiments or testing etc.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Suitable space for both bench work and offices Ample utilities for most exacting work. Storage space in which supplies, laboratory records and hazardous materials are secure. Effective safety features to protect property. Features of a Good Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory Laboratory Design and Safety Laboratory varies with its kind as it may be of Teaching or Research Laboratory, it may also be Physics, Chemistry , Botany or Zoology or it may be any special purpose laboratory. Requirements and designs of laboratory vary with the application for which the laboratory is to be utilized. Thus before we go for the establishment of any laboratory we should go for certain planning in our mind.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Defining the Technical Objective of the New Laboratory Laboratory objective may be one of the following: General-purpose laboratories. Special-purpose laboratories Special occupancy laboratories

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Safety in Research Laboratory General-purpose laboratories are those in which a variety of operations are carried out, usually in conventional apparatus and glassware, employing a number of the usual small laboratory instruments and using relatively small amounts of chemicals.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Special-purpose laboratories are those intended for continuing use in one operation or manner involving definite or specific hazards , which require less stringent fire protection , electrical or emergency features.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Special occupancy laboratories may involve high-level hazards such as high pressure equipment, carcinogens or radioactive substances, flammable liquids or gases, high energy materials or biological health hazards.

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plu·to·ni·um ( plū-tō ' nē-əm )      n. ( Symbol Pu ) A naturally radioactive, silvery, metallic transuranic element, occurring in uranium ores and produced artificially by neutron bombardment of uranium. Its longest-lived isotope is Pu 244 with a half-life of 76 million years . It is a radiological poison, specifically absorbed by bone marrow, and is used, especially the highly fissionable isotope Pu 239, as a reactor fuel and in nuclear weapons. Atomic number 94; melting point 640°C; boiling point 3,235°C ; specific gravity 19.84; valence 3, 4, 5, 6.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Identifying Techniques for Determining User Safety Needs – Engineering associations and similar organizations have issued invaluable literature on laboratory safety concepts. Laboratory personnel who have precious experience in a similar situation should be formed into a subcommittee to share information with management.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Do’s and Don’ts

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Safety in Research Laboratory Fixing Priorities for Safety Requirements for Laboratory Facility – the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HAVC ) is the most important requirement for laboratory safety. Laboratory exhaust ventilation Fire safety Emergency response Chemical handling

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Safety in Research Laboratory Measures for proper hygiene a shower with built-in UV lamps so you can get yourself clean and tanned at the same time.

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Safety in Research Laboratory                  Warning sign for non-ionizing radiation.                  Warning sign for non-ionizing radiation.

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Safety in Research Laboratory Isotope laboratory with the instructions for special risks, required protection and procedures on and next to the door.

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Safety in Research Laboratory .      Workplace in isotope laboratory Waste container for "short-life" radioactive waste.

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Safety in Research Laboratory .     

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Safety in Research Laboratory .      IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

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Safety in Research Laboratory .      IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

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Safety in Research Laboratory .     

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Safety in Research Laboratory Fire Hazards: During working periods lab research worker are liable to receive burns caused by burners hot glass non-luminous flames ignition of inflammable solvents or clothing’s catching fire

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Safety in Research Laboratory Prevention: An appropriate extinguishing system should be installed. Accumulation of materials in lockers and corners, near machinery, steam pipes and furnaces and stoves should be avoided. Fire protected storage should be there for records chemicals etc. Rubber gas connected tubes must be inspected regularly to minimize the chances of slipping and splitting of a tube. Regular inspection of all installations , apparatus and wiring is necessary to ensure that they are safe and secure.

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Safety in Research Laboratory

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Research Ethics (ORIGINAL)

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Research Ethics (ALTERED) Photoshopped

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Research Ethics (ORIGINAL)

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Research Ethics (ALTERED) Photoshopped

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Research Ethics (ORIGINAL)

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Research Ethics (ALTERED) Photoshopped

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Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing and Education @@#%$& *&^%@@##$#@$#@!@@##$%^&*&&^%$# PART-2

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There are three kinds of research in the biomedical and behavioral sciences; testing of products for toxicity; and education of students at all levels, including the advanced life sciences, and medical and veterinary training. Three kinds of animal uses Each has different prospects for development of alternatives.

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Animal is defined as any non-human member of the five classes of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. animal welfare

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Animals and 3Rs Animal is defined as any non-human member of the five classes of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. For alternatives, three Rs are suggested: r eplacement , r eduction , and r efinement .

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Scientists may replace methods that use animals with those that do not. For example , veterinary students may use a canine cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulator, resusci -Dog, instead of living dogs. Cell cultures may replace mice and rats that are fed new products to discover substances poisonous to humans. REPLACEMENT

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REDUCTION An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the U.S. as test subjects for scientific and commercial testing. Out of that mice, rats, rabbits, amphibians and fish, birds, guinea pigs, carnivores, farm animals, other rodents, other mammals, and non-human primates are used. Animals used for experimentation 2014-2015 JUNIOR STAFF ,  FEATURE   June 2, 2015   , by Eneid Papa  

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REDUCTION

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REDUCTION

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Existing procedures may be refined so that animals are subjected to less pain and distress. Refinements include administration of anesthetics to animals undergoing otherwise painful procedures; administration of tranquilizers for distress; Proper evaluation of degree of animal stress and use of appropriate analgesics. Refinements also include the enhanced use of noninvasive (less damaging) imaging technologies that allow earlier detection of tumors, organ deterioration, or metabolic changes and the subsequent early euthanasia (slow death) of test animals. R EFINED procedures

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A REAL STORY

PAIN:

PAIN Pain is defined as discomfort resulting from injury or disease , while distress results from pain, anxiety, or fear. Pain may also be psychosomatic ( mental ), resulting from emotional distress . Pain is relieved with analgesics or anesthetics ; distress is eased with tranquilizers .

PAIN:

PAIN Widely accepted ethical standards require that Scientists subject animals to as little pain or distress as is necessary to accomplish the objectives of procedures. Professional ethics require scientists to provide relief to animals in pain or distress , unless administering relief would interfere with the objective of the procedure (e.g., when the objective is a better understanding of the mechanisms of pain). But…

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FISH MONKEY MICE PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the U.S. as test subjects for scientific and commercial testing. Kar chale hum fida jano tan saathio …………………..

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ENTERTAINMENT : PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ELECTRIC SHOCKS

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS CAN NOT MOVE EVEN WE ARE NOT TOYS TO PLAY OR DECORATE YOUR INTERIORS

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FEEDING EXPERIMENT

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS CATS SPACE SUITS ARE THEY SATTLED ON MOON???

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS A BREATH IN THE OPEN AIR? What is my fault, sir @#$$>???

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS GRADUATE STUDENTS DISECTING A CAT

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FROG ON DISECTING TABLE

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN THE SPACE The first men and women who traveled in space — in the 1960s — depended on the sacrifices of other animals that gave their lives for the advancement of human knoweldge about the conditions in outer space beyond this planet's protective ozone layer, about the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, and about the effects of stress on behavior.

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN SPACE Near the end of the 1950s, the U.S.S.R. was preparing to send a dog into orbit above Earth. The Soviets used nine so-called Space Dogs to test spacesuits in the unpressurized cabins of spaceflight capsules. For practice suborbital flights , the dogs Albina and Tsyganka were blasted upward to the edge of Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 53 miles where they were ejected to ride safely down to Earth in their ejection seats. USSR DOGS

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Russian dogs Strelka and Belka went into space aboard Sputnik 5 and returned healthy [NASA Archive] TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN SPACE Korabl- Sputnik-2 (Spaceship Satellite-2), also known as Sputnik 5, was launched on August 19, 1960. On board were the dogs Belka ( Squirrel) and Strelka (Little Arrow). Also on board were 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants . After a day in orbit, the spacecraft's retrorocket was fired and the landing capsule and the dogs were safely recovered. They were the first living animals to survive orbital flight.

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS A FREE RIDE TO SPACE

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FUR MAKING FROM ANIMALS

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What is Freedom?? TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Some non animal methods are becoming available in biomedical and behavioral research. As more develop, animal use in research will likely become less common. It is important to note, however, that even if animals cannot be replaced in certain experiments, researchers can attempt to reduce the number used and also to minimize pain and distress.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Continued, but modified, use of animals: This includes alleviation of pain and distress, substitution of cold-blooded for warm-blooded vertebrates, coordination among investigators, and use of experimental designs that provide reliable information with fewer animals than were used previously.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Living Systems: These include microorganisms, invertebrates, and the in vitro culture of organs, tissues, and cells.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Nonliving Systems: These include epidemiologic databases and chemical and physical systems that mimic biological functions.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Computer Programs: These simulate biological functions and interactions.

ADVANTAGES OF USING ALTERNATIVES:

ADVANTAGES OF USING ALTERNATIVES Reduction in the number of animals used; Reduction in animal pain, distress , and experimental insult; The ability to perform replicative protocols on a routine basis; Reduction in the cost of research ; greater flexibility to alter conditions and variables of the experimental protocol; Reduction of error stemming from inter individual variability; and The intrinsic potential of in vitro techniques to study cellular and molecular mechanisms.

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Taught by our vets, the class covers pet first aid and health tips as well as "hands-on" CPR with the Resuscidog Veterinary school physiology and pharmacology courses have traditionally utilized live animals in student laboratories and demonstrations. As attitudes toward animal welfare change and as alternatives become available, veterinary students and faculty have begun to reevaluate this practice. Resuscidog

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Modification in statistical analysis Recent Example is to calculate LD 50 USING MINIMAL ANIMALS (10 ONLY) instead of more than 100 used earlier

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION:

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Replacements include computer simulations of physiological phenomena and pharmacologic reactions, cell culture studies, human and animal dead bodies , and audiovisual materials. Clinical observation and instruction can also replace the use of animals in some laboratory exercises in medical and veterinary schools.

Simulations at school level:

Simulations at school level WATER CYCLE

College level biology classes:

College level biology classes

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Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barnase gene…produces RNAse Bar gene TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Tapetum degenerates PMCs/pollen become sterile BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE © A.K. Chhabra 2007

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Tapetum persistant PMCs/pollen are fertile Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barstar gene Bar gene TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Inhibits RNAse Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE © A.K. Chhabra 2007

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Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barstar gene (fertility restorer) Bar gene TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Inhibits RNAse Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Tapetum degenerates PMCs/pollen become sterile Tapetum persistant PMCs/pollen are fertile BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE Dominant male sterility Barstar-Barnase interaction (binding) © A.K. Chhabra 2007

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS:

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS Scientists are developing computer simulations of cells, tissues, fluids, organs, and organ systems

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION:

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Reduction techniques include the use of classroom demonstrations in place of individual students’ animal surgery and multiple use of each animal , although subjecting an animal to multiple recovery procedures may be viewed as inhumane and counter to refined use.

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION:

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Refinements include the use of analgesics, euthanasia prior to recovery from surgery, observation of intact animals in the classroom or in their natural habitats, and the substitution of cold-blooded for warm-blooded vertebrates in laboratory exercises.

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"Affection" Genes CAN WE TAKE LESSON FROM ANIMALS………!!!!!!!

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MORAL / CONCLUSION z z z z Animals also need secure life and sound and a carefree sleep

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