Breeding Methods in self pollinated crops

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: binodgpb (31 month(s) ago)

Dear sir, pls send me this presentation if possible. cmsingh.rau@gmail.com

By: mukhtaar519565 (33 month(s) ago)

i very happy this presentation can you send me the section of breeding methods in self polinated crops

By: juvala (42 month(s) ago)

Nice presentation, can you send me a copy of the ppt at amalajerome@yahoo.co.in. Thank you very much.

By: omender365038 (44 month(s) ago)

Sir, kindly send the PPT of breeding methods of self pollinated crops on my email account osangwan@gmail.com

By: makadiamahek (49 month(s) ago)

Sir very excellent Power point presentation. please send me on my email address. mahekmakadia@gmail.com

See all

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

Breeding Methods for Self Pollinated Crops

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 Breeding Methods for Self Pollinated Crops Plant introduction Mass selection Pure line selection Pedigree method Bulk method Single Seed Descent ( modified bulk method) Backcross method Multiline Breeding Mutation Breeding

Plant Introduction:

Plant Introduction Transposition of crop plants from the place of their cultivation to such areas where they never grown earlier. Types: Based on adaptation: Primary introduction Secondary introduction Based on utilization: Direct introduction Indirect introduction

PowerPoint Presentation:

4 Primary introduction: Introduction that can be used for commercial cultivation as variety without any change in the original genotype. Eg . Taichung Native1, IR8, IR20 and IR36 Introduction that are immediately adapted to the changed environment are known as direct introduction. Eg . Sonora 64 and Lerma Rojo Secondary introduction: Introduction that can be used as a variety after selection from the original genotype or used for transfer of some desirable gene to the cultivated variety Eg . Kalyan Sona and Sonalika

PowerPoint Presentation:

5 Uses of plant introduction: As a variety : Semi-dwarf varieties Sonora 64 and Lerma Rojo in wheat Taichung Native, IR8, IR20 and IR36 in Paddy Bragg and Lee in Soybean As a new variety after selection : In Egyptian cotton, variety Sujata from Egyptian variety Karnak In Wheat, varieties Kalyan Sona and Sonalika from Maxican wheat As a parent in hybridization : Pioneer cotton hybrid H4 – Gujrat67 x American nectariless

Mass Selection:

Mass Selection Method of crop improvement in which individual plants are selected on the basis of phenotype from a mixed population, their seeds are bulked and used to grow the next generation Features: Genetic constitution: Homozygous and Heterogeneous Adaptation: Wide adaptation Variation: Heritable variation Selection: Effective Quality: Less uniform Resistance: More resistant

Mass Selection:

7 Two types Positive screening: which involves identifying and preserving the most desirable plants from mixed population and their seeds are mixed together to grow further generation Negative screening: A screening technique designed to identify and eliminate the least desirable plants from the field and rest are allowed to grow further generation Mass Selection

Procedure :

Procedure Step1:Individual plants (200-2000) are selected on the basis of phenotype (first year) Step2:Grow individual plant progeny (second year) Selected plants are harvested at maturity and mixed together to grow next generation Step3: Material is evaluated in preliminary yield trial(third yr) Multilocation yield trial (4 to 6 year) Step4: seed multiplication

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Good method of improvement of old varieties and land races Provide good protection against diseases Variety developed by this method is more stable than purelines due to heterogeneity Easy and simple method of crop improvement Applicable to SP and CP species Demerits: Selection is based on the phenotypic performance Less uniform than pure lines Varieties developed by mass selection are more difficult to identify than pure lines in seed certification programmes

Progeny Selection:

Progeny Selection Selection procedure in which superior plants are selected from a heterogeneous population on the basis of their progeny performance Selection of plants from a diverse population on the basis of their progeny test Test of the genotypic value of an individual based on the performance of its progeny is called progeny test Progeny test : Louis de Vilmorin (Vilmorin principle)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Progeny test is useful in two ways : In understanding whether a plant is true breeding (homozygous) or segregating (heterozygous) for a particular character In the assessment of the breeding value of a plant Features of progeny selection : Selection of superior plants is based on the genotype Commonly used in cross pollinated and often cross pollinated species 10-50 seeds of each selected plants are grown for progeny testing Progeny test should be conducted in replicated trial to get more reliable results Multilocation or multiseasonal test is considered ideal for progeny testing Those plants whose progeny performance is superior for the character under consideration are bulked together to produce the next generation Ear to row selection which is used in maize is a simple form of progeny selection Main demerits of progeny selection is that there is no control on the pollination

Pure line selection:

Pure line selection Pureline : Johannsen (1903) Development of new variety through identification and isolation of single best plant progeny Features: Homogeneous and Homozygous Non-heritable variation Highly uniform Narrow adaptation More prone to new disease Isolation of purelines

Procedure :

Procedure Step1: Select desirable plants Seed from each selection is harvested individually (1 yr.) Step2: Single plant progeny rows grown out Selected progenies are harvested individually (2 yr.) Step3: In subsequent years, run replicated yield trials with selection of highest yielding plants (3 yr.) Multilocation yield trial (4-6 yr.) After seventh year, highest yielding plant is put forward as a new cultivar

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Good method of isolating the best genotype for yield, disease resistance, insect resistance, earliness and quality Variety developed by this method is uniform Easy and cheap method of crop improvement Demerits : Isolate only superior genotypes from mixed population Can not develop new variety Applicable to SP species only Poor adaptability due to narrow genetic base More prone to the attack of new disease due to genetic uniformity

Mass selection vs pure line selection:

Mass selection vs pure line selection 15 Line mixture Bulk of phenotypically similar plants Cultivar register and marketing Single plant offsprings L1 L2 L3……. LN Register and market the best pure lines Mass selection Pure line selection Heterogenous cultivars Homogenous cultivars Line mixture Bulk of phenotypically similar plants Cultivar register and marketing Single plant offsprings L1 L2 L3……. LN Register and market the best pure lines Mass selection Pure line selection Heterogenous cultivars Homogenous cultivars Line mixture Bulk of phenotypically similar plants Cultivar register and marketing Single plant offsprings L1 L2 L3……. LN Register and market the best pure lines Mass selection Pure line selection Heterogenous cultivars Homogenous cultivars

PowerPoint Presentation:

16 Method of genetic improvement of SP species in which superior genotypes are selected from segregating generations and proper record of ancestry of selected plants are maintained in each generation Pedigree refers to record of ancestry of an individual selected plant Features: Application: Polygenic trait than oligogenic trait Maintenance of pedigree record Selection: human or artificial selection Time taken: 14-15 years Genetic constitution: Homozygous and Homogeneous Pedigree Method

PowerPoint Presentation:

17 Procedure Hybridization Space planting in F 2 and F 3 Individual plant selection is practised in F 2 Selection is practised within and between families from F 3 to F 7 Between progeny selection is practised from F 5 to F 8 Superior progeny are identified and isolated in F 8 Strain are evaluated in replicated multilocation trials for a period of 3-5 years

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Provides information about the mode of inheritance of various qualitative characters Recovering transgressive segregants by pedigree method This method takes 14-15 years to release a new variety while, bulk method takes much longer time (15-16) Demerits : The selected material becomes so large that handling of the same becomes very difficult Large number of progeny are rejected in this method, there are chances of elimination of some valuable material Record have to be maintained for all the selected plants and progeny which take lot of valuable time of a breeder

Bulk Breeding Method:

Bulk Breeding Method A selection procedure in which the segregating population of SP species is grown in bulk plot, a part of bulk seed is used to grow the next generation and individual plant selection is done in F 6 or later generations Features: Application: Improvement in polygenic trait Selection: Natural and Human selection Adaptation: More adaptation than pedigree Genetic constitution: Homozygous and Homogeneous

PowerPoint Presentation:

20 Procedure Bulk period: Inbreed in bulk to have homozygous Lines up to F 4 Progeny selection: Select superior lines after F 5 , in F 6 Multilocation testing: in F 7 , PYT is conducted Best performing strain is identified on the basis of 3-4 year performance in the multilocation trials

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Simple, convenient and less expensive method Easy to handle more crosses Natural selection is primarily for competitive ability More useful than pedigree method with lower h 2 traits Chance of obtaining transgressive segregants are more in this method than pedigree Leads to improvement in adaptation of genotypes due to bulk period No need to maintained pedigree record Demerits : This method does not provide information about the mode of inheritance of various oligogenic characters This method take more time Difficult to assess the variability in the population and genotypic frequencies Sometimes, natural selection may favour undesirable traits than desirable genotypes

Single Seed Descent Method:

Single Seed Descent Method Goulden (1939) for advancing segregating generation of SP species Breeding procedure used with segregating populations of SP species in which plants are advanced by single seeds from one generation to the next generation

PowerPoint Presentation:

23 Hybridization One seed selected from each plant in F 2 and next generations Selected seed is bulked and grow in next generation up to F 5 Large no. of plants are selected and grown separately in F 6 Select superior line after F 6 Superior progeny are selected based on PYT Tested in multilocation trials Best progeny is identified for release Procedure

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Simple, convenient, less expensive and time saving method Large number of crosses can be evaluated by this method Able to retain considerable variability in a breeding population Material can be rapidly advanced by growing the same in green house Demerits : This method does not provide opportunity to practice selection for superior plants till F 5 generation, so many superior plants may be lost Frequency of getting desirable genotypes in the advanced generation is reduced This method is applicable to self pollinated crops only

Backcross Method:

Backcross Method Crossing of F1 with either of its parents A system of breeding in which repeated backcrosses are made to transfer a specific character to a well adapted variety for which the variety is deficient Features: Application: Oligogenic trait than polygenic trait Parental material: Recurrent and donor parent Genetic constitution: Number of back cross: 5-6 backcross

PowerPoint Presentation:

Hybridization F 1 Generation BC 1 BC 2 – BC 5 Generations BC 6 Generation BC 6 F 2 Generation BC 6 F 3 Generation yield test Procedure Transfer of a dominant gene for disease resistance

PowerPoint Presentation:

27 Effect of repeated backcrossing on the frequency of homozygotes and heterozygotes at a single locus A/a

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Retain all desirable characters of a popular adapted variety Useful method for transfer of oligogenic characters like disease resistance Male sterility and fertility restorer genes are transferred to various agronomic bases by this method Used for interspecific gene transfer Does not require multilocation testing Demerits : It involves lot of crossing work (6-8) Sometimes, undesirable character is tightly linked with desirable one, which is also transferred to the new variety

Multiline Breeding:

Multiline Breeding First suggested in oats by Jensen (1952) Method for developing multilines in wheat : Borlaug and Gibler (1953) Seed mixture of isolines, closely related lines or unrelated lines are referred to as multiline and a variety which is developed for commercial cultivation from any of these mixtures is known as multiline variety. Isogenic lines: lines that are genetically identical except for the allele at one locus

PowerPoint Presentation:

Features of multiline varieties : Application: SP only Genetic constitution: Homozygous and Heterogeneous Adaptation: Wide adaptation than pureline Disease control: less prone to attack of new race of a disease Quality of produce: Less uniform than pureline Yield: Lesser than pureline under normal condition, but higher yield under adverse condition

Procedure of developing multiline:

Procedure of developing multiline Selection of recurrent parents Selection of donor parents Transfer of resistant gene into recurrent parent Mixing of seed of the isogenic lines

PowerPoint Presentation:

Merits : Multiline are more adaptable to environmental changes than pureline cultivar due to genetic diversity They provide better protection form the infection of new race of a disease Demerits : Multiline varieties is less attractive and less uniform due to mixture of several purelines Development of multiline cultivars involves several backcrosses, hence is costlier than conventional breeding methods

Mutation Breeding:

Mutation Breeding Genetic improvement of crop plants for various economic characters through the use of induced mutations Commonly used in self pollinated and asexually propagated species Mutation refers to sudden heritable change in the phenotype of an individual Types : Spontaneous mutation Induced mutation: Macro-mutations and Micro-mutations Wheat Sugarcane

Mutagens:

Mutagens

Procedure:

M1 Plants obtained from treated seeds/cuttings or from seeds obtained after pollination with treated pollens are called M1 plants Treated seed/buds/cuttings Pollination with treated pollen M1 Plants Procedure

Procedure:

M1 Plants obtained from treated seeds/cuttings or from seeds obtained after pollination with treated pollens are called M1 plants M1 Plants Large no. of plants are grown Grown in wider spacing. Dominant mutations are recorded if any (generally mutations are recessive and do not express in M1) Chlorophyll sectors and fertility is recorded. M1 plants are selfed and their seed is harvested separately. Procedure

Procedure:

Procedure M2---- Seed obtained from M1 is sown in wide spacing Selected mutants are selfed. Oligogenic mutations are detected in M2 and are harvested separately. M3---- M3 progeny is raised from selected M2 and evaluated for homozygosity. Selected homozygous M3 progenies are bulked together to conduct yield trials in M4. M4---- M4 progeny are raised in replicated trials using local check for comparison. M5-M9--- Selected lines are tested in multiplication coordinated trials

Applications of mutation breeding in crop improvement:

Applications of mutation breeding in crop improvement Development of improved varieties Induction of male sterility Production of haploids creation of genetic variability Overcoming self incompatibility Improvement in adaptation

List of some varieties developed in india through mutation breeding:

List of some varieties developed in india through mutation breeding Crop Mutant Parent Mutagen Wheat Sharbati sonora Sonora-64 γ -rays Rice Jagannath T-141 γ -rays Tobacco Jayasri - Chemical mutagen Cotton MCU-7 1143 EE - Sugarcane Co 8152 Co 527 γ -rays Chickpea BGM 417 BG 203 -

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thank you

Mutagens and their mode of action:

Mutagens and their mode of action

Procedure of mutation breeding:

Procedure of mutation breeding

PowerPoint Presentation:

43 Purposes of plant introduction: Economic use Study of origin and evolution of crop plants Conservation of diversity Genetic improvement of crop plants Aesthetic interest

authorStream Live Help