PHARMA FACTORY LAYOUT

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PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY SELECTION PLANT LAYOUT & PLANNING:

PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY SELECTION PLANT LAYOUT & PLANNING BY MRS. CHETNA MODI SKIP, SHANKHALPUR 1 pharma factory layout & planning

PLANT LAYOUT:

PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product. 2 pharma factory layout & planning

OBJECTIVE:

OBJECTIVE To design a physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output – quantity and quality. Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. 3 pharma factory layout & planning

Why require?:

Why require? Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delay Provide enough production capacity. Reduce material handling costs Reduce hazards to personnel Utilize Labor efficiently Increase employee morale Reduce accidents Provide for volume and product flexibility Provide ease of supervision and control Provide for employee safety and health Allow ease of maintenance Allow high machine or equipment utilization Improve productivity 4 pharma factory layout & planning

Properties of ideal plant layout:

Properties of ideal plant layout It provide the optimum relationship among output, floor area and manufacturing process. It facilitates the production process, Minimizes material handling, time and cost , and allows flexibility of operations, easy production flow, makes economic use of the building , promotes effective utilization of manpower , and provides for employee’s convenience, Safety , comfort at work, maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation. It is also important because it affects the flow of material and processes, Labour efficiency, supervision and control, use of space and expansion possibilities etc. 5 pharma factory layout & planning

Factors influencing plant layout:

Factors influencing plant layout 6 pharma factory layout & planning

Factors influencing plant layout:

Factors influencing plant layout Thus, the layout should be conducive to health and safety of employees. It should ensure free and efficient flow of men and materials. Future expansion and diversification may also be considered while planning factory layout. 7 pharma factory layout & planning

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An entrepreneur must possess an expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from plant to plant, from location to location and from industry to industry. But the basic principles governing plant layout are more or less same. :

An entrepreneur must possess an expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from plant to plant, from location to location and from industry to industry. But the basic principles governing plant layout are more or less same. 9 pharma factory layout & planning

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Product or Line layout:

Product or Line layout Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The materials move form one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next. 1 12 pharma factory layout & planning

e.g. Product or line layout of CR Osmotic Tablets :

e.g. Product or line layout of CR Osmotic Tablets 13 pharma factory layout & planning

Product or Line layout:

Product or Line layout All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations There should no points where one line crossed another line. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily at one point. All the operations including assembly, testing packing must be included in the line 14 pharma factory layout & planning

Advantages of Line layout:

Advantages of Line layout Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking Smooth and uninterrupted operations Continuous flow of work Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress Optimum use of floor space Shorter processing time or quicker output Less congestion of work in the process Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control Lower cost of manufacturing per unit 15 pharma factory layout & planning

Disadvantages of Line layout :

Disadvantages of Line layout High initial capital investment in special purpose machine Heavy overhead charges Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production process Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product. 16 pharma factory layout & planning

Use of Line layout when:

Use of Line layout when Mass production of standardized products Simple and repetitive manufacturing process Operation time for different process is more or less equal Reasonably stable demand for the product Continuous supply of materials 17 pharma factory layout & planning

Process or Functional layout:

Process or Functional layout Under this, different departments are classified according to the process of manufacturing of dosage forms. The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials The departments should be in sequence of operations The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision 2 18 pharma factory layout & planning

e.g. Process or Functional layout of CR Osmotic Tablets:

e.g. Process or Functional layout of CR Osmotic Tablets 19 pharma factory layout & planning

Advantages of Functional layout:

Advantages of Functional layout Lower initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product The overhead costs are relatively low Change in output design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of products Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage Supervision can be more effective and specialized There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion. 20 pharma factory layout & planning

Disadvantages of Functional layout:

Disadvantages of Functional layout Material handling costs are high due to backtracking More skilled Labour is required resulting in higher cost. Time gap or lag in production is higher Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision 21 pharma factory layout & planning

Use of Functional layout when:

Use of Functional layout when Products are not standardized Quantity produced is small There are frequent changes in design and style of product Job shop type of work is done Machines are very expensive 22 pharma factory layout & planning

Fixed position or Location layout:

Fixed position or Location layout In this type of layout, the major product being produced is fixed at one location. Equipment Labour and components are moved to that location. All facilities are brought and arranged around one work center. This type of layout is not relevant for small scale entrepreneur. The following figure shows a fixed position layout 3 23 pharma factory layout & planning

Advantages of Location layout:

Advantages of Location layout It saves time and cost involved on the movement of work from one workstation to another. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. It is more economical when several orders in different stages of progress are being executed simultaneously. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations. 24 pharma factory layout & planning

Disadvantages of Location layout:

Disadvantages of Location layout Production period being very long, capital investment is very heavy Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. As several operations are often carried out simultaneously, there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups. 25 pharma factory layout & planning

Use of Location layout when:

Use of Location layout when Manufacture of bulky and heavy products such as locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. Construction of building, flyovers, dams. Hospital, the medicines, doctors and nurses are taken to the patient (product). 26 pharma factory layout & planning

Combined or Group layout:

Combined or Group layout Certain manufacturing units may require all three processes namely intermittent process (job shops), the continuous process (mass production shops) and the representative process combined process [i.e. miscellaneous shops]. In most of industries, only a product layout or process layout or fixed location layout does not exist. Thus, in manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout is followed. Generally, a combination of the product and process layout or other combination are found, in practice, e.g. In tablet, manufacturing plant, the machinery manufacturing tablet is arranged on the product line principle, but ancillary services such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC), heating, the power house, the water treatment plant etc. are arranged on a functional basis. 4 27 pharma factory layout & planning

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Traders :

Traders When two outlets carry almost same merchandise, customers usually buy in the one that is more appealing to them. Thus, customers are attracted and kept by good layout i.e. good lighting, attractive colors, good ventilation, air conditioning, modern design and arrangement and even music. All of these things mean customer convenience, customer appeal and greater business volume. The customer is always impressed by service, efficiency and quality. Hence, the layout is essential for handling merchandise, which is arranged as per the space available and the type and magnitude of goods to be sold keeping in mind the convenience of customers. 29 pharma factory layout & planning

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Self service or modified self service layout :

Self service or modified self service layout The self-service layouts, cuts down on sales clerk’s time and allow customers to select merchandise for themselves. Customers should be led through the store in a way that will expose them to as much display area as possible, e.g. Grocery Stores or department stores. In those stores, necessities or convenience goods should be placed at the rear of the store. The use of color and lighting is very important to direct attention to interior displays and to make the most of the stores layout. 31 pharma factory layout & planning

Full service layout :

Full service layout All operations are not self-service. Certain specialty enterprises sell to fewer numbers of customers or higher priced product, e.g. Apparel, office machines, sporting goods, fashion items, hardware, good quality shoes, jewelry, luggage and accessories, furniture and appliances are all examples of products that require time and personal attention to be sold. These full service layouts provide area and equipment necessary in such cases. 32 pharma factory layout & planning

Special layouts :

Special layouts Some layouts depend strictly on the type of special store to be set up, e.g. TV repair shop, soft ice cream store, and drive-in soft drink stores are all examples of business requiring special design. Thus, good retail layout should be the one, which saves rent, time and labour . 33 pharma factory layout & planning

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Services establishments:

Services establishments Services establishments such as motels, hotels, restaurants, must give due attention to client convenience, quality of service, efficiency in delivering services and pleasing office ambience. In today’s environment, the clients look for ease in approaching different departments of a service organization and hence the layout should be designed in a fashion, which allows clients quick and convenient access to the facilities offered by a service establishment. 35 pharma factory layout & planning

Dynamics of plant layout:

Dynamics of plant layout Plant layout is a dynamic rather than a static concept meaning thereby if once done it is not permanent in nature rather improvement or revision in the existing plant layout must be made by keeping a track with development of new machines or equipment, improvements in manufacturing process, changes in materials handling devices etc. But, any revision in layout must be made only when the savings resulting from revision exceed the costs involved in such revision. 36 pharma factory layout & planning

Revision should gives:

Revision should gives Increase in the output of the existing product Introduction of a new product and diversification Technological advancements in machinery, material, processes, product design, fuel etc. Deficiencies in the layout unnoticed by the layout engineer in the beginning. 37 pharma factory layout & planning

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