FINAL PROJECT Report

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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY “JNANA SANGAMA” BELAGAVI KARNATAKA– 560018 Project Report On “Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of Project Work 15CSP85 In COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING Madhu Kumari 4MU16CS029 Rishitha M 4MU16CS047 Roopa B 4MU16CS048 Sahana D K 4MU16CS049 Under the guidance of Prof. Chethan Raj C Associate Professor Department of CSE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING MYSURU ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Lakshmipura Road Palahally Post SR Patna Mandya – 571606 Academic Year: 2019 – 2020

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MYSURU ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Lakshmipura Road Palahally Post SR Patna Mandya – 571606 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project on “Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain ” is a bonafide work carried out by MADHU KUMARI 4MU16CS029 RISHITHA M 4MU16CS047 ROOPA B 4MU16CS048 SAHANA D K 4MU16CS049 of Eight semester Computer Science and Engineering as prescribed by Visvesvaraya Technological University Belagavi during the academic year 2016-2020. It is certified that all the suggestions and corrections indicated for the internal assessment have been incorporated in the report deposited in the department library. The project report has been approved as it satisfies the requirements with respect to project work prescribed for the said degree. …………………… ………… . Signature of the Guide Prof. CHETHAN RAJ C Associate Professor Department of Computer Science Engineering Mysuru Royal Institute of Technology Mandya …………………… ………… . Signature of the HOD Prof. SOUMYA B HOD Department of Computer Science Engineering Mysuru Royal Institute of Technology Mandya …………………… ………… . Signature of the Principal Dr. H.S.SURESH CHANDRA Principal Mysuru Royal Institute of Technology Mandya External Viva-Voce Name of the Examiner Signature with Date 1. 2.

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The Board of International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts Is hereby awarding this certificate to Madhu Kumari In recognition of the publication of the paper entitled DYNAMIC IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER MONITORING SYSTEM IN INDUSTRY USING BLOCK-CHAIN Published In IJCRT www.ijcrt.org 7.97 Impact Factor by Google Scholar Volume 8 Issue 6 Date of Publication:June 2020 2020-06-27 05:49:58 PAPER ID : IJCRT2006565 Registration ID : 196197 Scholarly open access journals Peer-reviewed and Refereed Journals Impact factor 7.97 Calculate by google scholar and Semantic Scholar | AI-Powered Research Tool Multidisciplinary Monthly Journal EDITOR IN CHIEF Page 1 of 1

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The Board of International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts Is hereby awarding this certificate to Rishitha.M In recognition of the publication of the paper entitled DYNAMIC IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER MONITORING SYSTEM IN INDUSTRY USING BLOCK-CHAIN Published In IJCRT www.ijcrt.org 7.97 Impact Factor by Google Scholar Volume 8 Issue 6 Date of Publication:June 2020 2020-06-27 05:49:58 PAPER ID : IJCRT2006565 Registration ID : 196197 Scholarly open access journals Peer-reviewed and Refereed Journals Impact factor 7.97 Calculate by google scholar and Semantic Scholar | AI-Powered Research Tool Multidisciplinary Monthly Journal EDITOR IN CHIEF Page 1 of 1

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MYSURU ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MANDYA Department of Computer Science and Engineering DECLARATION We MADHU KUMARI 4MU16CS029 RISHITHA M 4MU16CS047 ROOPA B 4MU16CS048 SAHANA D K 4MU16CS049 studying in the Eigth semester BE Computer Science and Engineering MRIT Mandya hereby declare that the project work entitled “Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain” has been carried out by me independently under the guidance of Prof. Chethan Raj C Associate Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering MRIT Mandya. This project work is submitted to the Visvesvaraya Technological University Belagavi in the partial fulfillment of required for the award of degree in BE of Computer Science and Engineering during the academic year 2016-2020. This dissertation has not been submitted previously for the award of any other degree or diploma to any other institution or university. Date: Place: Mandya Madhu Kumari 4MU16CS029 Rishitha M 4MU16CS47 Roopa B 4MU16CS48 Sahana D K 4MU16CS49

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i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Happiness cannot be expressed by words and help taken cannot be left without thanking. We would like to thank all of them who were a part of our life and our work. We are thankful to our principal Dr. Suresh Chandra H S for all the facilities provided to us in the college. We would like to convey our sincere thanks to Prof. Soumya B Head of the department Computer Science and Engineering Department MRIT. We are especially thankful to Prof. Chethan Raj C Associate Professor Project Coordinator Prof. Harish Boriah Associate Professor Project Coordinator Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering MRIT for support guidance motivation useful tips whole hearted encouragement and individual guidance and timely suggestions for carrying out and the successful completion of this project. We express our deep profound gratitude to Prof. Chethan Raj C Associate professor Dept. of CSE MRIT who has been our guide and guiding light in my endeavor motivation encouragement for the successful completion of this project successfully. We would specially thank our all faculty members and non-teaching staffs for their valuable suggestions and encouragement. Thanking You MADHU KUMARI 4MU16CS029 RISHITHA M 4MU16CS047 ROOPA B 4MU16CS048 SAHANA D K 4MU16CS049

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ii DECLARATION We Madhu Kumari Rishitha M Roopa B Sahana D K hereby declare that this dissertation work titled “Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain” has been carried out independently by us under the guidance of Prof. Chethan Raj C Associate Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering MRIT Mandya in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in Computer Science and Engineering under VTU Belagavi. We further declare that we have not submitted this dissertation either in part or full to any other university for the award of any degree. Place: Mandya Madhu Kumari 4MU16CS029 Rishitha M 4MU16CS047 Roopa B 4MU16CS048 Sahana D K 4MU16CS049

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iii ABSTRACT Drinking water is valuable and significant for every single living being. The drinking water faces numerous difficulties progressively activity. These difficulties are happened because of the restriction in water assets developing populace and so on. Thus guaranteeing of safe drinking water is significant. Web of Things IoT is by and large broadly utilized in regular daily existences because of the brilliant applications. So we present structure and advancement of minimal effort framework for constant observing of the water quality in IoT. A few constant sensors for estimating the physical and synthetic boundaries are utilized for observing the water quality. Square chain is executed for guaranteeing the information security. Water left from the businesses to the water bodies are observed consistently for guaranteeing safe water being arranged into the water bodies.

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iv Table of Contents CONTENTS PAGE NO. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i DECLARATION ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF SNAPSHOTS vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Introduction about Project Domain ............................................................. 1 1.2 Objective of the Project .................................................................................. 3 1.3 Existing System ............................................................................................. 3 1.4 Disadvantage of Existing System ................................................................... 4 1.5 Proposed System ............................................................................................ 4 1.6 Advantages of Proposed System..................................................................... 5 1.7 Project Scope Motivation ........................................................................... 5 1.8 Organization of Report ................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2 Literature Survey ......................................................................................... 8 2.1 Literature Review........................................................................................... 8 2.2 Related Works....................................................................................................8 2.3 Conclusion of Review .................................................................................. 16 Chapter 3 Software Requirement Specification ......................................................... 17 3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 17 3.2 Purpose.............................................................................................................17 3.3 Project Perspective...........................................................................................18

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v 3.3.1 Hardware Interface.....................................................................................18 3.3.2 Software Interface......................................................................................18 3.4 Functional Requirements .............................................................................. 19 3.5 Non-Functional Requirements ..................................................................... 20 3.6 Hardware Requirements ............................................................................... 21 3.7 Software Requirements ................................................................................ 21 Chapter 4 System Design ........................................................................................... 22 4.1 Introduction to System Design ..................................................................... 22 4.2 High Level Design ....................................................................................... 22 4.2.1 System Architecture ..................................................................... 23 4.3 Low Level Design ........................................................................................ 24 4.3.1 Flow Chart..................................................................................... 24 4.3.2 Sequence Diagram ......................................................................... 26 4.3.3 Use Case Diagram ......................................................................... 27 4.3.4 Activity Diagram ........................................................................... 29 Chapter 5 System Development Implementation ................................................... 31 5.1 Introduction to System Implementation ........................................................ 31 5.1.1 Implementation Steps.................................................................................31 5.2 Language Used for Implementation ............................................................. 31 5.3 Algorithms ................................................................................................... 34 5.4 Methodology Modules ............................................................................ 36 Chapter 6 Testing ........................................................................................................ 37 6.1 Introduction to Testing ................................................................................. 37 6.2 Testing Types .............................................................................................. 37 6.3 Test Cases .................................................................................................... 48 Chapter 7 Result Analysis ........................................................................................... 43 7.1 Introduction to Result ................................................................................... 43 7.2 Snapshots with Description .......................................................................... 44 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 49 Future Work ............................................................................................................... 50 References .................................................................................................................... 51

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure No Description Page No Figure 4.2.1 System Architecture 23 Figure 4.3.1 Flowchart 24 Figure 4.3.1.1 Level 0 DFD :Tester 25 Figure 4.3.1.2 Level 1 DFD:CPCB 25 Figure 4.3.1.3 Level 3 DFD :Factory Manager 25 Figure 4.3.2.1 Tester Sequence Diagram 26 Figure 4.3.2.2 CPCB Manager Sequence Diagram 26 Figure 4.3.3.1 Tester Use Case Diagram 27 Figure 4.3.3.2 CPCB Manager Use Case Diagram 28 Figure 4.3.3.3 Factory Manager Use Case Diagram 28 Figure 4.3.4 Activity Diagram 29

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table No Description Page No Table 6.3.1 Test Case 1 38 Table 6.3.2 Test Case 2 38 Table 6.3.3 Test Case 3 39 Table 6.3.4 Test Case 4 39 Table 6.3.5 Test Case 5 40 Table 6.3.6 Test Case 6 40 Table 6.3.7 Test Case 7 41 Table 6.3.8 Test Case 8 41 Table 6.3.9 Test Case 9 42

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viii LIST OF SNAPSHOT Snapshot No Description Page No Snapshot 7.1 Screenshot of login screen 44 Snapshot 7.2 Screenshot of main screen 44 Snapshot 7.3 Screenshot of Add Factory 45 Snapshot 7.4 Screenshot of Monitoring 45 Snapshot 7.5 Screenshot of Report Generation 46 Snapshot 7.6 Screenshot of Receiving Mail 46 Snapshot 7.7 Screenshot of Reported Factory 47 Snapshot 7.8 Screenshot of Social Media 47 Snapshot 7.9 Screenshot of Change Password 48 Snapshot 7.10 Screenshot of Factory Location 48

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT PROJECT AND DOMAIN Most of the people around the world lack behind drinkable water. Every year many people are suffering from various fatal diseases caused by water pollution. Research has found that around 5 million death cases caused only because of drinking unsafe water. Research done by WHO World Health Organization shows about almost 1.4 million of child death can be prevented by providing drinkable water to them. Water is one of essential components or needs for healthy living along with adequate sanitation and proper nutrition. Parameters of water PH conductivity and turbidity define the quality of water which ensures the prevention of waterborne infectious disease. The most important factor for human health and for socio-economic growth of country desires water. Not only for human beings all the organisms agriculture and industrialization need water is essential one. Across the world water plays a major role because it satisfies all civilization demands but reserving portable water is rapid one and total amount of water present in the planet remains constant throughout the planet. Water resources is not handled properly in highly populated regions leads to discharge of toxic chemicals climate changes growing population untreated sewage and other human activities. Results of scarcity problem and availability are inequitable unsustainable and non-uniform spread of water throughout the planet additionally. Most of the people in the world are using the ruined water with vector diseases unpredictable level of different pollutant for cooking and drinking. The primary objective of this design is distinctly divided into two parts one is the IOT Internet of Things water parameter monitoring environment and other is Block-chain technology. The complete monitoring system should have appropriate data storage capacity low power consumption. This would help in monitoring different physical parameters of the drinkable water rather than relying on manual process. Moreover IOT is a system of alliance among various devices and the competence of deportation data over the system. Several

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 2 research works have been conducted in recent times to develop intelligent system to identify and monitor water parameters. For real time monitoring of water quality and delivery an in- pipe monitoring system based on sensor nodes is proposed. An IOT ecosystem consists of web-enabled smart devices that use embedded systems such as processors sensors and communication hardware to collect send and act on data they acquire from their environments. IOT devices share the sensor data they collect by connecting to an IOT gateway or other edge device where data is either sent to the cloud to be analysed or analysed locally. Sometimes these devices communicate with other related devices and act on the information they get from one another. The devices do most of the work without human intervention although people can interact with the devices for instance to set them up give them instructions or access the data. Block chain is literally just a chain of blocks but not in the traditional sense of those words. When we say the words “block” and “chain” in this context we are actually talking about digital information the “block” stored in a public database the “chain”. Block chain technology accounts for the issues of security and trust in several ways. First new blocks are always stored linearly and chronologically. That is they are always added to the “end” of the Block chain. After a block has been added to the end of the Block chain it is very difficult to go back and alter the contents of the block. That‟s because each block contains its own hash along with the hash of the block before it. Hash codes are created by a math function that turns digital information into a string of numbers and letters. If that information is edited in any way the hash code changes as well. In order to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water quality needs to be monitor in real time. Here we present a design and development of a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT internet of things. The system consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The parameters such as temperature PH turbidity conductivity of the water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the core controller. The Arduino model can be used as a core controller. Finally the sensors data can be viewed on internet.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 3 By focusing on the above issues we have developed a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT environment and Block chain. In our design Arduino is used as a core controller with NodeMCU. The design system applies a specialized IOT module for accessing sensor data from core controller to the cloud. The sensor data can be viewed on the cloud using a special IP address. Additionally the IOT module also uses an MQTT protocol for viewing the data on mobile.A desktop application is developed in .NET platform to identify whether the tested water samples are safe or unsafe for human consumption. The parameters used in this are temperature pH conductivity and turbidity. The pH value of drinkable water is in the range of 6.5 to 7.5. The pH of water is an important parameter to monitor because high and low pH levels can have dangerous effects on human health. The pH of a solution can range from 1 to 14. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT  It minimizes the time required for testing the quality of water.  This system removes need of laboratory testing.  Test results are recorded in cloud so that any previous data of testing can be fetched.  Monitoring of water in done online and its analysis can be done in seconds.  It reduces a lot of time consumed and also manual labour involved in the laboratory Testing of water.  Results are sent to the mobile so that required action on distribution of water can be Taken by the operator.  If necessary action is not taken in the given time the factory detail is uploaded on social media website so that the common people will be aware of the crime. 1.3 EXISTING SYSTEM Traditional methods of water quality involve the manual collection of water sample at different manufacturing factories followed by laboratory analytical techniques to examine the quality of water. Such approaches take longer time and no longer to be considered efficient. Although the current methodologies analysis the physical chemical and biological agents. CPCB Central Pollution Control Board collects the sample of discharge water of industries. The collected samples are tested against different parameters like PH temperature salinity turbidity.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 4 If sample contains harmful chemicals and its values deviates from standard value the CPCB will pass notice under environmental acts. If industries do not take any actions to notice they are punished under the law. The analog data‟s captured by all the four sensors are sent to the microcontroller through analog to digital converter. After processing the digital information in micro controller unit where analysis done and the water quality is identified and those parameters were sent to the person who is operating with the instrument via SMS. The same will be displayed in the LCD display unit of the microcontroller. Through the Wi-Fi module the web page is linked with the microcontroller. The central monitoring system receives the measured value. Based on the received data the corporation authorities will take necessary action for their further decision. 1.4 DISADVANTAGE OF EXISTING SYSTEM  It requires man power and high cost.  The lack of real time water quality information to enable critical decision for public health protection  Manual work is more  Corruption may occur  Industries may change sample of discharge water  Actions cannot be taken against industries by corruption  Lack of time  The values may change and mediators are more  The industries may cheat while quality of water 1.5 PROPOSED SYSTEM The design and development of low cost system for real time monitoring of water quality and controlling the flow of water by using IoT is presented. The proposed system is designed by using many sensors for each parameter of water. Sensors such as pH turbidity salinity and temperature are connected to the Arduino UNO as a controller to read all the data from the sensors process to send the information to the cloud by nodeMCU. The sensor data can be viewed on the cloud using a special IP address. The Hash value of the data is stored in two different ledgers. If any of the data in the cloud is tampered

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 5 the original data can be recovered from the ledger. So Block-chain provides protection against data tampering thus security of data is achieved. Additionally the IOT module also uses an MQTT protocol for viewing the data on mobile. Sensors are placed at outlet of industries and readings are dump to the cloud. Readings are checked against standard values if there is a deviation the mail is sent through SMTP protocol to industry to purify water with deadline 15 days. If the industry does not purify the water information of industries is placed in social media and notice will be sent automatically. Actions against industry are taken without any discrimination. This system is used in many fields like water distribution system industries and aqua farming. This monitoring and controlling process can be performed at anytime and anywhere in the world. 1.6 ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM  Labours not required  Low cost  Time consuming is less  Values cannot be changed  Less corruption  Not mediators  Highly security 1.7 PROJECT SCOPE AND MOTIVATION Scope: Finding the quality of water as the water quality is one of the main factor to control health and states of diseases in people and aquatic animals and many agricultural lands .To improve the life of water bodies. To develop an ancient online monitoring of water quality for better results low cost easy handling less manual work and to reduce the time involved in lab testing.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 6 Motivation: In present generation water in rivers and ponds are getting polluted due to effluents from industries which results in increase of turbidity and variation in pH of water resulting in formation of acidic and/or basic of water if there is an increase in temperature then the eco system in water will vary resulting in mass killing of fish. The Water quality monitoring will be useful to determine the pollution level of the water and can thus help the government agencies to take necessary actions. Water is the most precious and valuable for all the human beings drinking water utilities faces new challenges in real-time operation. This challenge occurred because of limited water resources growing population ageing infrastructure etc. Hence therefore there is a need of better methodologies for monitoring the water quality. Previously data collected from different sources was stored in cloud which wasn‟t having security anybody can extract the data stored in the cloud so we need high security for securing or protecting the data that can be done by providing authentication and authorization to user who will monitor the quality of the water. Authorized users can access the measured data by logging by providing the registered user ID and password. 1.8 ORGANIZATION OF REPORT Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter provides introduction on WQM and domain Objective of WQM Existing system Drawback of existing system Proposed system Advantages of proposed system Scope Motivation and Organization of report. Chapter 2: Literature Survey This chapter gives information about the referred papers that are related to WQM system to observe the water quality in a large area as the current world situation Internet of things IoT and remote sensing techniques are used in heterogeneous area of research for supervising congregate and analyzing data from the remote location. Chapter 3: System Requirement Specification This chapter gives the details of perspective of WQM functional and non- functional requirements hardware and software requirements of the project.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 7 Chapter 4: System Design This chapter divides the system design into two parts such as High Level Design and Low Level Design. The High Level Design explains detail analysis of Architecture of the system and Low Level Design consists of flow chart Sequence diagram Use case diagram Activity diagram. This chapter is very helpful for further stage of implementation. Chapter 5: Implementation This chapter describes the implementation details of the modules. Chapter 6: Testing This chapter defines various testing methods used for testing the different modules in the project to prove the validity of the project. Chapter 7: Result Analysis This chapter provides the results in the form of snapshots of all the stages performed in the project.

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Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 8 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature survey is carried out to know and analyze the background of the current project that helps to find out flaws in the existing system. This chapter unfolds the works proposed by the several authors to improve the efficiency of WQM. 2.2 RELATED WORKS Manoharan.S 1 et.alpresents that the water resources is not handled properly in highly populated regions leads to discharge of toxic chemicals climate changes growing population untreated sewage and other human activities. Results of scarcity problem and availability are inequitable unsustainable and non-uniform spread of water throughout the planet additionally. According to him the water quality measuring system and different sensors which sense the qualities of water and then send to the microcontroller after processing the various parameters of water. The microcontroller will send to the corresponding authority via Wi-Fi module ESP8266.Based on the measured data corporation officials will track the pollution level occur in the water bodies. It will help them to take proper steps to control the pollution level within the threshold limit. Rapid actions can be taken to control tremendous levels of pollution like in the case of the Yamuna and Ganga rivers. MoniraMukta 2 et.aldocuments that The SWQM system is able to read data from water samples by sensors through the microcontroller and analyze them using machine learning algorithm to predict water quality. The extracted data from these sensors are accessed by the controller Arduino - UNO and transfer them to the developed desktop application.Her implementation explains that except the temperature sensor other three sensors are of analog type. Each sensor has three different color wires such as red black and others. Here red wires are for +5V power supply black wires are for ground and others are used for data estimation. A breadboard is used for creating common points for ground and power supply separately. Then common node of ground is connected to the ground of Arduino and same process is repeated for power supply. The analog sensors are connected to the analog pins and digital sensor is connected to digital pin of the controller. There were three algorithm used in

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 9 designing of smart water quality monitoring system they are: fast forest binary classifier support vector machine and logistic regression. But mainly the fast forest binary classifier was used to design this method. Turbidity represents a key issue in terms of analyzing the microorganism quality of water. According to the guideline the acceptable turbidity level should be below 5 NTU. Results show the high value of turbidity for impure water compare to the natural water samples. RushikeshKshirsagar 3 et.al presents that adding more quality sensors which can detect other chemical and physical parameters affecting the quality of water can improve our results and thus making our system effective. He analyzed three reasons behind the design and development of IOT based water quality measurement system that this measurement system consists of three sensors viz. pH conductivity and turbidity. All sensors use LMC 6001 IC for signal conditioning in different configuration. Output of the LMC 6001 is in terms of voltage which is proportional to the respective parameter i.e. pH conductivity and turbidity. Output of the signal conditioning circuit is sent to the microcontroller which holds the algorithm for measurement. Wi-Fi module connected to the microcontroller though which measured data is uploaded on the cloud server. UART protocol is used for communication between controller and Wi-Fi module. Due to IOT approach remote measurements of all parameters are possible by analyzing the data which is stored on cloud server we can determine the quality of the water using Block chain as an advanced technology. Lakshmi Nair 4 et.al documents that the quality of water is no exception and the water industry is faced with a wide array of water quality issues being present world-wide. Thus the need of sensors to tackle this diverse subject is paramount. The aim of this was to combine international expertise in the area of water quality monitoring using smart sensors and systems in order that a better understanding of the challenges faced and solution posed may be available to all in a single text. Her implementation of smart sensors for real-time water quality monitoring using wireless node by using two XBee modules configured for peer-to-peer communication. The methodology used by Lakshmi Nair consists of four parameters. Firstly the sensor design alternatives which includes a thermostat temperature sensor is considered in this study as there is better design control and designing such a sensor from first principles is easier. Thermostats are generally used for applications below 300 degree C and would therefore be sufficient for a system that operates at ambient temperatures. Secondly the conductivity sensor is designed using the two- or four electrode methods are based on Ohms law. Thirdly pH Sensor Alternatives: The pH of water is an

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 10 important parameter to monitor because high and low pH levels can have dangerous effects on human health. The pH of a solution can range from 1 to 14.Fourthly Oxidation Reduction Potential: The ORP electrode uses a different reference solution and electrode than the pH sensor typically KCL Ag/Ag-Cl. Then coming to the wireless communication in which ZigBee is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and can reach 250 kbps data rate with a distance of 10 m-70 m. The design and implementation of a turbidity sensor as this is also an important parameter for monitoring quality of water. The current design is able to display the parameters in real-time however a history of the readings is not available thus data logging of the sensor measurements could also be considered. S.GokulAnathan 5 et.al presents that the pH conductivity and temperature are the 3 sensors used for processing module sensors capture the data in the form of analog signals. Arduino and Arduino and GSM are two data transmission modules used. The digital signals are sent to the Arduino via a GSM module. The microcontroller will process the digital information analyse it and further communication is done by the GSM module which sends an SMS with the water quality parameters onto the smart phone/PC which also displayed on the LCD of the Arduino. Finally to test more parameters of the water quality for some applications other sensors can be included in the system IoT concept can be used in the future. Increase the parameters by addition of multiple sensors by interfacing relay we controls the supply of water. Dr.PurnenduShekarPandey 6 et.al presents that a real time system which monitors water quality through sensors such as pH turbidity temperature and updates those values into the cloud service. These sensor values are then passed to NodeMCU micro controller which has inbuilt Wi-Fi module using which the data is passed over to Azure Event Hub. From Event Hub data is stored in Azure Storage hub in the form of structured data. Thereafter using Stream hub data is streamed to external services. Power BI which is also a Microsoft platform is used to display the sensor values in the form of Web page. This paper also uses MQTT client broker architecture to transmit data from micro controller to external MQTT broker service. He implemented the following algorithms Algorithm 1- External temperature is calculated from get External function the temperature of water is calculated using DS18B20 waterproof temperature sensor. Algorithm 2- Sending Email explains the email module of the system. MACHINE LEARNING is used to predict temperature of environment near the water storage system Improving the quality of life in rural as well as urban areas can be done by integrating this system with state and central government work flow we can

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 11 enable fast response rate from government officers.Wi-Fi access is not available in the villages of India Mobile GPRS can be added module to our system enabling it to transmit data over 3G or 4G channels. Finally Results can be improved on adding more quality sensors which can detect other physical and chemical parameters affecting the quality of water. Sami O. Osman 7 et.al documents that Data Notification Subsystem- It acts as the interface between the end user and the water quality monitoring system primary tasks are: alerting the user a real-time using both a visual and audible notification elements whenever the value of a water quality parameter exceeds the safe ranges real-time visualization of the sensors data on an LCD transferring data from data collection subsystem through serial communication protocol to be displayed on user friendly computer GUI. Hardware Implementation-Arduino Uno was connected to the breadboard along with the 5V and GND pins. The pH turbidity and temperature sensors were attached to analog pins A0 A1 and A2 respectively. The EC sensor serial pins were attached to digital pins 4 and 5 of the Arduino Uno which were configured to function as hardware serial pins. The LCD was connected to pins 8 through 13 of the Arduino Uno. The LED and Buzzer notification elements were connected to pins 6 and 7 respectively Software Implementation - several software programs in designing the system including: Arduino IDE platform Frizzing simulator Python pyCharm IDE PySide and the QT designer GUI development platform. The Arduino IDE is used to compose and send the program codes to the Arduino Uno. For the three analog sensors pH TU and Temperature the design of the proposed monitoring system requires the investigation and selection of the desired water quality parameters sensors and controller. Data Collection Subsystem- This first process in the monitoring cycle and is considered the most pivotal subsystem since it contains the sensors which monitor the water parameters values. Firstly in sensing unit: pH sensor Turbidity sensor Temperature Sensor Conductivity sensor. Secondly in processing unit: The effect of certain contaminants on water quality parameters .Development of contamination event detection algorithms .Improving the monitoring system capabilities using modern ICT technologies such as Internet of Things and Wireless Sensor Networks. SoumayaBelHadj 8 et.al presents a set of sensor cloudlets for measuring various data such as weather conditions water quality and level and dam structure state .A set of UAV cloudlets controlled by UAV providers which are charged of data delivery. Block chain technology to provide authentication data enforceability and integrity and traceability of the delivery task. All the collected data will be stored in the BC for later validation. She

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 12 implemented that the BC technology as a potential solution to respond to system requirements. The BC can be viewed as a distributed and public ledger. We use Proof-of- Work PoW which is known by its high scalability strength and security. Solving issues are double payment that can be achieved by receiving the same invoice and thus paying twice for the same request number and refusal to make payment for instance the DMC can refuse to pay the UAV broker even after the invoice reception. Raid Daoud 9et.al has proposed system and is used for monitoring water by using many sensors for each parameter of water connecting to the Arduino UNO as a controller to read all the data from the sensors process to send the information to the Thing Speak by Wi-Fi module ESP 8266. Thing Speak collects the data and analysis by MATLAB for sending data to the user for displaying LCD Mobile and PC. At the start needs to enter the Thing speak site to Create new channel by giving the name ID and put the felid 1-5 by the parameters of water pH TDS Turbidity EC and Temperature. By using GPS measure the Latitude Longitude and Elevation for the position of the channel the place of sensors. After complete all the information the Thing Speak site gives the API key to read and write. The channel ID and the API key are very important values to put in the MATLAB function. In this state Think Speak is ready to receive the data from Wi-Fi module for this reason initialized all the sensors all the sensors send the data to the Arduino for processing the data and sending to the internet through the Wi-Fi module ESP 8266 to the Think Speak. The Think Speak collect store and analyze the data to send the results through the internet to the display devices after run the code of MATLAB the program starts reading the API key and channel ID then send the data as a graphical plot. The results of the proposed system is very efficient and approximately to the laboratory results by 97.6 .for this reason the proposed system is very useful in the practical life instead of manually test for the laboratory station. The graphical results obtained by the Think speak observe by sign in the Think Speak site by user name and password to display the graphical results. AnangTjahjonohas 10 et.al built an IOT platform which consists of water condition monitoring sensor embedded system capable of processing sensor data and sending to data centre data transmission with MQTT protocol. The automated system for monitoring the quality of water is designed using active and passive sensors. Sends the status of monitoring system from things to things connections through internet MQTT protocol is used while sending the data and transmitting the report status. Firstly get the data from passive sensor by using web scrapping: In this stage they have built developed logging data during the

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 13 research. But during the observation on this research there is no logging data for sensor things so they build made the database to pull data for logging data water quality parameter to become data input. Then collecting data from Active Sensor in this stage they also have made the Internet of Things device consisting of a series of sensors that use water quality sensor and connected with embedded systems equipped with software that serves as a data processing unit of the sensor and send data to a data centre using a 4G connection and in the last Collection and retrieval of data Water quality sensor connected to the raspberry pi type B and the sensor is able to send data by using MQTT protocols we called the active sensors. To be able to store incoming data into MQTT Broker into the database required a connection into the database server. For next stage of research plan is combine the IOT Platform with application of Big Data System to classified river water quality using classification analysis. B. Koteswarrao 11 et.al has proposed system that reduces complexity and the performance increases by collecting the data of the water parameters like temperature water level co2 and pH. The information collected is updated on the web server that can be retrieved from anywhere in the world. In this WQM framework when the device board is switched ON the devices get into activated state and will discover the water parameters of individual sensors. Then the composed data of water parameters are transmitted to the web server wirelessly by using WI-FI module. The information is monitored frequently and presented in every action because the framework is set in a continuous mode. The information is refreshed for every 5 seconds. One hour is selected for the interval of sensing. It reduces power consumption. Future work developed multi-sensor network can be expanded with more sensors for the determination of water quality which will ensure more complex and detailed analysis of water condition. K.Gopavanitha 12 et.al proposed system consists of several sensors and are used for measuring water quality parameters such as pH turbidity conductivity temperature and flow .The measured values are sent to the core controller by ADC. Raspberry pi 3 is a core controller with high speed Wi-Fi and Bluetooth compatibility. Raspbianos is boot on raspberry pi. Raspbian is linux-kernal based computer operating system. Python program is used to access terminals of the sensors which will read and process the sensed values automatically .The Raspberry Pi comes equipped with a range of drivers for interfacing. However it‟s not feasible to load every driver when the system boots as it will increase the boot time significantly and use a considerable amount of system resources for redundant

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 14 processes. Then the monitoring parameters of the water from the sensors are transmitted through IOT module to the gateway. A gateway is created on Raspberry pi which is responsible for data analysis and forwarding the sensed data to server. The UDP packets are generated at the gateway and encapsulate the sample data that is to be sent to remote server. The server collects UDP packets and stores at data base. With separate IOT account sensed values are viewed and solenoid valves controlled from anywhere in the world using the in internet. Wi-Fi is used for accessing mobile devices. In future we can include biological sensor for better detection of contaminants in water and can install the system in several locations for high spatiotemporal coverage. A.N Prasad 13 et.aldocuments that the system monitors seawater quality. Wasp mote microcontroller board is used. The system as a whole comprises of sensors an analogue to digital convertor ADC a microcontroller an SD storage and a GSM module. File Transfer Protocol FTP server or a cloud server are used. To power conservation system design incorporates sleep mode. Sensors are connected to battery. In his proposed system Libeliu misused in this project and included the sensors microcontroller and GSM communication. The system gets a 15 minutes sleep time after an hour of continuous readings. The analog values from sensors are converted into digital using ADC converter. Then this digital data is transferred to controller board. In the board an SD card is inserted to store received data. Then this data is transmitted to cloud using GSM. In future we can include Block chain technology to avoid alteration of data. Cho ZinMyint 14 et.al presented “Reconfigurable Smart Water Quality Monitoring System in IOT Environment”. Here a reconfigurable smart sensor interface device for water quality monitoring system in an IOT environment is proposed. The smart WQM system consists of Field Programmable Gate Array FPGA design board sensors ZigBee based wireless communication module and personal computer PC. The FPGA board is the core component of the proposed system and it is programmed in very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language VHDL and C programming language using Quartus II software and Qsys tool. The WQM system collects the five parameters of water data such as water pH water level turbidity carbon dioxide CO2 on the surface of water and water temperature in parallel and in real time basis with high speed from multiple different sensor nodes. In future use cloud server to store data and alert the resident about the diseases which most likely will affect.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 15 Dziri Jalal Tahar 15 et.al documents that in this Libelium smart water sensor collects required data from sample water. Data will be routed to sink nodes by Zigbee links. Each sink transmits all the data to the control centre using GPRs links. Anomalies detection algorithm and Decentralized aggregation algorithm are used. Infuture we can integrate a stack protocol at sensor and also develop the computer platform to describe the functionalities test on real site. Maneesha V Ramesh 16 et.al in this project they have done 1 Deployment of water quality sensors in the water bodies near the dump yard and associated areas. 2 Collection and analysis of deployed pollutants in water in different seasons. 3 A comparative study of the health record as of the past five years and the data collected from the sensors to obtain a relationship between disease and presence of certain chemicals. 4 Develop an analytical model relating to seasonal variation rate of dissolution of pollution geographical position of water sources. 5 Set awareness campaigns and suggest precautionary measures ahead of time to avoid diseases that are expected to follow according to the assumptions made by deciphering the data. The proposed system has 4 steps 1 Bioremediation Process 2 Water quality monitoring 3 Soil quality monitoring 4 Real time health statistics monitoring 5 Real time alerts for the people on water resources. The sensors are connected to the solar panel. Data Aggregation algorithm is used. The water soil sensors reads values from sample Data is send to IOT Gateway node further transmission to the data aggregation node. Then the data is sent to the computing decision making module which allows proper alert to the society. The system is capable of edge computing. In future we can use storage system like SD card cloud etc to store data that collected.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 16 2.3 LITERATURE CONCLUSION  From the above survey we got an idea of how the water quality can be monitored in real time  We could use sensors to test the quality of water which were digital signals  Also how using internet the results of the tested water could viewed and further actions could be taken up.  This reduces a lot of manual work involved in traditional system of water testing.

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Chapter 3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 17 CHAPTER 3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 3.1 INTRODUCTION Requirement analysis is basically an understanding end user or target customers system requirement prior to any actual design or development work. Good requirement analysis practices reduce project risk and help the project running smoothly. Requirements are a description of how a system should behave or a description of system properties or attributes. The hardware interface involves defining the optimal characteristics of the hardware such that any software that is built over it will execute successfully. Software requirement specification is an official statement of what is required for the system developers. It is a detailed precise description of the system requirements which acts as a basis for the contract between client and software developers. A software requirement specification SRS is a description of a software system to be developed laying out functional requirements and may include a set of use cases that describe interactions the users will have with the software. Software requirement specification establishes the basis for an agreement between customers and contractors or suppliers in market driven projects these roles may be played by the marketing and development divisions on what the software product is to do as well as what it is not expected to do. Software requirements specification permits a rigorous assessment of requirements before design can begin and reduces later redesign. It should also provide a realistic basis for estimating product costs risks and schedules. The software requirement specification document enlists enough and necessary requirements that are required for the project development. To derive the requirements we need to have clear and thorough understanding of the products to be developed or being developed. This is achieved and refined with detailed and continuous communications with project team and customer till the completion of the software. 3.2 PURPOSE No other organism has destroyed the biological balance as badly as humans have in the last decade. Seeing these water bodies being polluted to an extent which makes them less of water body and more of sewer is quite sad. It is time that we start inventing innovative solutions

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 18 that can help us raise awareness among people about how we are destroying our planet. A smart water based IOT system can help us bring changes to the law and help us preserve these water bodies. Our idea is to use Block-chain which will monitor the parameters of water like pH temperature conductivity and turbidity based on IOT devices. Block-chain makes sure no data manipulation has been taken place. After data is sent to application for public access and deployed for months and government can take immediate action on it. 3.3 PROJECT PERSPECTIVE A multi-sensor water quality monitoring platform has been developed in the project. This incorporates novel sensor interface technologies that can be reconfigured to meet the monitoring requirements of a given scenario using a wide variety of sensor input types. The sensor interface capabilities enabled by the developed wireless sensor network platform allow for integration of a wide variety of commercially available sensors. The successful deployment of monitoring technology in the water bodies project highlights the value gained from the RD carried out over the 3-year period. This deployment does not encompass all sensor platforms but is a small step in the right direction. Various interfaces for the system could be-  login page  Adding factory  modify and delete factory details  Monitoring  Report generation  Further action  social media 3.3.1 HARDWARE INTERFACE The system should run over the internet the hardware required is Arduino sensors like PH turbidity temperature salinity. 3.3.2 SOFTWARE INTERFACE The system requires visual studio 2010 C.net winforms and asp.net to run the application. The system requires Data Base also for the store the any transaction of the system like MYSQL.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 19 3.4 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS This section provides requirement overview of the system. Various functional modules that can be implemented by the system will be – Place sensors: Tester place sensors at outlet of industries to take readings and readings are stored at cloud. Login CPCB Manager Login to system to monitor the water and to take actions. Adding factory Factory details are added before monitoring by CPCB manager because we can‟t access the server of CPCB so we are creating factory details. Modify Delete factory details Factory details are modified and deleted by CPCB manager. Monitoring CPCB Manager Take readings from cloud plot a graph by taking average readings if readings are vary from standard readings further actions will be taken. Report generation Based on the Vary of readings with standard readings report were generated if vary occurs report generated to purify water before 15 days else complimented report generated by CPCB Manager. Further actions-CPCB If purification is not done within 15 days further actions will be taken by posting factory details on social media and put fine until the purification done by CPCB Manager. Social media If purification not done within 15 days the factory details are posted by CPCB Manager. Receive mail Factory Manager receive report from CPCB about the quality of water based on report further action will take. Further action-factory Based on report factory manager will take further actions if there is negative report he take action to resolve problem else maintain the factory as it is.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 20 3.5 NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Availability  The system should be available at all times meaning the user can access it at any time.  In case of a of a hardware failure or database corruption a replacement page will be shown.  Also in case of a hardware failure or database corruption backups of the database should be retrieved from the server and saved by the administrator. Then the service will be restarted. It means that 24 X 7 availability. Portability  The system is designed with c.net winforms visual studio 2010 so the application is fully portable the application can be run at any system using software visual studio 2010 should be able to use the features of the system including any hardware platform that is available or will be available in the future.  An end-user is using this system on any OS either it is Windows or Linux.  The system shall run on PC Laptops and PDA etc. Reliability  The reliability of the overall program depends on the reliability of the separate components.  The main pillar of reliability of the system is the backup of the database which is continuously maintained and updated to reflect the most recent changes.  Data readings are continuously backup done by cloud.  Thus the overall stability of the system depends on the stability of container and its underlying operating system. Security The readings from the sensors are directly dump to the cloud cloud backup the datas immediately from this if the values are changed we can re verify the readings by backup the readings .so the readings and datas are secured that is the system secured to implement Maintainability  Maintainability is the measure of ability to successfully repair or fix the product after manufacturing usually in the field and over time.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 21  In case of a failure a re-initialization of the program will be done. Also the software design is being done with modularity in mind so that maintainability can be done efficiently.  Regular maintain of hardware sensors are done. 3.6 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT  Memory: 8GB memory card  Processor: Arduino  Internet 3.7 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT  Visual Studio  MySQL cloud

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Chapter 4 SYSTEM DESIGN

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 22 CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM DESIGN Design process is nothing but the representation of the systems or is a process of producing a mode which will be used to develop or build the system. The input for the design process is the SRS and output is “Design of proposed system” while the SRS is entirely in the problem domain design is the step in moving from problem domain to the final solution for satisfying the requirements. Thus it is essentially a blue for a solution for the system. Software design sites as the technical kernel of the software engineering process and is applied regardless of the development that is used. Once the software requirements are specified software design is the first of three technical activities design coding and testing. System design deals with transforming the customer requirements as described in the SRS document into a form that is implemented using a programming language. The following items must be designed during designing phase-  Different modules required to implement the design solution.  Control relationship among the identified modules.  Data structures of the individual modules.  Interface among the different modules identifies the call relationship and data invocation relationship among modules. 4.2 HIGH LEVEL DESIGN Design process is representation of the systems or is a process of producing a mode which will be used to develop or build the system. The input for the design process is the SRS and output is “Design of proposed system” while the SRS is entirely in the problem domain design is the step in moving from problem domain to the final solution for satisfying the requirements. Thus it is essentially a blue for a solution for the system. Software design sites as the technical kernel of the software engineering process and is applied regardless of the development that is used. Once the software requirements are specified software design is the first of three technical activities design coding and testing.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 23 System design deals with transforming the customer requirements as described in the SRS document into a form that is implemented using a programming language. The following items must be designed during designing phase-  Different modules required to implement the design solution.  Control relationship among the identified modules.  Data structures of the individual modules.  Interface among the different modules identifies the call relationship and data invocation relationship among modules. 4.2.1 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE System architecture gives an overall idea of how the software utilizes various services. The data‟s from the sensors dump to cloud and CPCB will access the data monitor the quality of water and take respective actions. The sensors are placed at outlet valve of industries the sensors data are send cloud the sensor data are computed by core controller Arduino the data‟s are viewed and monitored by CPCB department and take further action with respective to the data of water quality of respective factory. Fig 4.2.1: System Architecture

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 24 4.3 LOW LEVEL DESIGN Low level design is component-level design process that follows a step-by-step process. Low level design involves data structures software architecture and source code and performance algorithms. Low level design describes each and every module in elaborate manner. 4.3.1 FLOW CHART A Data Flow Diagram DFD is a diagram that describes the flow of data and the processes that change data throughout a system. A structured analysis and design tool can be used for flowcharting in place of or in association with information. Oriented and process oriented system flowcharts. When analysts prepare the Data Flow Diagram they specify the user needs at a level of detail that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the required data resources. This network is constructed by using a set of symbols that do not imply physical implementations. The Data Flow Diagram reviews the current physical system prepares input and output specification specifies the implementation plan etc. Four basic symbols are used to construct data flow diagrams. They are symbols that represent data source data flows and data transformations and data storage. The points at which data are transformed are represented by enclosed figures usually circles which are called nodes. Fig 4.3.1 Flowchart

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 25 4.3.1.1 LEVEL 0 DFD: TESTER Fig 4.3.1.1 Level 0 DFD: Tester 4.3.1.2 LEVEL 1 DFD: CPCB Fig 4.3.1.2 Level 1 DFD: CPCB 4.3.1.3 LEVEL 3 DFD: FACTORY MANAGER Fig 4.3.1.3 Level 3 DFD: Factory Manager

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 26 4.3.2 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM Sequence diagrams are the most popular UML artefact for dynamic modelling which focuses on identifying the behaviour within your system. Sequence diagrams along with class diagrams and physical data models are in experts‟ opinion the most important design- level models for modern business application development. 4.3.2.1 TESTER SEQUENCE DIAGRAM Fig 4.3.2.1 Tester Sequence Diagram 4.3.2.2 CPCB MANAGER SEQUENCE DIAGRAM Fig 4.3.2.2 CPCB Manager Sequence Diagram

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 27 4.3.3 USE CASE DIAGRAM A use case diagram in the Unified Modelling Language UML is a type of behavioural diagram defined by and created from a Use-case analysis. Its purpose is to present a graphical overview of the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors their goals represented as use cases and any dependencies between those use cases. An important part of the Unified Modelling Language UML is the facilities for drawing use case diagrams. Use cases are used during the analysis phase of a project to identify and partition system functionality. They separate the system into actors and use cases. Its purpose is to present a graphical overview of the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors their goals represented as use cases and any dependencies between those use cases. 4.3.3.1 TESTER USE CASE DIAGRAM Fig 4.3.2.1 Tester Use Case Diagram

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 28 4.3.3.2 CPCB MANAGER USE CASE DISGRAM Fig 4.3.2.2 CPCB Manager Use Case Diagram 4.3.3.3 FACTORY MANAGER USE CASE DIAGRAM Fig 4.3.2.3: Factory Manager Use case diagram

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 29 4.3.4 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflow. These are mainly used as a flowchart that consists of the activities performed by the system. Activity diagrams are not exactly flowcharts as they have some additional capabilities. The additional capabilities include parallel flow swim lane branching etc. Fig 4.2.4: Activity diagram

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Chapter 5 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 30 CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 Introduction to System Implementation Implementation stage of an application creation is actualization of ideas design and requirement specification into source code. The primary objective of implementation part of building a project is production of source codes with good style and comments when necessary by applying a proper and best coding technique which is suitable with the help of proper documents. Program codes are created in accordance to the structured coding techniques which adheres to control flow so that execution sequence follows the order in which codes are scripted. This makes the code unambiguous and more readable which eases understanding modifying debugging testing and documenting of the program. 5.1.1 Implementation steps  Presentation Layer is .Net front end which invokes the Business logic through page load or button click.  Business Layer the application and business logic that facilitates the functions and services that the applications provide contains the common methods. An object for Business logic class is created and object will invoke the method.  The Business Logic object will call Data Table method. Using connection string connection for the database is created and data transaction is done between Backend and frontend. Since MySQL is used as backend to interact with the database in the cloud.  Connection String: Theconnectionstring the connection is established between and the local host by the connection string. 5.2 Languages Used for Implementation .NET FRAMEWORK The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The .NET Framework is designed to

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 31 fulfil the following objectives: To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally executed locally but Internet-distributed or executed remotely.  To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts.  To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party.  To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.  To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.  To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code. The .NET Framework has two main components:  The common language runtime and  The .NET Framework class library The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time providing core services such as memory management thread management and removing while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. In fact the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code while code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code. The class library the other main component of the .NET Framework is a comprehensive object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface GUI applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET such as Web Forms and XML Web services.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 32 INTRODUCTION TO C C pronounced as „C Sharp‟ is a new computer-programming language developed by Microsoft Corporation USA. C is a fully object-oriented language like Java and is the first Component-oriented language. It has been designed to support the key features of .NET Framework the new development platform of Microsoft for building component-based software solutions. It is a simple efficient productive and type-safe language derived from the popular C and C++ languages. Although it belongs to the family of C/C++ it is a purely object-oriented modern language suitable for developing Web-based applications. C is designed for building robust reliable and durable components to handle real-world applications. Major highlights of C are:  It is a brand new language derived from the C/C++ family.  It simplifies and modernizes C++.  It is the only component-oriented language available today.  It is the only language designed for the .NET Framework.  It is a concise lean and modern language.  It combines the best features of many commonly used languages: the productivity of Visual Basic the power of C++ and the elegance of Java.  It is intrinsically object-oriented and web-enabled.  It has a lean and consistent syntax.  It embodies today‟s concern for simplicity productivity and robustness.  It will become the language of choice for .NET programming.  Major parts of .NET Framework are actually coded in C. 5.3 Algorithms 5.3.1 ALGORITHM OF MICRO-CONTROLLER 1. Water sample for testing 2. PH sensor temperature sensor conductivity sensor turbidity sensor are dipped in water beaker to determine the PH temperature conductivity and turbidity of water. 3. The sensor values are taken to micro-controller through RS232 serial communication port.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 33 4. To communicate through micro-controller and analog to digital converter the following steps are performed  De ne pin  De ne micro-controller ports and pins  De ne pins as universal asynchronous  De ne data rate in MHZ  Port b pin 5 for transmission  Port b pin 2 for receiving data 5. Void rx // function to receive data from serial communication 6. UNIT8 ADC0ReadAsBytes 7. UNIT8 ADC0ReadAsInt // to convert analog to digital data 8. Void main // control begins 9. End 5.3.2 ALGORITHM TO READ DATA FROM SENSORS 1. Void port-reader // to get data from micro-controller  Create thread  Call constructor 2. Port Reader port name stmtcmd  Create object of comport identifier 3. If port is busy Print error message Else Connect a port start reading 4. If connected port is serial port  Set serial port parameters  Start running thread 5. th.start 6. main  create input stream object  create output stream object 7. class factory location 8. connect to cloud

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 34 9. send data to cloud 10. End 5.3.3 ALGORITHM OF WATER QUALITY MONITORING 1.Data is stored in cloud 2.Stored data in cloud is processed based on location 3.Test result in cloud is sent to water quality managing department based on location 4.Water quality monitoring starts with clicking start monitoring button the algorithm for internal process that takes place are as fallows  Monitoring Load object EventArgs checks database connectivity  Selecting factory name  Start button-clickobject eventargs show stop monitoring in button  If button value is start Create thread to read data Else Abort thread show start monitoring in button 5.Estimate purity  Read data  Get xml data from hardware  If xml data is not null Add sensor readings to database up to 12 readings and take average 6.Fin purity based on standard water quality test data sheet conditions are written to estimate purity 7.End 5.3.4 ALGORITHM OF GUI 1. Form to add factory details to the database includes the following Step: to insert image Void btnbrowseclick object Eventargs Create openfiledialog object If image in.jpg Image in jpg format are taken Insert image

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 35 Else Show message to insert only jpg format 2. Text boxes in the form to add factory details textboxes should not be empty Btnsaveclick object eventargs to save entered details to database If textbox is empty Display message to fill all the Fields Else Add the data to database 3. Bytetoarray Conversion of image byte to bit array to store in database 4. Load form details to database Private void form1load object eventargs Connect to database 5. To nd compare‟s that exist Btnfindclick object eventargs To check details of particular company If company exists Display details 6. End 5.3.5 ALGORITHM OF NOTIFICATION MODULE 1. Water quality test results sent from cloud are stored in database 2. Quality manager in water quality managing department checks water quality of factories in his location 3. If any factory water quality is found bad the mail is sent to respective authority. 4. Report is generated in pdf format and mail is sent The fallowing are steps involved in report generation and sending mail: static class program  The main entry point for the application  Class rapidmailsender //class to send mail  Send //functions called to send mail  Using smtp protocol mailmessagefrom to  Filestreamfname fmode faccess  Mail.attachments.add //to attach pdf

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 36  Smtp.sendmail  End 5.4 Methodology and Modules 5.4.1 Module 1 Member from CPCB board  login page  Adding factory  modify and delete factory details  Monitoring  Report generation  Further action  Update on social media 5.4.2 Module 2 Factory Owner  Receive mail  Further action from factory

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Chapter 6 TESTING

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 37 CHAPTER 6 TESTING 6.1 Introduction to Testing Software testing is performed to verify that the completed software package functions according to the expectations defined by the requirements/specifications. The overall objective is not to find every software bug that exists but to uncover situations that could negatively impact the customer usability and/or maintainability. 6.1.1 PURPOSE OF TESTING  Finding defects which may get created by the programmer while developing the software.  To prevent defects.  To make sure that the end result meets the business and user requirements.  To ensure that it satisfies the BRS that is Business Requirement Specification and SRS that is System Requirement Specifications.  To gain the confidence of the customers by providing them a quality product. 6.2 Testing Types There are two types of testing. They are: 1. White Box Testing 2. Black Box Testing 1. WHITE BOX TESTING It is a software testing method in which the internal structure/design/implementation of the item being tested is known to the tester. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determines the appropriate outputs. Programming know-how and the implementation knowledge is essential. This method is named so because the software program in the eyes of the tester is like a white/transparent box inside which one clearly sees. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements branches paths conditions. Also known as structural

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 38 testing and Glass box Testing. 2. BLACK BOX TESTING Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. This method is named so because the software program in the eyes of the tester is like a black box inside which one cannot see. Black box testing is a testing technique that ignores the internal mechanism of the system and focuses on the output generated against any input and execution of the system. It is also called functional testing. 6.3 Test Cases 6.3.1 Test Scenario 1: Enter proper credentials login as CPCB manager and check for successful login. Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Open the application N/A „login‟ winform must be displayed „login‟ winform is displayed Pass 2 Enter username password. Click on login. Username: admin Password: India main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass Table 6.3.1: Test Case 1 6.3.2 Test Scenario 2: Enter proper credentials check for forgot password mail and successful exit Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Open the application N/A „login‟ winform must be displayed „login‟ winform is displayed Pass 2 Click on „click here‟ N/A Password mail must be send Password mail is sent Pass 3 Click on „close‟ N/A Application must be close Application is closed Pass Table 6.3.2: Test Case 2 6.3.3 Test Scenario 3: Login as CPCB add a factory by entering details manually. Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: India main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 39 Table 6.3.3: Test Case 3 6.3.4 Test Scenario 4: Login as CPCB add a factory by clicking on To provide factory location details. Ste p Description Input Expected result Actual result Statu s 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: India main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „profile‟ Select „manage factory‟ N/A „Add new factory‟ winform must be displayed „Add new factory‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Enter factory name and city Click on Factory name and city: jk tyre Mysore factory address: Factory name address factory lat factory lon fields must be filled Factory name address factory lat factory lon fields is filled Pass 4 Enter email contact type of factory management photo Click on add icon „factory added successfully‟ message must be displayed „factory added successfully ‟ message is displayed Pass 5 Click on gps icon www.latlong.com page must be open www.latlong .com page is open Pass Table 6.2.4: Test Case 4 6.3.5 Test Scenario 5: Login as CPCB find factory details Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Stat us 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: india main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „profile‟ Select „manage factory‟ N/A „add new factory‟ winform must be displayed „add new factory‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Enter factory name Details Factory name and city: jk tyre Mysore „successfully added‟ message must be displayed „successfully added‟ message is displayed Pass 4 Click on gps icon N/A www.latlong.comp age must be open www.latlong.com page is open pass

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 40 2 Click on „profile‟ Select „manage factory‟ N/A „Add new factory‟ winform must be displayed „Add new factory‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Enter factory name and city Click on find N/A Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact pass Table 6.2.5: Test Case 5 6.3.6 Test Scenario 6: Login as CPCB find factory details and modify factory Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: India main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „profile‟ Select „manage factory‟ N/A „Add new factory‟ winform must be displayed „Add new factory‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Enter factory name and city Click on find N/A Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact type of factory management photo must be filled Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact type of factory management photo is filled Pass 4 Enter email contact management photo Click on modify Email: jktyregmail.com contact: 0821-2410633 „modified successfully‟ message must be displayed „modified successfully‟ message is displayed Pass Table 6.2.6: Test Case 6 6.3.7 Test Scenario 7: Login as CPCB find factory details and delete factory Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: india main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „profile‟ Select „manage factory‟ N/A „Add new factory‟ winform must be displayed „Add new factory‟ winform is displayed Pass

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 41 3 Enter factory name and city Click on find N/A Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact type of factory management photo must be filled Factory address factory lat factory lon email contact type of factory management photo is filled pass 4 Click on ‟delete‟ Click on „yes‟ N/A „are you sure‟ message must be display „deleted successfully‟ message must be display „are you sure‟ message is display „deleted successfully ‟ message is display pass Table 6.2.7: Test Case 7 6.3.8 Test Scenario 8: Login as CPCB monitor a factory’s water quality and generate report Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: admin main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „data acquisition‟ Select „monitoring‟ N/A „monitoring‟ winform must be displayed „monitoring‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Select factory name Click on „start monitoring‟ N/A Ph turbidity temp salinity avg ph avg turbidity avg temp avg salinity fields must be filled Ph turbidity temp salinity avg ph avg turbidity avg temp avg salinity fields is filled Pass 4 Click on generate report N/A Report must be send Report is sent Pass Table 6.2.8: Test Case 8 6.3.9 Test Scenario 9: Login as CPCB view reported factory report and resolve Step Description Input Expected result Actual result Status

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 42 1 Login as CPCB Username: admin Password: admin main screen must be displayed main screen is displayed Pass 2 Click on „data acquisition‟ Select „monitoring‟ N/A „monitoring‟ winform must be displayed „monitoring‟ winform is displayed Pass 3 Click on „further action‟ Click on ‟click to get factories reported for water contaminated‟ N/A „further action‟ winform must be displayed Reported factories must be displayed „further action‟ winform is displayed Reported factories is displayed Pass 4 Right click on reported factory Click on resolve Click on yes N/A „all issues resolved are you sure‟ message must be displayed „resolved successfully‟ message must be displayed „all issues resolved are you sure‟ message is displayed „resolved successfully‟ message is displayed Pass Table 6.2.9: Test Case 9

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Chapter 7 RESULT ANALYSIS

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 43 CHAPTER 7 RESULT ANALYSIS 7.1 Introduction to Result In this document we show how to include images. Some examples will be dis-played. The graph that has been plotted above in the pure shows the result of our project based on this graph the water analysis is conducted. The graph is a graphical representation of the parameters of the water that we are testing. If certain parameter in the water is not t or suitable for the environment then button given above becomes red indicating that the water needs to be purified for that parameter There are 4 parameters that we are checking on to decide the quality of the water the ph temperature turbidity and salinity. If any 3 out of 4 parameters blinks red then the water department sends a notification for that particular factory of which the water has been tested. A pdf report is generated with the details of the factory the time and the date. The report contains values of each parameter and what that kind of water is suitable for. It also contains the importance of ph temperature turbidity and salinity in water. The parameter button blinks red based on these values: For Temperature in Celsius: if the sensor reads 0 9 o C poor 10 14 o C fair 15 25 o C good 26 36 o C fair37 o C poor. For ph: if sensor reads 5.5 poor 5.5 6.5 average 6.5 to 8.0 good 8.1 to 8.5 average 8 .6 poor. For turbidity in nephrons electric turbidity units: if sensor reads 10 good 11 - 29 fair 30 poor. For salinity in micro Siemens : if the sensor reads: 0 to 100 Excellent 30 rainfall500 Fair 750 Poor 840 sewage fluent1600 Upper limit for drink-ing5000 Upper limit for crops8000 Upper limit for livestock50 000 Seawater

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 44 7.2 Snapshots with Description Snapshot 7.1: Screen Shot of Login Screen Snapshot 7.2: Screen shot of Main Screen

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 45 Snapshot 7.3: Screen shot of Add Factory Snapshot 7.4: Screen Shot of Monitoring

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 46 Snapshot 7.5: Screen shot of Report Generation Snapshot 7.6: Screen shot of receiving Mail

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 47 Snapshot 7.7: Screen Shot of Reported Factory Snapshot 7.8: Screen Shot of Social Media

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 48 Snapshot 7.9: Screen Shot of Change Password Snapshot 7.10: Screen shot of Factory Location

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CONCLUSION

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 49 CONCLUSION The above presented project was successful in what it had to achieve. Our main objective was to reduce the time required for testing of water in laboratories and we have been able to achieve it but with lesser accuracy. It reduces the laboratory equipment that would be required for the traditional way of testing the water for its quality. The major point is we have been able to record all the details obtained in our testing in cloud. The results can be viewed and fetched whenever required. The monitoring of water can be done online easily using this system. Hence we have tried to achieve all our objectives.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 50 FUTURE WORK We have tried to implement testing of water with respect to few parameters as future work this could be implemented for other parameters as well like dissolved oxygen amount of nitrate phosphate or even chlorine. This could be of great help to the water department as well. This method reduces a lot of laboratory work expenses and even time. There are sensors available in the market to detect phosphate nitrate chlorine etc. It could be made use of to test the quality of water. It could also be modified to test harmful chemicals in drinking water as we all know there a lot of people and animals suffering from diseases passed on by chemical led water. It could be used to check bacterial growth in water. As the system is easy to carry about also it could be taken to the place where the water needs to be tested and directly water sample could be used for testing. One more enhancement that could be done to this system is sending push notifications to mobiles of the factory owner that is saved in the database of the water department. That is along with the email a certain notification to the phone so that he won‟t be able to deny of the email that was sent to him. Push notification is a form of message that is automatically sent at pre send time to the numbers that has been specified. Once the factory has been notified to be giving out impure water along with the report being sent to the email of the factory owner this push notification could also be sent.

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 51 REFERENCES 1 “Water Quality Analyzer using IOT” Manoharan.S IJITEE volume-8 issue-8S June 2019 2 “IoT based Water Quality Monitoring System” MoniraMukta 4 th International Conference 2019 3 “Design and Development of IOT based Water Quality Measurement System” RushikeshKshirsagar Conference 2019 4 “Design of Smart Sensors for Real-time Water Quality Monitoring” Lakshmi Nair Journal 2014 5 “A GSM Based Water Quality Monitoring System” S.Gokulanathan Journal 2019 6 “Water Quality System using IoT and Machine Learning” Dr.PurnenduShekarPandey IEEE 2018 7 “Design and Implementation of a Low-cost Real-time in-Situ Drinking Water Quality Monitoring System using Arduino” Sami O. Osman Conference 2018 8 “A Block-chain based Secure IoT Solution for the Dam Surveillance” SoumayaBelHadj 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference WCNC 9 “Drinking Water Monitoring in Mosul City UsingIoT” Raid Daoud IEEE 2019 10 “Development of IoT for Automated Water Quality Monitoring System” AnangTjahjono IEEE 2019 11 “Smart Water Quality Monitoring System Using IotTechnology” B. Koteswarrao IEEE 2018 12 “A Low Cost System for Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Controlling using IoT” K.Gopavanitha IEEE 2017 13 “Smart Water Quality Monitoring System” A.N Prasad Research Gate 2015 14 “Reconfigurable Smart Water Quality Monitoring System in IoTEnvironment” ChazinMyint IEEE 2017

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Water Quality Monitoring System using IoT and Block-chain Dept. of CSE MRIT Mandya 2019-2020 Page 52 15 “Towards a Water Quality Monitoring System based on Wireless Sensor Network” Dziri Jalal IEEE 2017 16 “Water Quality Monitoring Waste Management using IoT” Maneesha V Ramesh IEEE 2017 17“Nitrate and Sulphate Estimations in Water Sources Using a Planar Electromagnetic Sensor Array and Artificial Neural Net-work Method" AlifSyaraMohamad Nor IEEE Sensors Journal Vol. 15 No. 1 January 2015 18 “A Low-cost System for Real Time Monitoring and Assessment of Potable Water Quality at Consumer Sites” T. P. Lambrou IEEE Sensors Oct. 2012 19 “Solid-state Sensors Monitoring Parameters of Water Quality for the Next Generation of Wireless Sensor Networks” S.Zhuiykov Sens. Actuators B Chem. vol. 161 no. 1 2012. 20 “A Portable Sensor with Disposable Electrodes for Water Bacterial Quality Assessment” Marco Grossi Roberto Lazzarini Massimo Lanzoni Anna Pompei Diego Matteuzzi and Bruno Ricco IEEE SENSORS JOUR-NAL VOL. 13 NO. 5 MAY 20 21 “Process Model-based Atomic Service Discovery and Composition of Composite Semantic Web Services using Web Ontology Language for Services" D. Paulraj S. Swamynathan and M. Madhaiyan Enter. Inf. Syst. vol. 6 no. 4 pp. 445471 2012. 22 “Methodology Towards Virtualization-based High Performance Simulation Platform Supporting Multidisciplinary Design of Complex Products"L. Ren L. Zhang F. Tao X. Zhang Y. Luo and Y. Zhang Enterprise Inf. Syst. vol. 6 no. 3 pp. 267290 2012. 23 “Pipe Scales and Bio lms in Drinking-Water Distribution Systems: Under-mining Finished Water Quality" Konstantinos C. Makris Syam S. An-dra and GeorgeBotsaris. IEEE Sponsored 2nd International Conference on Innovations in Information Embedded and Communication systems ICI-IECS 2015

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