PBM 1st unit

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Principles of Management :

By Prof. Chetana Soni Principles of Management chapter 1 1

Chapter 1 Nature of Management :

Chapter 1 Nature of Management This chapter introduces the concept & the elements of Management. It identifies major schools of management thought and describes how they evolved. Modern approaches are emphasized & the role of the manager is closely examined. chapter 1 2

Administration & Management :

Administration – It involves “thinking “. It is top level function which centers around the determination of plans, policies & objectives of business enterprise. Management – It involves “Doing”. It lower level of function which is concerned with execution & direction of policies & operations. chapter 1 3 Administration & Management

Concept of Management:

Management may be defined as a process whereby scarce resources (Man, Money, Material & Machine) are combined to achieve organizational goals. Without management, people would pursue their own objectives independently and this would lead to waste & inefficiency. It is element that co-ordinate current organizational activities & plan futures one. chapter 1 4 Concept of Management

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chapter 1 5 1)According to Mary Parker Follett- “Management is the art of getting things done through people”. 2) According to George R. Terry - “Management as process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating & Controlling , performed to determine & accomplish the objectives by the use of people & resources.”

Management Functions :

According to Newman & Summer their are the four functions - Planning, organizing, Leading & Controlling. According to Henry Fayol five main functions of management planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating & Controlling. chapter 1 6 Management Functions

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chapter 1 7 According to Luther Gulick states seven functions of Management under the catch word “POSDCORB” According to joseph Massie Seven functions as their for Management “POSDDCC” According to Koontz & O'Donnell divide the management function into Planning, Organizing, staffing, directing & Controlling. Here Ernest Dale has introduced two additional management function name as 1) Innovation 2) Representation

Management is “process where all the function blend into each other like a flowing water of river.” except when a new organization is being formed :

chapter 1 8 Management is “process where all the function blend into each other like a flowing water of river.” except when a new organization is being formed

Roles of A Manager :

Interpersonal Roles 1) Figurehead 2) Leader 3) Liaison Informational Roles 1) Monitor 2) Disseminator 3) Spokesman chapter 1 9 Roles of A Manager

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chapter 1 10 Decisional Roles 1) Entrepreneur 2) Disturbance Handler 3) Resource Allocator 4) Negotiator

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chapter 1 11 Management Skills

Development of Management Thought:

The development of management thought can be considered to comprise three main periods. Early Management thought The scientific management movement The human relations movement Modern influences chapter 1 12 Development of Management Thought

Early Management thought :

Egyptians ( Pyramids of Egypt) Greeks ( Believe in assigning one task to one person.) ADVENT OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ( up to 1950) James watt (Breakthrough in technology) Adam Smith ( Division of Work) chapter 1 13 Early Management thought

The Scientific Management Movement:

Fredrick Winslow Taylor ( 1856-1915) is considered as father of Scientific Management . During his career spanning a period of 26 years, he conducted a series of experiments in three companies. 1) Midvale Steel 2) Simonds Rolling 3) Bethlehem Steel chapter 1 14 The Scientific Management Movement

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chapter 1 15 CONTRIBUTION BY TAYLOR Time & Motion Study Differential Payment Drastic reorganization of supervision Scientific recruitment & training Intimate friendly co-operation between the management & workers.

Limitations of Scientific Management:

chapter 1 16 Limitations of Scientific Managemen t 1) Economic incentives are strong enough to motivate workers for increased production proved wrong. Taylor Time &Motion study is not accepted as entirely scientific. This is because two time study done by two separate individuals may time the same job entirely differently. There is no such things as “one best way” so far as component motion is concerned. Separation of planning & doing and the great specialization produce greater monotony of work . Advances in methods & better tools & Machines eliminates some w orkers , who found difficult to get other jobs.

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chapter 1 17 ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT Henry Fayol ( 1841-1925) Father of Administrative Management He was French mining engineer . he used the word Administration instead of Management According to him business activities are divided into six category. Technical Financial Commercial Accounting Security Managerial.

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chapter 1 18 Division of Work Authority & Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordinates of individual interest to general interest Remuneration

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chapter 1 19 Centralization Scalar chain order Equity Stability & tenure of personnel Initiative Espirit de corps

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chapter 1 20 Limitation of Administrative Management Specialization function given by Fayol leads to formulation of small groups, dissatisfaction of workers & result in increasing overhead cost. Some of the principles are contradictory.( Unity of Command , principle of specialization & division of work.) The principles are bases on the assumption that organization is closed system.

The Human Relations Movement:

George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 - 7 September 1949) is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement . He has conducted research under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s which shows how the groups affecting the behavior of individual. His research was initially straightforward and practical chapter 1 21 The Human Relations Movement

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chapter 1 22 WAYS OF EXPERIMENTS ILLUMINATION EXPERIMENTS RELAY ASSEMBLY TEST ROOM INTERVIEWING PROGRAMME BANK WIRING ROOM

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chapter 1 23 Behavioural Approach This approach is highly centralized on understanding the organizational behaviour .The behavioural scientist are highly critical of the classical organization structures which are build around the traditional concepts of hierarchical authority, unity of command, line & staff relationships & narrow span of control. Such kind of organization reduce the employee productivity. Behaviorists prefer more flexible organization structures & jobs built around the capabilities & aptitudes of human rationality. They attach great weightage to participative & group decision making . The scientist study the issue why individuals join groups, group size , structure & process , group cohesiveness . They were in the favor of both Autocratic & Democratic style of leadership.

Modern Influences:

Modern Management thought came into existence with the formulation of Operational research team during the world war II. British come out with the expertise in mathematical , physicists & scientist to form operational Research teams. Here management is purely considered as logical process expressed in mathematical symbols & relationships. After the end of world war the industrialist even started to use this techniques to solve the business issues. chapter 1 24 Modern Influences

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chapter 1 25 In this technique the mixed team of specialist from the relevant disciplines is called to analyze the problem & to propose the suitable course of action to the management . The team of experts constructed a mathematical model to give logical & rational solution to the problem. The model which was developed by the team of experts show the relevant factors which was bear on the problem in numerical terms & how the factors are co-related with each other. Just by changing the value of variables in the model & analyzing the different equations the effect of change can be evaluated . The keynote of this approach is precision and perfection which is achieved by expressing relationship & fact in quantitative way.

System Approach:

A system is a set of independent parts which together form a unitary whole. The organization is consist of sub- system composed of four interdependent parts. Task Structure People Technology System theorist study management by putting things together & assume that the whole is greater than some of its parts. chapter 1 26 System Approach

Concepts of system approach:

Synergy Open & closed ended System Boundary Flow Feedback chapter 1 27 Concepts of system approach

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chapter 1 28 SYSTEM APPROACH

Contingency Approach to Management:

The approach is to identify the conditions of a task (scientific school management), managerial job (administrative management school) and persons (human relations school) as parts of a complete management situation and attempt to integrate them all into a solution which is more appropriate for a specific circumstance. chapter 1 29 Contingency Approach to Management

Management for the future:

An awareness of & ability to relate to the economic, social, and political environment. An ability to manage in a turbulent environment. An ability to manage with complex organizational structures. An ability to be innovative & initiate change. An ability to manage & utilize increasingly sophisticated information systems. An ability to manage people with widely different & changing values and expectations. chapter 1 30 Management for the future

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chapter 1 31 Thank You

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