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PERKONGSIAN ILMU (Latihan dalam perkhidmatan) 2009:

NS/BIOBEST 1 PERKONGSIAN ILMU (Latihan dalam perkhidmatan) 2009 RADZIAH BINTI MOHD YAMIN GURU CEMERLANG SAINS SMK BUKIT SAUJANA PORT DICKSON

Program Kecemerlangan BIOLOGY SPM 2009:

NS/BIOBEST 2 Program Kecemerlangan BIOLOGY SPM 2009 BIOLOGY WORKSHOP Paper 2 (4551/2)

EXAM FORMAT FOR SPM BIOLOGY:

NS/BIOBEST 3 EXAM FORMAT FOR SPM BIOLOGY DURATION OF TIME FORMAT OF PAPER TOTAL ITEM MARKs % 1 Section A : Simple Multiple Choice Qn 25 (1¼ h) Section B : Moderately difficult MCQ 15 50 25 Section C : Difficult MCQ 10 2 Sec. A : Compulsory structured item 5 60 (2 1/2 h) Sec. B : Limited response item [Essay] 1/2 20 50 : Open-response item [Essay] 1/2 20 3 Structured Item 1 33 (1 1/2 h) Open-response item 1 17 25 4 PEKA & Persijilan - - - 100

Paper 2 (4551/2):

NS/BIOBEST 4 Paper 2 (4551/2) Section A ( 5 structure questions ) *answer all *score : 60 Section B (4 essay questions) *answer any two *score : 40

Biology ……..:

NS/BIOBEST 5 Biology …….. Understanding not memorising Biological concepts are related , not stand alone More exercise to get use the different type of questions

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NS/BIOBEST 6 Test your understanding Detect your weakness Get use the exam format Acquire answering skill Practice makes perfect

Use mind mapping / concept mapping to ::

NS/BIOBEST 7 Use mind mapping / concept mapping to : Prepare short notes Recall back To fast revision Link up concept See whole concepts

B. Questions/ITEMs have 4 components:

NS/BIOBEST 8 B. Questions/ITEMs have 4 components Stimuli (S) : Diagrams, Tables, Graphs, Statements… 2) Command words (C): Draw.., Describe.., Explain, Justify why, Differentiate, Complete., What conclusion, Compare, Define,State the meaning.., Discuss… , Suggest.., Estimate… 3) Task (T) : Statements to be written as responses to the items // Concept 4) Marks (M) : Shows how many points must be written.

Sample Question to identify …. S-C-T-M:

NS/BIOBEST 9 Sample Question to identify …. S-C-T-M Example 2 (SPM 2004 / Paper 2 / Section A / No 3d) : Blood Vessel Volume / cm 3 Pressure /kPa X 100 13.3 Y 300 0.3 d (i) Based on the table 3.2, What conclusion can you make about the rate of blood flow in the blood vessels X and Y? Explain your answer. [2 marks] S : ……………………… C : ……………………. T : ……………………. M : …….. Table 3.2 F : The rate of blood flow in the blood vessels X / aorta is higher than blood vessels Y / vena cava. E 1 : X/ aorta carried blood with high pressure from heart whereas Y / vena cava carried blood with low pressure from body cell / tissue E 2 : Lumen size of X / aorta is smaller than lumen size of vena cava/Y

Name…..:

NS/BIOBEST 10 Name….. Require the specific answer …. Example: Name one organ where cell Q is found Cell Q

The answer is …..:

NS/BIOBEST 11 The answer is ….. Gonad Reproductive organ Testes ovary

Diagram 3.1 shows three stages of mitosis, P, Q and R, in an animal cell. Name the stages P, Q and R in the spaces provided in Diagram 3.1.:

NS/BIOBEST 12 Diagram 3.1 shows three stages of mitosis, P, Q and R, in an animal cell. Name the stages P, Q and R in the spaces provided in Diagram 3.1 .

Diagram 3.1 shows three stages of mitosis, P, Q and R, in an animal cell. Name the stages P, Q and R in the spaces provided in Diagram 3.1.:

NS/BIOBEST 13 Diagram 3.1 shows three stages of mitosis , P, Q and R, in an animal cell. Name the stages P, Q and R in the spaces provided in Diagram 3.1 .

State….:

NS/BIOBEST 14 State…. More general.. Example : State the function of organelle S S

The answer :

NS/BIOBEST 15 The answer To generate energy To generate cellular respiration

State the chromosome behavior at the following stages. Stage P Stage R:

NS/BIOBEST 16 State the chromosome behavior at the following stages. Stage P Stage R

DRAW..:

NS/BIOBEST 17 DRAW.. Construct a pyramid of…. Sketch a diagram.. Draw a cross section of… Illustrate the above statements ….

Using the information in figure 6, construct a pyramid of energy for that ecosystem.:

NS/BIOBEST 18 Using the information in figure 6, construct a pyramid of energy for that ecosystem. FIGURE 6

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NS/BIOBEST 19 The answer… must start with Producer carnivore herbivore Producer Producer 6 x 10 4 kJ Herbivore 5x10 3 kJ Carnivor e 30 kJ

Grasshopper, Paddy plant, Caterpillar , Frog , Owl , Snake , Rat:

NS/BIOBEST 20 Grasshopper, Paddy plant, Caterpillar , Frog , Owl , Snake , Rat Based on the above organisms , construct : A food web showing the interaction of all organisms A pyramid of numbers consisting of four trophic levels

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NS/BIOBEST 21

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NS/BIOBEST 22

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NS/BIOBEST 23

Sketch a diagram to show the movement of the substance across plasma membrane by osmosis:

NS/BIOBEST 24 Sketch a diagram to show the movement of the substance across plasma membrane by osmosis Things to be considered : Plasma membrane, water, sucrose An arrow to show direction of movement Size of water and sucrose molecules Number of water and sucrose molecules

Suggested diagram:

NS/BIOBEST 25 Suggested diagram Early situation Final situation Plasma membrane Water molecule Sucrose molecule 19 8 15 15

In the space below, draw a section through the ovule, showing all cells in S. label the cells involved in fertilization.:

NS/BIOBEST 26 In the space below, draw a section through the ovule, showing all cells in S. label the cells involved in fertilization . S : embryo sac Able to draw the cells and show the positions of 8 nucleus Label polar cells and egg cells S

Diagram…:

NS/BIOBEST 27 Diagram… Polar cells Egg cell *Labelling for diagram must have connecting lines

Diagram 5 shows the regulation of specific hormones towards the development in the ovary :

NS/BIOBEST 28 Diagram 5 shows the regulation of specific hormones towards the development in the ovary In diagram 5, draw the change that occurs to structure T on 26 th day.

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NS/BIOBEST 29 Q R S T U

Diagram shows the human blood circulatory system :

NS/BIOBEST 30 Diagram shows the human blood circulatory system Mark the following flow of blood to illustrate the circulations R and S : Oxygenated blood with arrow Deoxygenated blood with the arrow

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NS/BIOBEST 31

Complete Diagram 4.2 to show a DNA molecule. Part of one of the nucleotide chains has been drawn. :

NS/BIOBEST 32 Complete Diagram 4.2 to show a DNA molecule. Part of one of the nucleotide chains has been drawn.

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NS/BIOBEST 33 P Q

Cross diagram..:

NS/BIOBEST 34 Cross diagram.. Parental phenotype Parental genotype Key Gamete formation Meiosis Fertilization Offspring genotype Offspring phenotype Phenotype ratio

Mendel`s First Law : A characteristic of an organism is determined by a pair of genes located at the same locus of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Only one of the pair of genes can be present in a gamete :

NS/BIOBEST 35 Mendel`s First Law : A characteristic of an organism is determined by a pair of genes located at the same locus of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Only one of the pair of genes can be present in a gamete Illustrate the above statements using the following cross : female x male Parent black mouse black mouse

Cross Diagram…:

NS/BIOBEST 36 Cross Diagram… Key : B : black mouse , dominant allele b : white, recessive allele parental phenotype : black x black parental genotype : Bb Bb gamete : B b B b Fertilization : meiosis

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NS/BIOBEST 37 Offspring genotype BB Bb Bb bb Offspring phenotype black, black, black, white Phenotype ratio 3 black : 1 white Phenotype ratio 3 : 1

Correct and Complete the Cross Diagram:

NS/BIOBEST 38 Correct and Complete the Cross Diagram

Difference:

NS/BIOBEST 39 Difference State aspects for both subject Use or relate the two subject with the same aspect with but / meanwhile / where as …

State one difference between lymph and the blood:

NS/BIOBEST 40 State one difference between lymph and the blood Subject : LYMPH vs BLOOD Aspect : COMPONENT in both fluids Suggested Answer : Lymph has no red blood cells but blood has red blood cells // Lymph has no plasma protein meanwhile blood has plasma protein.

Compare two structures …:

NS/BIOBEST 41 Compare two structures … Similarity and differences Examples : Compare two structures of a afferent neurone and a efferent neurone . ………………………………………………. ………………………………………………

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NS/BIOBEST 42 afferent efferent

Location of cell body = aspect afferent n efferent = subject:

NS/BIOBEST 43 Location of cell body = aspect afferent n efferent = subject 1. Similarity : Both neurones have myelin sheath, cell body, and dendrite 2. Difference : Location of Cell body of Afferent neurone is at the side of the cell but cell body of efferent neurone is at the end of the cell.

Explain ..:

NS/BIOBEST 44 Explain .. Facts (F) = the main point from the question Explanation (E) = why / reason based on the our biology knowledge …. Relate F and E by using because / for / that is / to…..

Explain how leaves are adapted to be efficient at absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. :

NS/BIOBEST 45 Explain how leaves are adapted to be efficient at absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Adaptation… Structure / feature function …they have (structure)…. To ( function)…. at absorbing carbon dioxide

answer:

NS/BIOBEST 46 answer (F)Has many stomata (P) Allowing the exchange of gases between the internal part of leaf and the environment. (F) Spongy mesophyll are loosely arranged between each cell are air space (P) Allow easy diffusion of carbon dioxide through leaf

Figure 10 shows a plant cell immersed in different concentrations of sucrose solution:

NS/BIOBEST 47 Figure 10 shows a plant cell immersed in different concentrations of sucrose solution Explain what happen to the cell in situation 2 2 1 3

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NS/BIOBEST 48 F = what happen to the cell in the diagram E1 : state the different osmotic concentrations between internal and external of the cell E2 : state the correct direction of water movement by osmosis.

The answers……:

NS/BIOBEST 49 The answers…… Cell becomes flaccid The sucrose solution is hypertonic to sap cell Water molecules diffuse out from the cell by osmosis

Explain the similarities and differences in the formation of two pairs of twins:

NS/BIOBEST 50 Explain the similarities and differences in the formation of two pairs of twins

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NS/BIOBEST 51 SIMILARITY Both … explanation DIFFERENCE …but… explanation

Similarities..:

NS/BIOBEST 52 Similarities.. (F) BOTH involve One sperm fuses with one ovum/secondary oocyte to form a zygote (P) Zygote undergoes mitosis to form a blastocyst

Differences …:

NS/BIOBEST 53 Differences … F = One blastocyst divides into two but incomplete division in twins P and complete division in twins Q P = causing the formation of a Siamese twin sharing an organ in any part of body in P and a pair of identical twins in Q.

Explain base on the situation…:

NS/BIOBEST 54 Explain base on the situation…

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NS/BIOBEST 55 Pieces Unripe papaya 40 o C enzyme

Explain WHY the housewife carries out step 1 and step 2 :

NS/BIOBEST 56 Explain WHY the housewife carries out step 1 and step 2 Step 1 ( unripe papaya ): contains papain enzymes / protease ( pieces of meat & strips of papaya ) : increases TSA To tender / soften the meat

Step 2 (Temperature 40°C):

NS/BIOBEST 57 Step 2 (Temperature 40°C) To increase rate of enzyme reaction Because 40°C is optimum temperature for enzyme action

Explain why all of the offsprings have black fur . :

NS/BIOBEST 58 Explain why all of the offsprings have black fur .

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NS/BIOBEST 59 Parent Homozygous black Homozygous white

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NS/BIOBEST 60 1. allele for black fur is dominant 2. each gametes carries one allele for the fur color from parents // each offspring receives one allele from each parent. 3. each offspring produced is heterozygous // carries one dominant allele and one recessive allele.

Based on diagram…….:

NS/BIOBEST 61 Based on diagram…….

Explain the changes that occurred in the double helix of the DNA strand during stage I. :

NS/BIOBEST 62 Explain the changes that occurred in the double helix of the DNA strand during stage I . 1. Fact : double helix of DNA open 2. Explanation : RNA strand is produced

State two differences between the structure of the protein polypeptide molecule and the DNA molecule. :

NS/BIOBEST 63 State two differences between the structure of the protein polypeptide molecule and the DNA molecule . 1. The polypeptide consists of amino acid while DNA consists of nucleotide units / nitrogenous bases 2. the polypeptide is in the form of a single chain but DNA is a double strand 3. polypeptide consists linear chain but DNA consists of helix chain

Differentiate between the structures of DNA and RNA:

NS/BIOBEST 64 Differentiate between the structures of DNA and RNA 1. DNA consists of two nucleotide chains while RNA consists of a single nucleotide chain 2. DNA is longer than RNA 3. DNA consists of helix chain but RNA consists linear chain

Explain how mutation affect….:

NS/BIOBEST 65 Explain how mutation affect…. 1. glutamic acid is replaced by valine in the polypeptide 2. the properties of the polypeptide / protein changes 3. different enzyme / protein // protein changes is produced // the trait shows a defect

( c ) Explain one feature of thoracic vertebra which is related to the mechanism of respiration.:

NS/BIOBEST 66 ( c ) Explain one feature of thoracic vertebra which is related to the mechanism of respiration.

Describe :

NS/BIOBEST 67 Describe Do not require any supportive statement Involved mechanism or steps in particular process

Describe the process shown in figure:

NS/BIOBEST 68 Describe the process shown in figure

Tell the story….:

NS/BIOBEST 69 Tell the story…. D1 : name of the process : Spermatogenesis D2 : spermatogonium cell undergoes mitosis to form two primary spermatocyte. D3 : one primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis 1 to form two secondary spermatocytes

Continue your story…:

NS/BIOBEST 70 Continue your story… D4 : secondary spermatocytes undergoes meiosis 11 to form spermatids D5 : spermatids undergoes differentiation to form sperms D6 : the number of chromosomes decrease by half the original number // the diploid chromosomes become haploid

Describe the type of nutrition in P and Q:

NS/BIOBEST 71 Describe the type of nutrition in P and Q P Q

Organism P ( papaya tree):

NS/BIOBEST 72 Organism P ( papaya tree) 1. Autotroph nutrition // photosynthesis Synthesize / produce its own food / glucose / starch From carbon dioxide, water and light

Organism Q (Rabbit):

NS/BIOBEST 73 Organism Q (Rabbit) Heterotroph nutrition Obtain its food source / organic substances from the surroundings

GRAPH…..based on the graph, explain the differences….:

NS/BIOBEST 74 GRAPH…..based on the graph, explain the differences….

Divide graph into small parts…:

NS/BIOBEST 75 Divide graph into small parts… At (time , X-axis……….) , (y-axis), % of dissolved oxygen …….. And % of dissolved carbon dioxide is…… Because …….. (biology knowledge about respiration and photosynthesis )

Inaccurate answer……:

NS/BIOBEST 76 Inaccurate answer……

Evaluation:

NS/BIOBEST 77 Evaluation State / explain advantages and disadvantages Give the reasons or opinion

Task Words ….:

NS/BIOBEST 78 Task Words …. Give an evaluation Explain the above statement to justify Discuss the good and bad effect State your opinion and explain both statement

Multicellular organisms like humans, need specific transport system as compared to unicellular organisms like Amoeba sp., which do not need a transport system.:

NS/BIOBEST 79 Multicellular organisms like humans, need specific transport system as compared to unicellular organisms like Amoeba sp., which do not need a transport system. Give an evaluation of the above statement based on the physical features of the organisms with the following physiological process : Respiration Nutrition excretion

Respiration (Amoeba vs Human):

NS/BIOBEST 80 Respiration (Amoeba vs Human) Multicellular organisms : Needs specific gas exchange surface / organ / lungs to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide Needs transport system to get gasses in and out of tissues

Answers…:

NS/BIOBEST 81 Answers… Unicellular organisms : No specific organ / surface for gas exchange As the gases exchange can takes place by simple diffusion through the plasma membrane

Balanced diet : Meat-base fast food:

NS/BIOBEST 82 Balanced diet : Meat-base fast food Excess of mineral salt Excess fat Excess protein Insufficient fibre Presence of food preservatives, flavouring and food colouring. Discuss the effects of consuming meat-base fast food for long time.

Figure shows an activity carried out near a residential area with the intention to develop the area. However, the residents are worried about the bad effects of the activity.:

NS/BIOBEST 83 Figure shows an activity carried out near a residential area with the intention to develop the area. However, the residents are worried about the bad effects of the activity. If you were a resident of the area, discuss the good and bad effects of the activity.

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NS/BIOBEST 84 State the activity carried out Effects of deforestation Consequences of the effects The good purpose of land development

Samples answer ::

NS/BIOBEST 85 Samples answer : 1. causes land to be exposed to agents of erosion Flash flood / landslides / shallowing of rivers / infertile soil / loosen soil structure 2. Causes increase in carbon dioxide content Green house effect

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NS/BIOBEST 86 3. destroy natural habitats of organisms. No natural habitat / extinction of organisms / migration

The good purpose:

NS/BIOBEST 87 The good purpose Develop residence / industry to accommodate the increase in population Increase the job opportunities Develop road system to shorten travelling time Restructuring of infrastructure facilities.

Diagram 9.2 shows an ecosystem in Malaysia:

NS/BIOBEST 88 Diagram 9.2 shows an ecosystem in Malaysia Based on the diagram 9.2, discuss why the ecosystem has to be maintained.

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NS/BIOBEST 89

Question 1:

NS/BIOBEST 90 Question 1 1(a)(i)P:Pulmonary vein S:Septum (ii) Diagram (iii) Oxygenated blood is blood which contain oxygen that is picked up by the capillaries (b) Explain F: Facts: Q pump blood out from heart to all parts of the body(1 mark) P: To withstand the high pressure of blood flowing through them. Function (1 mark) (c) (i) Diagram (ii) Explain F: Facts: (1 mark) P: Function (1 mark)

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NS/BIOBEST 91

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