Copyreading and Headline Writing

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Lecture to help one understand how to copyread and to write an effective headline.

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Copyreading & Headline Writing Meden F. Fadriquela New Era University, Quezon City

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*The art of arranging, correcting, and selecting the quality and type of news that are within acceptable journalistic standards in terms of style and editorial policy. *Specialist in this field is called a copyreader/copyeditor Copyreading & Headline Writing

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*Copyreading gives the article the final touch before it goes to the printer. *Copyreading, editing, correcting the article are synonymous terms. *The copyreader goes over the article, makes all the necessary corrections Copyreading & Headline Writing

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*He also does away with libelous statements which harm the reputation of the persons or subjects mentioned in the article and which may put the editorial staff in hot water. *The copyreader also writes the headline and determines the typography for it. *He reads the article very carefully looking out for errors in grammar and spelling, errors in fact and in style.

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♦ edits errors on grammar (spelling, tenses,etc .) ♦ edits errors of fact (accuracy check) ♦ judges news value (grading of news) ♦ edits verbose copy (keeps the copy tight) ♦ writes the headline Responsibilities...

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Qualities of a Good Copyreader... ♥ Must possess certain qualities not everybody in the staff may have. ♥ Must have a good command of the language. ♥ Must have at his fingertips a good working knowledge of the rules of grammar.

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♥ Must have a wide vocabulary. ♥ Must be well-read and must have a storage of general and current information. ♥ Must be well aware of libel news. Qualities of a Good Copyreader...

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Copyreader's marks / symbols ♦ connect letters ( cea se fire won’t be an issue ) ♦ transpose letters ( time si glod)   ♦ transpose words (if you happen know to the rules) ♦ delete letters/words (to prevent the plounder / reached a final conclusion)

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♦ spell out (nos,) ( 10 human rights victims) ♦ spell out (words) (VP Noli de Castro) ♦ abbreviate (nos.) ( one-hundred per cent of the respondents) ♦ abbreviate (words) (President Barack Obama) ♦ insert letters/words ( the trimph of Pcquiao dela Hoya) Copyreader's marks / symbols

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♦ separate words theissue on CharterChange ♦ capitalize letters gen. jovito Palparan ♦ make letter lowercase Two solons ♦ period mark The seamen were freed ♦ restore The kidnap victim was released) ♦ insert space andthey live happily everafter) ♦ bold face the pauper ♦ paragraph Villar called for an entrepreneurial revolution ♦ do not paragraph Villar called for an entrepreneurial revolution. Copyreader's marks / symbols

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Procedures in Copyreading... ♣ Whenever the copyreader sits down to work, he has the intention of making the copy free of errors. ♣ It is the goal of copyreader, therefore, to do his work systematically and efficiently. ♣ It would be good to follow the following steps. 1. Read the whole article first to determine what kind of story it is.

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2. Having determined the type of story, read the article again. 3. This time, determine which is the lead paragraph. 4 . Read the story again and mark all paragraph beginnings. Then correct errors in grammar, spelling, punctuations and style using copyreading symbols. Procedures in Copyreading...

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5. Improve the organization of the story. Make sure the lead features the lead fact. 6. Go over the whole story again. Remove all unnecessary and irrelevant materials. 7. Check the length of the story, then prepare the clean copy. Procedures in Copyreading...

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8. Write a very catchy and fitting head- line for the story. Give the printer’s mark for the body text and the headline. Encircle the slug line. 10. The article is now ready for printing. Procedures in Copyreading...

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The Headline ☺ An assemblage of words written in bigger, bolder letters than the usual page text at the beginning of the news, also known as the head, but not a title.

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The word “headline ” is understood by many people to mean the biggest story of the day. In journalism, however, “headline” is the title of a news story big or small. The Headline

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There’s no doubt headlines are one of the most important things to get right, unfortunately they can also be the most problematic too. A good headline grabs the readers attention, and compels them to read on.

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A well-written story will go unread if the headline does not grab the reader. Headlines also serve as a graphic element on the page. The Headline

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Good headlines capture the readers’ attention and make them want to explore the story. Bad headlines confuse readers, turn them off, invite criticism, invoke laughter (for the wrong reasons), or are just moronic.

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2 Major Types of Headline ♦ news headline – deals with hard facts and summary Ex.: Business leaders tackle global crisis ♦ feature headline – deals with novelty, human interest element Ex.: The sea is on red alert! (pertains to red tide menace)

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As title of the news, the headline serves the following purposes: 1. It gives the summary of the news. 2. It allows the hurried reader to get a quick glimpse of the news. Later in the day, when he has the time, he will read the story in its entirety.

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3. It indicates relative importance of the story by the amount of display and thus helps the reader evaluate the significance of the news. 4. It contributes to the physical attractiveness of the paper. As title of the news, the headline serves the following purposes:

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functions...functions...functions Headline • to attract readers (come-on element of headline) • to tell the story (in a gist/summary) • to add variety of type (break the monotony of sea of type) • to identify personality of newspaper (use of font/style of letters) • to index/grade the news (big type for important news than less important)

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Qualities of a Good Headline 1. The headline presents the news in capsule, thus it is telegraphic. 2. It must contain the most important, the most intriguing, the most unusual fact of the story. It is not the place for details.

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3. It must be constructed as to catch the reader’s attention and make him read the story. Size and length of the headline must be proportional to the length of the story and its importance. 5. The headline is based on the lead. Qualities of a Good Headline

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6. The headline makes use of special vocabulary which is not suitable for ordinary communication situations. For example : the word “stude” is headline equivalent for “student” as in “ Four studes win in quiz bee ” However, it is not acceptable to say there are 2,000 studes in our school. Qualities of a Good Headline

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Rules in writing headlines... 1. The headline must have a verb and it must be in the present tense. Wrong: Cuadra topped editorial tilt Correct : Cuadra tops editorial tilt 2. Do not use period.

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3. Minimize punctuation marks. Use single quotation marks. Use a comma in place of “and” and a semicolon to separate sentences. Wrong:Rolling stores to sell rice and groceries Correct : Rolling stores to sell rice, groceries Rules in writing headlines...

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4. Don’t use the articles- a, an, the Wrong: A fire hits the squatters’ Correct: Fire hits squatters’ area 5. Don’t use names unless the person is well-known. Wrong: Simon electrocuted Correct: Electrician electrocuted Rules in writing headlines...

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6. Use the infinitive for future events. Wrong: City Hall will push anti-squatting drive Correct: City Hall to push anti-squatting drive 7. Use specific terms instead of generalities Wrong: School official gets scholarship Correct: Principal gets US scholarship Rules in writing headlines...

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more...more...more...more... Qualities of a good headline 1. always in active voice / use action word 2. use the present tense, historical present and future tense 3. Prioritize use of subject / direct object 4. Must not hang prepositions 5. Never repeat words 6. Use familiar abbreviations only 7. No typographical errors/ grammar errors

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more...more...more... Qualities of a good headline 8. Reflect the tone of the story 9. Avoid labels / titles 10. Do not editorialize 11. Do not use negative construction except when necessary

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Headline Writing: Technical Requirements • fit into space • must know the font size of letters • must know the head unit count • must know the number of decks (layers of headline) • must know the number of columns (one, two, three, four etc.)

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♦ The verb is said to be in the active voice when the doer of the action is in the subject position. ♦ The ACTIVE Voice is preferred over the PASSIVE voice because it is more vigorous; however, the PASSIVE voice must be used when the action is more significant than the doer of the action. The Active Voice in Headlines...

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Exercise 1: Write the correct form of the verb in the following headlines. Observe agreement between subject and the verb. • CA (deny) Leviste’s petition for bail • World pirate attacks (soar) in first quarter • Noli (hail) Syria as RP ‘strategic partner • Shell, Petron (raise) gas prices • SC (uphold) oil deregulation law • DSWD (launch) ‘war’ vs child abuse • Local bets (win) in science fair

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• Fishermen (stage) Earth Day protest • Rotary Club (donate) computers • COMELEC (proclaim) 32 party list bets • Failon (appeal) for privacy • Cuadra (cop) 3 National awards • Researcher (receive) US grant • Local cadets (spearhead) projects • RP, Spain (ink) accord Cont… >>> Write the correct form of the verb in the following headlines. Observe agreement between subject and the verb.

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♦ Feeding program (launch) ♦ Two jail guards caught gambling (fire) ♦ Resto owner (sue) ♦ Governor (probe) for P72M deficit ♦ Jueteng protectors in CL (identify) ♦ Scout master (kill) in camp site ♦ Shanties in Quiapo (demolish) ♦ Absentees (warn) of expulsion ♦ Parents of honor studes (cite) ♦ 4 holduppers (arrest) in Tondo Exercise 2: Write the correct form of the verb in the passive voice :

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Verbal deadwood... ( wordy & weak ) ( better/briefer) • for the reason that ------------ because • a large proportion ------------ many • at the present time ------------ now • succumbed to injuries-------- died • at an early date----------------- soon • is of the opinion that ---------- believes • in the neighborhood of ------- near

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( wordy & weak ) ( better/briefer) • in the event of -------------------in case • in spite of the fact ---------------although • draw attention of --------------remind • tendered his resignation ------resigned • affixed his signature ---------- signed • united in holy matrimony-----married • held a conference ---------------met • told his listeners ----------------said Verbal deadwood...

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Access ………………......… Accompanied by ………… Acute emergency ………… Additionally ……………… Adequate enough ………... Administrative assistant ... Advance planning ………. Advance reservations ………. Affiliated with ………………. Obtain With Emergency In addition Adequate Secretary/clerk Planning Reservations With Verbal deadwood...

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• After careful consideration ….. • Aggravated/non consensual/ forcible rape ………... • Alcoholic liquor ……………… • And or ………………………. • Answered in the negative …… • At 4 a.m. this morning ……… After considering Rape Liquor Or Said no 4 a.m. Verbal deadwood...

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At 5 p.m. last night …….. 5 p.m. At an early date …………Soon At that time …………….. Then • At the intersection of market and the main …. At market and main streets • As in the case of ………..Like Verbal deadwood...

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At this point in time ……… Now At which time …………….. When /During Attempted hold up ……….. Hold up Authored ………………….. Wrote Avenues to explore ……….. Ways Avid readers/sports fan ….. Readers Be cognizant of …………… Know Be in receipt of …………… Get Bitter quarrel …………….. Quarrel Verbal deadwood...

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Conceptualize ……………… Think Concept …………………… Idea By virtue of the fact that …... Because During the period from ……. From Has the capability of ………. Can He is the man who ………….. He In the final analysis ………… Finally Verbal deadwood...

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Brutal slaying ……………… Murder By the same token ………….. Equally By virtue of the fact ………… Because Call for ………………………. Propose /Urge /ask Called her attention to the fact that ……… Reminded Close proximity ……………. Near Come in contact with ………. Meet Verbal deadwood...

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Counterproductive ……… Futile Currently ………………… Now Deplaned …………………. Left Despite the fact that ……... Although Downsizing ………………. Layoffs End result …………………result Exact replica …………….. Replica Featured speaker ………… Speaker Verbal deadwood...

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Economically disadvantaged …. Poor Feedback ………………………..Response For the purpose of ……………. For / to Foreseeable future ……………. Future General consensus ……………. Consensus In case of ……………………… If In close proximity ……………. Near In excess of ……………………. More than Verbal deadwood...

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In regard to ………………… About In the event that ……………. If Innovative …………………… New Is of the opinion ……………... Believes Make inquiry regarding ……. Inquiry Make mention of …………… Mention Near future …………………. Future Oral conversations …………. Talks Verbal deadwood...

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Prioritize ……………………….Rank Produce an inhibitory effect on ………….. Inhibit Ramification ………………….. Results Razed to the ground ………….. Razed Reach a truce ………………… Agree Repeat again ………………….. Repeat Rose to his feet ………………... Rose Verbal deadwood...

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Serves the function of being ... Is State of the art ……………….New / Modern Student body ………………... Student Subsequent to ……………….. After Sufficient number ……………Enough Terminated ………………….. Fired time frame …………………… Schedule Track record ………………… Record Verbal deadwood...

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Track record ……………….. Record Transpire n………………….. Happen True facts …………………… Facts Unconfirmed rumor ………... Rumor Visual observation …………. See / saw Voted unanimously …………. Passed Were as follows …………….. Were Would be killer …………….. Suspect Verbal deadwood...

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congressman ………...solon decrease ……………. dip examination …………quiz announce …………….bare highlight ……………..cap speak …………………urge conference …………...confab investigation …………probe investigator …………..prober disapprove ……………buck, scrap Headline Vocabulary

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• dismiss …….quash • dispute …….... row • charge ………rap • strengthen…... beef up • agreement …. Accord • practice ………hone up • sign ………….ink • praise …………laud • question …….grill • year ………….milestone • urge …………prod • delay …………snag • mad killer …..amok • identify ……….finger • capture ……...net • start …………..trigger • disregard ……rule out • end …………...wind up Headline Vocabulary

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• lessen-----------allay • approval --------nod • arrest -----------nab • student ---------student • writer -----------scribe • government ----govt • councilor --------dad Headline Vocabulary

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j i l t f --------½ unit J I L T F ----------1 ? --------------1 unit space ------------- 1 all figures ---1 unit all small letters-- 1 dash (-) -----1½ small m & w -- 1½ M & W -----------2 all caps except MWJ I LT F--1½ Unit Counting

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42 points - 3 cols. – (21) max. count ____________________________ ____________________________ (no. of decks)   Race Bias in Schools - 20 unit counts Described as Stupid - 19.5 unit counts Example of Headline Instruction

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Variety of Head Types... ☺drop-line (like a staircase) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX ☺hanging indention (top line flush at right) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX ☺inverted pyramid (from wide to narrow) XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXX

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☺ flush-left (begin at left hand corner) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX ☺block (flush left and right, from margin to margin) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX ☺cross-line (one-line headline) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Variety of Head Types...

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Headline Writing Exercises ___________________________________ Two people died and five others were hurt when an unidentified man lobbed a fragmentation grenade along Baguio City’s Leonard Wood Road shortly before dawn Tuesday, a police official said.

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Headline Writing Exercises ___________________________ The Philippine government will repatriate some Filipinos who were affected by the earthquake in Italy early this month, according to Overseas Workers Welfare Administration chief Carmelita Dimzon.

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Headline Writing Exercises __________________________________ Whoever becomes the next president of the country will face a bigger economic burden. Former budget secretary Benjamin Diokno yesterday warned that the next president will be inheriting from the Arroyo administration a weaker economy and higher unemployment.

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Headline Writing Exercises __________________________________ MANILA, Philippines – A downpour at around noon on Wednesday caused floods ranging from thigh- to gutter-deep in several areas across Metro Manila, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) reported.

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Headline Writing Exercises ____________________________ MANILA, Philippines - The Philippines and Spain signed three agreements on assistance for health reform efforts in the Bicol and Caraga regions.

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COPYREADING AND HEADLINE WRITING DIRECTIONS: Read the article carefully, then copyedit using appropriate copyreading symbols. Write a one-line head as indicated. News Headline: ( 2 cols , 60 points, TNRB, downstyle) _______________________________________ Manila, Phil – the dept. of Foreign Affairs haas confirm no no that Fil. was kill the in massive earth quake that rocck central italy yesterday. but that some filipino family loss their home in the treemor. the DfA receives initial

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report fr. the phil embassy at rome that there is no fil. Amon the cvasualties in the earthquake that strucks cntral Italy particular in the city of L’Aquila Malaya said in a text msg. DFA spokes person edardo malaya says the Phil embassy in rome rported that the filipino Who loss their homes was bein assisted by the local Proteczioni Civile (civil protection office)

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According to Italian Ministry records, there are some 150 Fil. in L’Aquila. the embassy is coordinates wit the Interior ministry & Localities authorities in assisting comm. members. Press sec. cerge Remonde said Pres. Arroyo would extense help and do what needs to be done to help.

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Thank you very much for listening! There is no substitute for good writing. It flows. It glows. It lives. -Susan Duncan

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