chapter 20

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Chapter 20: Rizal and the Revolution

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While in Dapitan Rizal... Demonstrated the real essence of community leadership and political nationalism. Within 4 yrs he learned to love Dapitan and its people. Dapitan affected his decision to volunteer as a medical surgeon in the Spanish army in Cuba in 1896

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Plea for lifting Rizal's Rustication Order

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Carnicero sympathized rizal and assured him of a possible support from his friends in Madrid *Carnicero- the politico-military commander of Dapitan. - Despujol directed Carnicero to advice Rizal to write about his intentions in staying in Dapitan.

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On October 25, 1892 Rizal sent Despujol a letter containing his intentions to stay in Dapitan. In return Rizal threatened the governor general that he would write to his friend in madrid about the matter.

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Despujol ordered Carnicero to ensure that no letter from Rizal would reach its destination. Federico Ochando replced Despujol as governor-general on May 24, 1893, while Juan Sitges replaced Carcinero. -Rizal was closely monitored. -Ochando was soon replaced by Ramon Blanco.

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-On February 13 1894, Rizal reiterated his appeal for the lifting of his deportation order through a letter. Because of the muslim movement that Blanco was involve with, he did not reply to the letter. In November the same year Blanco visited Dapitan and called for Rizal.

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Blanco promised Rizal to relocate him either at Vigan or La Union, he even suggested for him to go to Spain owing to his poor health. February of 1895 Rizal asked permission from blanco to open an agricultural settlement at Sandigan bay, but there was no reply.

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Attempts to win back Rizal to Catholicism

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-While in Dapitan the catholic church used the Jesuits to win back Rizal *Fr. Obach- Parish priest of Dapitan *Fr. Villaclara- Parish priest of Dipolog *Fr. Sanchez- Former teacher of Rizal at Ateneo *Fr. Pablo Pastells- Superior of the Jesuit order.

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-Rizal and Pastells had religious debates through letters. But rizal was not persuaded ending the debate in stalement. -Arrival of Josephine Bracken made the situation harder. -There were 2 conditions: 1. Retraction of his religious errors. 2. A general confession.

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-Rizal did not agree, so no church wedding happened. -Offered him a professorial chair in a university, a land and estate and 100,000 pesos. -Priests sent Pablo mercado (Florencio Namanan) was sent to spy.

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Attempts to Rescue Rizal from Dapitan

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-The Grand Regional Council of the Philippine Masonry generated funds for Rizal to go to spain. -Paez was commisioned by the propagandist to find a suitable vessel in Hong-Kong or Singapore to rescue Rizal. -Regidor would talk to Rizal about the escape. -On July 21, 1896, Pio Valenzuela went to Dapitan with a blind man and talked to Rizal about the revolution.

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-The disregard of the plan was because of : 1. unpreparedness of the people 2. lack of funds and weapons -Rizal stressed that pursuing the revolution would tantamount to national suicide. -Regidor persuaded Blumentritt to convince Rizal to volunteer as a army doctor for the Spanish soldiers in Cuba.

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-On December 17 1895, Rizal applied as a volunteer through governor Blanco. -On july 30 1896, Blanco favorably replied. -Rizal no longer wanted to accept offer.

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-On July 31 1896 Rizal boarded Espana and left Dapitan. He arrived in Manila on August 61896 boarding Castilla. -He stayed for almost a month waiting for an available vessel to Spain.

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The Revolution Breaks out

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-The discovery of Katipunan, as a result of the disclosure of the organization by Teodoro Patino to Fr. Mariano Gil on August 191896 -On August 23 the historic cry of Pugadlawin took place. -On August 30 2891, governor Blanco issued a gubernatorial decree of declaring a state of war. -Rizal received the letter of recommendation to Azcaraga and the colonial minister, which spared him.

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on September 3 1896, Rizal boarded the steamer Isla de Panay that will take him to Barcelona, Spain. Coded telegrams and confidential messages for the arrest of Rizal were exchanged between Blanco and the Minister of wars and colonies. While on board the Captain of the ship received a telegram to arrest Rizal and detain him in the captain’s cabin.

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On October 31896, Rizal reached Barcelona. He was heavily guarded and detained as a prisoner at the ship. On October 6 as 3:oo am, he was informed that he would be taken to Fort Monjuich. Gen. Despujol informed Rizal that he would be shipped back to the Philippines.

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Don Pedro Roxas, a fellow passenger advised Rizal to take advantage of the protection of the British law while in Singapore. Regidor and Lopez transmitted telegram to an English lawyer in Singapore (Hugh Port) to rescue of Rizal through the Writ of Habeas Corpus. On November 3 1896, Rizal was brought and incarcerated at Fort Santiago.

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