KEFIR MICROBIOLOGY AND NUTRACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

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KEFIR MICROBIOLOGY AND NUTRACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (OVERVIEW) :

KEFIR MICROBIOLOGY AND NUTRACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (OVERVIEW) Dr. Cheba Ben Amar Associate Professor of Biotechnology (MCA) Dept .of Biotechnology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, (USTOMB), Oran, Algeria  

KEFIR :MICROBIOLOGIE ET BIOTECHNOLOGIE NUTRACEUTIQUE (VUE GLOBALE):

KEFIR  : MICROBIOLOGIE ET BIOTECHNOLOGIE NUTRACEUTIQUE (VUE GLOBALE) Dr. Cheba Ben Amar Maitre de Conferences (MCA) on Biotechnologie Dept .de Biotechnologie , Faculté SNV -(USTOMB), Oran, Algerie  

الكفير : الميكروبيولوجيا والبيوتكنولوجيا التغذودوائية (نظرةعامة) :

الكفير : الميكروبيولوجيا والبيوتكنولوجيا التغذودوائية ( نظرةعامة) مقدمة من قبل د . شبة بن عمر أستاذ محاضر أ في البيوتكنولوجيا كلية علوم الطبيعة والحياة -جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا محمد بوضياف

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS :

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Les 20ème Journées Nationales de Microbiologie

PRESENTATION PLAN:

PRESENTATION PLAN

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kefir ????

Kefir definition:

Kefir definition Kefir is viscous ,slightly sour , c arbonated , and sparkling dairy beverage that contains small quantities of alcohol , and posses high nutritional and functional properties produced by the action of the symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains

“what means the word kefir ?:

9 “ what means the word kefir ?

kefir Etymology :

kefir Etymology Kefir ( pronounced kuh -FEER) comes from the turkish word ‘ keif ’ which can be translated as “ good feeling ” (joy/pleasure) after its ingestion يتكيَف ان الرثيئة تطفئ الغضب

Alternative names:

Alternative names alternative names : kefīrs , keefir , kephir , kewra , talai, mudu kekiya , milkkefir , bulgaros ), purportedly from either the Turkish " kopur " ((milk) froth, foam), Commercial names: kephir , kiaphur , kefer , knapon , kepi and kippi ( Koroleva 1988a)

Kefir history :

Kefir history Kefir is originated by - North Caucasian shepherds - produced in mountain villages of North Caucasus for thousands of years

Satellite image of the Caucasus, from NASA’s Visible Earth:

Satellite image of the Caucasus, from NASA’s Visible Earth

Kefir history :

Kefir history spread from the North Caucasus mountains to North eastern steps of Mongolia and Tibet countries - It spread through the centuries in the Anatolian Region , the Balkans and Eastern Europe

Kefir diffusion kies:

Kefir diffusion kies -Ottoman Empire - Irina Sakharova Moscow ( Russia ) -Mike Smolyansky Russian immigrant - Lifeway Foods manufacture 1986 ( USA )

KEFIR CONSUMPTION:

KEFIR CONSUMPTION COUNTRIES Ref . Caucasus Mountains in the former Soviet Union Hungary and Poland (Komai and Nanno , 1992). Sweden, Norway, Finland and Germany ( Kroger , 1993) Greece, Austria, and Brazil (Hallé et al., 1994) Chile, Latin America NM United States and Japan NM Worldwide

KEFIR PREPARATION:

KEFIR PREPARATION

MAMMALIAN MILKS:

MAMMALIAN MILKS

MILK SUBSTITUTES:

MILK SUBSTITUTES

SUGARY LIQUIDS:

SUGARY LIQUIDS

kefir-related products:

kefir - related products Omaere South-West Africa "yogurt de pajaritos " Chile, Rob or Roba some Arab countries Zabady Egypt KjaKlder MjoKlk Norway Osobyi modified Kefir in Russia Kellermilch Germany tibicos Water kefir Tarag Mongolia khymus Mongolia Kefir Turkey kombucha china

Kefir Grains :

Kefir Grains These grains are composed of microorganisms immobilized on polysaccharide - protein matrix, where several species of bacteria and yeast coexist in symbiotic association ( Farnworth and Mainville , 2008; Garrote et al. , 2010) SCOBY [ S ymbiotic C ulture O f B acteria and Y east ]

Kefir Grains :

Kefir Grains Kefir grains small cauliflower -florets shaped, characterized by an irregular , multi-lobular surface, united by a single central section their color varies from white to yellowish white , vary in size, from rice grain to walnut The grains are elastic and have a viscous and firm texture ( Farnworth and Mainville , 2008 ; Magalhães et al. , 2011 ; Rea et al. , 1996 ).

Kefir Grains size vary from 0.3 to 3.0 cm in diameter:

Kefir Grains size vary from 0.3 to 3.0 cm in diameter

(from rice grain to walnut):

(from rice grain to walnut )

Kefir Grains viscosity:

Kefir Grains viscosity

KEFIRAN :

KEFIR AN Kefiran produced by L. kefiranofaciens is a branched, water-soluble polysaccharide, containing equal amounts of D-glucose and D-galactose . The production of this polysaccharide is stimulated when L. kefiranofaciens grows in co-culture with S. cerevisiae (Cheirsilp et al. , 2003).

kefir microbial diversity:

kefir microbial diversity

Somme Fermented Milks and their specific starter culture(s):

Somme Fermented Milks and their specific starter culture(s) Fermented milk specific starter culture(s) Acidophilus Milk: Lactobacillus acidophilus . Yoghurt Symbiotic cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp . bulgaricus . Alternate Culture Yoghurt : Cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and any Lactobacillus species. Kumys : Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp . bulgaricus and Kluyveromyces marxianus Kefir : Starter culture prepared from kefir grains, Lactobacillus kefiri , species of the genera Leuconostoc , Lactococcus and Acetobacter growing in a strong specific relationship . Kefir grains constitute both lactose fermenting yeasts ( Kluyveromyces marxianus ) and non-lactose- fermenting yeasts (Saccharomyces unisporus,Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces exiguus ).

Effecting factors:

Effecting factors

kefir microbial composition:

kefir microbial composition The FAO/WHO (2001) have proposed a definition of kefir based on the microbial composition of both kefir grains (the starter culture used to produce kefir) and the final kefir product The FAO/WHO (2001) have proposed a definition of kefir based on the microbial composition of both kefir grains (the starter culture used to produce kefir) and the final kefir product The FAO/WHO (2001) have proposed a definition of kefir based on the microbial composition of both kefir grains (the starter culture used to produce kefir) and the final kefir product The FAO / WHO (2001) have proposed a definition of kefir based on the microbial composition of both - kefir grains - Final kefir product

Units Count of Microbes in Gram Stained Kefir Grains Bacilli [single cells, pair, chains] Streptococci [pair, chains] Yeast [single cells] The Means Range Bacilli 66, 62-69% Yeast 18, 16- 20% Streptococci 16, 11- 12% :

Units Count of Microbes in Gram Stained Kefir Grains Bacilli [single cells, pair, chains] Streptococci [pair, chains] Yeast [single cells] The Means Range Bacilli 66, 62-69% Yeast 18, 16- 20% Streptococci 16, 11- 12%

KEFIR BACTERIA:

KEFIR BACTERIA L actobacilli L actobacillus kefir Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens Lactobacillus kefirgranum Lactobacillus parakefir Lactobacillus delbrueckii Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus casei Lactobacilli paracasei Lactobacillus brevis Lactobacillus fructivorans Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus hilgardii Lactobacillus helveticus Lactobacillus fermentum Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus viridescens Lactococci Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Streptococci Streptococcus thermophilus Enterococci Enterococcus durans Streptococcus durans Leuconostocs Leuconostoc sp . Leuconostoc mesenteroides (reported as Leuconostoc kefir Pediococcus damnosus Acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter lovaniensis Acetobacter pasteurianus Acetobacter aceti , A fabarum ,A. syzygii ,

KEFIR YEASTS:

KEFIR YEASTS Kluyveromyces marxianus (reported as Saccharomyces lactis or Kluyveromyces lactis Saccharomyces sp . Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces carlbergensis Saccharomyces unisporus Saccharomyces exiguus (reported as Torolopsis holmii Saccharomyces turicensis Saccharomyces delbrueckii Saccharomyces dairensis Torulaspora delbrueckii Brettanomyces anomalus Issatchenkia occidentalis Kazachstania exigua Yarrowia lipolytica Candida friedrichii Candida pseudotropicalis Candida tenuis Candida inconspicua Candida maris Candida lambica Candida tannotelerans Candida valida Candida kefyr Candida holmii Pichia fermentans Zygosaccharomyces sp . Wallemia,Eurotium,Microdochium Cryp-tococcus,Teratosphaeria , Debaromyces,Cyberlindnera , Malassezia,Hetero-basidion Neofabraea,Peziza , Ganoderma , Mycena , Naumovozyma , and Dioszegia , Lachancea meyersii , Zygotorulaspora florentina Hanseniaospora valbyensis Dekkera anomala p , Hansenula yalbensis Kloeckera apiculata

Contaminant microflora:

Contaminant microflora

Kefir Mineral Composition:

Kefir Mineral Composition Mineral content (g) content Trace elements content Calcium 0.12 Iron (mg) 0.05 Phosphore 0.10 Zinc (mg) 0.36 Magnesium 12 Copper ( μ g) 12 Potassium 0.15 Manganese ( μ g) 5 Sodium 0.05 Molybdenum ( μ g) 5.5 Chloride 0.10

kefir chemical composition and nutritional values:

kefir chemical composition and nutritional values Components 100 g Components 100 g Components 100 g Energy 65 kcal Tryptophan 0.05 Vitamins (mg) A 0.06 Fat (%) 3.5 Phenylalanin +tyrosine 0.35 Carotene 0.02 Protein (%) 3.3 Leucine 0.34 B 1 0.04 Lactose (%) 4 Isoleucine 0.21 B2 0.017 Water (%) 87.5 Threonine 0.17 B6 0.05 Milk acid (g) 0.8 Methionine +cystine 0.12 B12 0.5 Ethyl alcohol (g) 0.9 Lysine 0.27 Niacin 0.09 Lactic acid (g) 1 Valine 0.22 C 1 Cholesterol (mg) 13 Aromatic compounds D 0.08 Phosphatateds (mg) 40 Acetaldehyde ND E 0.11 Essential amino acids (g) Diacetyl Acetoin ND acide linoléique conjugué ( CLA )

Regularly kefir consumption can be help to:

Regularly kefir consumption can be help to easily digestion provides beneficial bacteria and yeast ( probiotics ) vitamins and minerals and complete proteins and are nourishing food that contribute in the healthy immune system Historically , kefir has been recommended for the treatment of several clinical conditions such as gastrointestinal problems , hypertension, allergies , and ischemic heart disease( CVD ) tuberculosis , AIDS, chronic fatigue syndrome , herpes and cancer

Impact on the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT):

Impact on the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) relieve all intestinal disorders, promote bowel movement , reduce flatulence and create a healthier digestive system. It cleans effectively the whole body that helps to establish a balanced inner ecosystem for optimum health and longevity

Impact on the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) :

Impact on the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)

Kefir and Lactose Intolerance :

Kefir and Lactose Intolerance

Anti-diabetic Effect Kefir reduces the level of glucose in the blood and maintains the normal blood sugar level.:

Anti- diabetic Effect Kefir reduces the level of glucose in the blood and maintains the normal blood sugar level .

Hypocholesterolemic Effect :

Hypocholesterolemic Effect

Hypocholesterolemic Effect :

Hypocholesterolemic Effect

Anti-inflammatory and Healing Activity:

Anti- inflammatory and Healing Activity

ANTIOXIDANT / ANTI-AGEING EFFECT:

ANTIOXIDANT / ANTI-AGEING EFFECT

Immunomodulatory effect:

Immunomodulatory effect

antimicrobial activity:

antimicrobial activity

Antitumor /anticarcinogenic Activity:

A ntitumor /a nticarcinogenic Activity

Bioactive Compounds (Garrote et al., 2010; Rattray and O'Connel, 2011). :

Bioactive Compounds (Garrote et al. , 2010; Rattray and O'Connel , 2011).

Conclusion:

Conclusion kefir is an amazing dairy beverage with unique nutraceutical benefits which need more investigations for full exploitation

SOMME REFERENCES:

SOMME REFERENCES Dobson A, O'Sullivan O, Cotter PD, Ross P, Hill C (2011) High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the bacterial composition of kefir and an associated kefir grain. FEMS Microbiol Lett 320:56-62. Guzel-Seydim , Z. B., Kok-Tas , T., Greene, A. K. and Seydim , A. C. 2011. Review: Functional properties of kefir. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51:261-268.   Farnworth ER (2005) Kefir -a complex probiotic . Food Sci Technol Bull: Functional Foods 2:1-17.         [  Links  ] 1 Sarkar, S. 2007. Potential of kefir as a dietetic beverage – a review. British Food Journal 109(4):280-290. 2 Sarkar, S. 2008. Biotechnological innovations in kefir production: A review. British Food Journal 110(3):283-295 Angulo L., Lopez E. & Lema C. (1993). Microflora present in kefir grains of the Galician region (North-West of Spain). J. Dairy Res. 60, 263-267 Farnworth ER, Mainville I (2008) Kefir -A Fermented Milk Product. In: Farnworth , E. R. (2 th ed.), Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods (2 ed ). CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, p. 89-127        

Thank you for your kind interest:

Thank you for your kind interest

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