Effects of forest fires on soils properties and microbial diversity

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FORESTS FIRES EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIAL DIVERSITY Dr. CHEBA B.A. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, (USTOMB) :

FORESTS FIRES EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIAL D I V E R S I T Y Dr. CHEBA B.A. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, (USTOMB)

LES EFFETS DES INCENDIES DE FORETS SUR LES PROPRIETES DU SOL ET LA DIVERSITE MICROBIENNE  Dr. CHEBA B.A. Department de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences, (USTOMB) :

LES EFFETS DES INCENDIES DE FORETS SUR LES PROPRIETES DU SOL ET LA D I V E R S I T E MICROBIENNE  Dr. CHEBA B.A. Department de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences, (USTOMB)

تأثير حرائق الغابات على خواص التربة وتنوعها المايكروبي:

تأثير حرائق الغابات على خواص التربة و ت ن و ع ه ا المايكروبي

Presentation Plan:

Presentation Plan I- Forest II - Soil properties III- Fires effects Physical Chemical Biological ( microbial )

السنة الدولية للغابات:

السنة الدولية للغابات

Une forêt ou un massif forestier est une étendue boisée, relativement dense, constituée d'un ou plusieurs peuplements d'arbres et d'espèces associées.:

Une forêt ou un massif forestier est une étendue boisée, relativement dense, constituée d'un ou plusieurs peuplements d'arbres et d'espèces associées.

World forests:

World forests

Effects of fire on properties of forest soils:

Effects of fire on properties of forest soils

Algeria Forests:

Algeria Forests

Forest trees:

Forest trees

Forest roles and benefits:

Forest roles and benefits

L’organisation de la biodiversité des écosystèmes forestiers:

L’organisation de la biodiversité des écosystèmes forestiers 1.Capteurs d’énergie Espèces ligneuses Espèces herbacées et arbustives Algues, lichens et mousses épiphytes

L’organisation de la biodiversité des écosystèmes forestiers:

L’organisation de la biodiversité des écosystèmes forestiers 2.Utilisateurs mobiles d’énergie Insectes et arachnides Batraciens et reptiles Oiseaux Mammifères

PowerPoint Presentation:

3.Utilisateurs d’énergie peu mobiles Microfaune du sol

PowerPoint Presentation:

4.Utilisateurs d’énergie non mobiles Champignons Actinomycètes Bactéries

Soil physico-chemo-bio-properties:

Soil physico - chemo - bio - properties

Physical, physico-chemical, and mineralogical Properties :

Physical, physico -chemical, and mineralogical Properties Water repellence Structure stability Bulk density pH Particle-size distribution Mineralogical assemblage Colour Temperature

Chemical properties:

Chemical properties Quantity of ( OM )organic matter Quality of organic matter Availability of nutrients Exchangeable capacity Base saturation

Biological properties:

Biological properties Microbial biomass Composition of microbial community Soil-dwelling invertebrates biomass Composition of soil dwellingInvertebrates community

Forest soil ecosystems:

Forest soil ecosystems

Rhizo-bio-associations:

Rhizo -bio-associations

Rhizobiology:

Rhizobiology

Rhizozoology Proto/enthomo/helmenthology:

Rhizozoology Proto/ enthomo / helmenthology Millepede Ants

Rhizobacteriology:

Rhizobacteriology

Rhizomycology:

Rhizomycology

Mycorrhizal fungi :

Mycorrhizal fungi ( ecto / endo ) Root cells Fungal hyphae Vesicles – food storage Arbuscule – exchanges nutrients with plant

Effects of soil management practices on soil biodiversity:

Effects of soil management practices on soil biodiversity Forest Crop Monoculture Grassland Crop rotation Diversity decreases Diversity increases

وما معظم النار إلا من مستصغر الشرر:

وما معظم النار إلا من مستصغر الشرر

Fires:

Fires Fires are often major features of forest disruption and renovation altering floristic composition promoting tree regeneration Enhancing timber production Conditioning human ecology

Fire Severity Types:

Fire Severity Types

Low to moderate severity fires الحرائق النافعة:

Low to moderate severity fires الحرائق النافعة prescribed in forest management promote renovation of The dominant vegetation through Elimination of undesired species and transient increase of pH and available nutrient

Severe fires(wildfires) الحرائق الفاجعة :

Severe fires (wildfires) الحرائق الفاجعة generally have several negative effects removal of organic matter Deterioration of both structure and porosity Considerable loss of nutrients through volatilisation , ash entrapment in smoke columns, leaching and erosion and marked alteration of both quantity and specific Composition of microbial and soil-dwelling invertebrate communities.

Burn Severity Factors :

Peak temperatures Fire Duration Climate Vegetation Burnt area Topography Burn Severity Factors

PowerPoint Presentation:

Algeria Forest Fires

Soil properties affected by forest fires:

Soil properties affected by forest fires Physical chemical biological

Physical, physico-chemical, and mineralogical Properties :

Physical, physico -chemical, and mineralogical Properties Water repellence: due to the formation of a Continuous water-repellent layer few Cm beneath the surface. It Implies limitations in soil Permeability and, thus, increased runoff and erosion Structure stability : complexity as a result of the combustion of organic cements

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Bulk density : because of the collapse of aggregates and the clogging of Voids by the ash and the dispersed clay minerals; as a consequence, soil porosity and permeability

PowerPoint Presentation:

pH: in non calcareous soils due to the release of the alkaline cations ( Ca, Mg, K, Na ) bound to the Organic matter Particle-size distribution : due to the increased erosion Can remove selectively The fine fraction Mineralogical assemblage: changes, but only at Temperatures higher than 500 C

PowerPoint Presentation:

Colour : darkness, due to charring, And redness, due to formation of iron oxides Temperature regime: changes temporarily because of both the Disappearing of the vegetable mantle and The darkening of ground

Chemical properties:

Chemical properties Quantity of organic matter Quality of organic matter Availability of nutrients Exchangeable capacity Base saturation

Biological properties:

Biological properties Microbial biomass Composition of microbial community Soil-dwelling invertebrates biomass Composition of soil dwellingInvertebrates community

Numbers of Species:

Numbers of Species In a healthy soil we might find… Several species of vertebrate animals Several species of earthworms 20-30 species of mites 50-100 species of insects Dozens of species of nematodes Hundreds of species of fungi Thousands of species of actinomycetes and bacteria

Abundance of soil organisms:

Abundance of soil organisms Number Biomass 1 Organism per gram soil (lbs per (~1 tsp) acre 6”) Earthworms – 100 – 1,500 Mites 1-10 5 – 150 Nematodes 10 – 100 10 – 150 Protozoa up to 100 thousand 20 – 200 Algae up to 100 thousand 10 – 500 Fungi up to 1 million 1,000 – 15,000 Actinomycetes up to 100 million 400 – 5,000 Bacteria up to 1 billion 400 – 5,000 1 Biomass is the weight of living organisms

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sterilisation Pinus sylvestris soil ( Prieto -Fernandez et al.1998) 0-5cm _Sterilisation ,5-10 cm 50% biomass reduction 12 year – microbial biomasse recovery to pre - fire levels ( Fritze et al 1993)

N and P Microorganismes:

N and P Microorganismes

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thank you

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