DIFFERENT TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE

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powerpoint presentation for different tools used in horticulture

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HORTICULTURE Presented by: vishalchaturani 2 nd semester Bsc engg .

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Areas of horticulture Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection, planting, care, and removal of, individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral crops. Landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the production and marketing of vegetables. Fruticulture or Pomology includes the production and marketing of fruits. Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes.

DIFFERENT TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE:

DIFFERENT TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE

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The cultivation of horticultural crops is predominantly dependent upon human labour , since commercial cultivation is only on a limited scale Animal/power tiller or tractor-drawn mould board ploughs, disc ploughs, harrows, cultivators and rotavators , are available and used for land preparation. Hand tools such as budding and grafting knife, pruning knife and Secateurs can be used for plant propagation and pruning Harvesting is the most labour intensive operation due to delcate nature of fruits

1.Rake Tool 2.Trowel 3.Shovel 4.Lawn Mower 5.Edger 6.Hedge Shear:

TOOLS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1.Rake Tool 2.Trowel 3.Shovel 4.Lawn Mower 5.Edger 6.Hedge Shear

Rake is a broom like structure used to collect leaves, hay, grass, etc., and, in gardening, for loosening the soil, light weeding and levelling, removing dead grass from lawns, and generally for purposes performed in agriculture by the harrow.:

1.RAKE TOOL Rake is a broom like structure used to collect leaves , hay , grass , etc., and, in gardening , for loosening the soil, light weeding and levelling, removing dead grass from lawns, and generally for purposes performed in agriculture by the harrow .

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Types of Rake Tools 1. HAND RAKE 2. HEAVY DUTY or Soil Rake

In gardening, a trowel is a tool with a pointed, scoop-shaped metal blade and a handle. It is used for breaking up earth, digging small holes, especially for planting and weeding, mixing in fertilizer or other additives, and transferring plants to pots. :

2. TROWEL In gardening , a trowel is a tool with a pointed, scoop-shaped metal blade and a handle. It is used for breaking up earth, digging small holes, especially for planting and weeding , mixing in fertilizer or other additives, and transferring plants to pots .

SIX types of trowel 1. A cathole trowel is similar to a gardening trowel, but it was specifically designed for digging catholes in the backcountry. Cathole trowels are used by backpackers, hikers and some kinds of campers.:

TYPES OF TROWEL SIX types of trowel 1 . A cathole trowel is similar to a gardening trowel, but it was specifically designed for digging catholes in the backcountry . Cathole trowels are used by backpackers , hikers and some kinds of campers .

Cathole trowel:

Cathole trowel

2. bricklayer's trowel (also known as a pointing trowel) is a tool with a handle and flat metal blade, used by masons for leveling, spreading, or shaping substances such as cement, plaster, or mortar, as well as for breaking bricks to shape them or smoothing a mould. :

2 . bricklayer's trowel (also known as a pointing trowel ) is a tool with a handle and flat metal blade, used by masons for leveling, spreading, or shaping substances such as cement , plaster , or mortar , as well as for breaking bricks to shape them or smoothing a mould.

Bricklayer’s Trowel:

Bricklayer’s Trowel

3.In archaeology brick or pointing trowels (usually 4" or 5" steel trowels) are used to scratch the strata in an excavation and allow the colours of the soil to be clear, so that the different strata can be identified, processed and excavated. :

3.In archaeology brick or pointing trowels (usually 4" or 5" steel trowels) are used to scratch the strata in an excavation and allow the colours of the soil to be clear, so that the different strata can be identified, processed and excavated.

. Brick OR Pointing Trowel:

. Brick OR Pointing Trowel

4.A gauging trowel has a rounded tip, used to mix measured proportions of the ingredients for quick set plaster. :

4.A gauging trowel has a rounded tip, used to mix measured proportions of the ingredients for quick set plaster .

5.A pool trowel is a flat-bladed tool with rounded ends used to apply coatings to concrete, especially on swimming pool decks.:

5.A pool trowel is a flat-bladed tool with rounded ends used to apply coatings to concrete , especially on swimming pool decks.

6.Margin trowels and notched trowels are used to apply adhesive and grout when applying ceramic or stone tile to a surface. :

6.Margin trowels and notched trowels are used to apply adhesive and grout when applying ceramic or stone tile to a surface.

A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such as soil, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore. Shovels are extremely common tools that are used extensively in agriculture, construction, and gardening. :

3.SHOVEL A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such as soil , coal , gravel , snow , sand , or ore . Shovels are extremely common tools that are used extensively in agriculture , construction , and gardening .

1. coal shovel: Typically has a wide, flat blade with steeply turned sides, a flat face and a short D-shaped handle. Over the years, various sizes for different kinds or grades of coal have sometimes been used.:

Types of Shovel 1. coal shovel: Typically has a wide, flat blade with steeply turned sides, a flat face and a short D-shaped handle. Over the years, various sizes for different kinds or grades of coal have sometimes been used.

Coal shovel:

Coal shovel

2.Square shovel seen from edge-on showing blade set at an angle A general category of shovel that includes many types with a generally square outline (rather than being pointed like many spades are). But there is no rigorous, always-enforced distinction between square shovels and spades.:

2.Square shovel seen from edge-on showing blade set at an angle A general category of shovel that includes many types with a generally square outline (rather than being pointed like many spades are). But there is no rigorous, always-enforced distinction between square shovels and spades.

Square Shovel:

Square Shovel

3.Toy ShovelCommon plaything on sandy beaches, in sandboxes, or in yards, gardens, lawns, and fields.:

3.Toy ShovelCommon plaything on sandy beaches , in sandboxes , or in yards, gardens, lawns, and fields.

4. PRUNING AND SLASHING KNIVES:

4. PRUNING AND SLASHING KNIVES Pruning is a process of removing unwanted branches or twigs of a plant or tree for providing aeration, lighting and frame work which help in obtaining higher yields. Pruning and slashing knives are hand tools, which consists of a blade and tang joined rigidly to the handle. The tip of the blade is either hooked or curved in order to cut or slash the small branches or twigs of plant or tree by pulling action.

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The blade is made from high carbon steel, tool steel or alloy steel and hardened to 45-55 HRC. The handle is made from good quality wood or plastic. For operation the blade is engaged with the thin branch or twigs and pulled towards the operator to accomplish cutting. The blade is forged to shape and cutting edge is sharpened. Uses: For cutting and slashing of thin branches and twigs of plantation crops and orchards.

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Specifications: Pruning knife Slashing knife Hooked Curved hooked Curved Blade length (mm) 100-225 115 200 200 Blade width (MM) 24-35 24 35 35 Blade thickness (mm) 5.6-6.3 4 5.6 5 Blade thickness at\ Cutting edge (mm) 3.2-4.0 3.2 4 3.2 Handle length (mm) 165-200 115 175 175

5.Lawn mower :

5.Lawn mower TYPES OF LAWN MOWER 1. Lawn mowers employing a blade that rotates about a vertical axis are known as rotary mowers. A lawn mower is a machine that uses a revolving blade or blades to cut a lawn at an even length.

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Rotary type Electric lawn mowers are suitable for any type nf nnpypn nr Plain grass lands available Four free wheel makes the machine to move freely on the Grass and the Adjustments on the Machine helps, you to adjust the height of the Grass as per your Requirements. Model : K R46 Motor : l 1 /2&2 H.P. Single Phase Motor Cutting w i d t h : 18" Cutting H e i g h t : 0 .50" to 4.25" Height of Cut Setting : Easy 7 Step Wire : 3 0mtrs. / 3Core Cable Weight : 50 Kgs . Approx. Handle : H andle with Switch Blades : 1 Pic Extra Blades Grass Box : Available (65 liters) Drive : Walk behind push type.

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Rotary type Lawn Mower Specifications LengthxWidthxHeight (mm) : 1050x380x1000 Cutting width (mm) : 340-380 Cutting height (mm) : 30 Motor (kW) : 1.0-1.4 Weight (kg) : 12

2.Reel Mower those employing a blade assembly that rotates about a horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel mowers. :

2.Reel Mower those employing a blade assembly that rotates about a horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel mowers.

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Lawn Mowers Manual Kamlesh wheel type lawn mower machine a very Fine hand hold machine to operate without any Fuel. Kamlesh wheel type lawn mower machine equiped with high Carbon steel Blades to cut grass at even Surface and enhance the look of your garden. High quality bearing in the machine helps to move the machine with almost easy, that will keep you stress free. As per your wish you may adjust the height of your lawn. Solid rubber tyre Fitted to the lawn mowers help easy working on the uneven Surface and on the grass. Easy Manual System. Cast Iron Body. Cutting H e i g h t : 0.25" to 2.50 " Grass Box : A vailable Handle : Heavy Handle with grip

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Model KM 12 KM 14 KM 16 KM 18 Cutting width 12" 14" 16" 18" Weight 22 kgs . Approx 23 kgs . Approx 24 kgs. approx 25 kgs . approx

6.HEDGE SHEAR :

6.HEDGE SHEAR A hedge trimmer , shrub trimmer , or hedge shear , is a gardening tool or machine used for trimming (cutting, pruning ) hedges or solitary shrubs (bushes). Different designs as well as manual and powered versions of hedge trimmers exist.

Types of hedge Shear:

Types of hedge Shear 1. Stand-alone hedge trimmers: The power source of stand-alone hedge trimmers can be human power . gasoline , or electricity . Further subdivided into two categories: . Manual hedge trimmers (sometimes also called hedge shears , or hedge clippers ) are designed as large scissors or large pruning shears . They do not need anything to operate and are cheapest/most environmentally friendly.

Manual Shear:

Manual Shear

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Specifications: Blade length (mm) : 150,200,250, and 300 Blade thickness (mm) : 8 Opening angle of blade (O) : 95 Handle angle with blade (O) : 27-30 Uses: The hedge shear is used for pruning and trimming of hedge and giving it desired shape. It is also used for cutting of shrubs and removing of haphazard growth in gardens and lawns.

.ii.Motorized hedge trimmers allow work to be done faster and with less effort than manual ones. Their cutting mechanism is similar to that of finger-bar mowers. Powered trimmers are generally designed with safety devices such that they work only when both of the operator's hands are on the handles. :

.ii.Motorized hedge trimmers allow work to be done faster and with less effort than manual ones. Their cutting mechanism is similar to that of finger-bar mowers . Powered trimmers are generally designed with safety devices such that they work only when both of the operator's hands are on the handles. *Gasoline-powered trimmers tend to be more powerful but can be heavier and more difficult to start.

*Electrical trimmers tend to be lighter and less powerful (than gasoline variants) as well as less polluting/noisy, yet still require an electrical cord with most types (if not equipped with rechargeable batteries). :

* Electrical trimmers tend to be lighter and less powerful (than gasoline variants) as well as less polluting/noisy, yet still require an electrical cord with most types (if not equipped with rechargeable batteries ).

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Specifications (electric motor model) : Length (mm) : 860 Width (mm) : 145 Height ( rom ) : 180 Power requirement (W) : 400 Blade length (mm) : 510 Blade strokes (per min) : 3700 Blade gap (mm) : 16 Weight (kg) : 2.4 Uses: Hedge trimmer is used for trimming hedges, shrubs and brambles. It is also used for contouring plants in desired shapes and sizes for enhancing the aesthetics of the garden.

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TOOL OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 1. WHEEL BARROW 2. GARDEN HOSE 3. PRUNING SHEARS 4. GARDEN CULTIVATORS 5. HOE(TOOL) 6. FERTILIZER SPRAYER

1.POWER TILLER OPERA TED AUGER DIGGER:

Power tiller operated auger digger consists of a small frame with the provision to lower and raise the soil-working element. Drive is provided to the unit with the help of a set of bevelPits can be dug up to a depth of 45 to 60 cm and the diameter of the posthole is 30 cm. gears and belt pulleys. 1.POWER TILLER OPERA TED AUGER DIGGER

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Specifications Overall Dimensions Length (mm) 1070 Width (mm) 1040 Height (mm) 1980 Weight (kg) 125 Field capacity (holes/h) 40-50 Power (hp) 8-10 Uses Suitable for digging circular pits for planting saplings. It is also suitable for use in orchards and forests due to its manoeuvrability

2.Garden hose A garden hose is a flexible tube used to carry water. There are a number of common attachments available for the end of the hose, such as sprayers and sprinklers (which are used to concentrate water at one point or spread it over a large area). Hoses are usually attached to a hose spigot (tap). :

2.Garden hose A garden hose is a flexible tube used to carry water . There are a number of common attachments available for the end of the hose, such as sprayers and sprinklers (which are used to concentrate water at one point or spread it over a large area). Hoses are usually attached to a hose spigot ( tap ).

Garden hoses are commonly green and often black, but can also be found in a variety of other colors. Garden hoses are typically made of synthetic rubber or soft plastic, reinforced with an internal web of fibers. :

Garden hoses are commonly green and often black , but can also be found in a variety of other colors. Garden hoses are typically made of synthetic rubber or soft plastic , reinforced with an internal web of fibers .

GARDEN HOSE:

GARDEN HOSE

3.Pruning shears Pruning shears, also called hand pruners (in American English), or secateurs are a type of scissors for use with plants. They are strong enough to prune hard branches of trees and shrubs, sometimes up to two centimetres thick. They are used in gardening, arboriculture, farming, flower arranging, and nature conservation where fine-scale habitat management is required. :

3.Pruning shears Pruning shears , also called hand pruners (in American English), or secateurs are a type of scissors for use with plants. They are strong enough to prune hard branches of trees and shrubs , sometimes up to two centimetres thick. They are used in gardening , arboriculture , farming , flower arranging , and nature conservation where fine-scale habitat management is required .

PRUNING SHEAR:

PRUNING SHEAR

4.Garden cultivators Small tilling equipment, used in small gardens such as household gardens and small commercial gardens, can provide both primary and secondary tillage. For example, a rotary tiller does both the "plowing" and the "harrowing", preparing a smooth, loose seedbed. :

4.Garden cultivators Small tilling equipment, used in small gardens such as household gardens and small commercial gardens, can provide both primary and secondary tillage. For example, a rotary tiller does both the "plowing" and the "harrowing", preparing a smooth, loose seedbed.

TYPES OF GARDEN CULTIVATORS i.Rototiller The small rototiller is typically propelled forward via a (1–5 horsepower or 0.8–3.5 kilowatts) petrol engine rotating the tines, and do not have powered wheels, though they may have small transport/level control wheel(s). Rototilling is much faster than manual tilling, but notoriously difficult to handle and exhausting work. :

TYPES OF GARDEN CULTIVATORS i.Rototiller The small rototiller is typically propelled forward via a (1–5 horsepower or 0.8–3.5 kilowatts) petrol engine rotating the tines, and do not have powered wheels, though they may have small transport/level control wheel(s). Rototilling is much faster than manual tilling, but notoriously difficult to handle and exhausting work.

ROTO TILLER:

ROTO TILLER

ii.Rotavator Unlike the Rototiller, the self propelled Howard Rotavator is equipped with a gearbox and driven forward, or held back, by its wheels. The gearbox enables the forward speed to be adjusted while the rotational speed of the tines remains constant which enables the operator to easily regulate the extent to which soil is engaged. These rotavators are generally more heavy duty, come in higher power (4–18 horsepower or 3–13 kilowatts) with either petrol or diesel engines :

ii.Rotavator Unlike the Rototiller, the self propelled Howard Rotavator is equipped with a gearbox and driven forward, or held back, by its wheels. The gearbox enables the forward speed to be adjusted while the rotational speed of the tines remains constant which enables the operator to easily regulate the extent to which soil is engaged. These rotavators are generally more heavy duty, come in higher power (4–18 horsepower or 3–13 kilowatts) with either petrol or diesel engines

ROTOVATOR:

ROTOVATOR

iii.Mini tiller Mini tillers are a new type of small agricultural tillers or cultivators used by farmers or homeowners. These are also known as power tillers or garden tillers. Compact, powerful and, most importantly, inexpensive, these agricultural rotary tillers are providing alternatives to four-wheel tractors and in the small farmers' fields in developing countries are more economical than four-wheel tractors. :

iii.Mini tiller Mini tillers are a new type of small agricultural tillers or cultivators used by farmers or homeowners. These are also known as power tillers or garden tillers. Compact, powerful and, most importantly, inexpensive, these agricultural rotary tillers are providing alternatives to four-wheel tractors and in the small farmers' fields in developing countries are more economical than four-wheel tractors.

MINITILLER:

MINITILLER

  5.Hoe (tool) A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural tool used to move small amounts of soil. Common goals include weed control by agitating the surface of the soil around plants, piling soil around the base of plants (hilling), creating narrow furrows (drills) and shallow trenches for planting seeds and bulbs, to chop weeds, roots and crop residues, and even to dig or move soil, such as when harvesting root crops like potatoes. :

5.Hoe (tool) A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural tool used to move small amounts of soil. Common goals include weed control by agitating the surface of the soil around plants, piling soil around the base of plants ( hilling ), creating narrow furrows ( drills ) and shallow trenches for planting seeds and bulbs , to chop weeds, roots and crop residues, and even to dig or move soil, such as when harvesting root crops like potatoes .

TYPES OF HOE i.The Dutch hoe (scuffle, action, oscillating, swivel, or Hula-Ho) is a design that is pushed or pulled through the soil to cut weeds just under the surface. Its tool-head is a loop of flat, sharpened strap metal. It is not as efficient as a chopping hoe for pulling or pushing soil. :

TYPES OF HOE i. The Dutch hoe (scuffle, action, oscillating, swivel, or Hula-Ho) is a design that is pushed or pulled through the soil to cut weeds just under the surface. Its tool-head is a loop of flat, sharpened strap metal. It is not as efficient as a chopping hoe for pulling or pushing soil.

ii.Stirrup hoes are designed with a double edge blade that bends around to form a stirrup like rectangle attached to the handle. Weeds are cut just below the soil surface as the bade is pushed & pulled through the area. The back and forth motion is highly effective with cutting weeds in loose or breakable soil. Widths of the stirrup blade typically range between three to seven inches. :

ii. Stirrup hoes are designed with a double edge blade that bends around to form a stirrup like rectangle attached to the handle. Weeds are cut just below the soil surface as the bade is pushed & pulled through the area. The back and forth motion is highly effective with cutting weeds in loose or breakable soil. Widths of the stirrup blade typically range between three to seven inches.

i.DUTCH HOE:

i.DUTCH HOE ii.STIRRUP HOES

6.FERTILIZER SPREADER Applying fertilizer with a spreader is a relatively easy task but needs to be done with care and accuracy. Fertilizers are generally beneficial, however, providing your lawn with the correct amount of fertilizer.:

6.FERTILIZER SPREADER Applying fertilizer with a spreader is a relatively easy task but needs to be done with care and accuracy. Fertilizers are generally beneficial, however, providing your lawn with the correct amount of fertilizer.

TYPES OF FERTILIZER SPREADER 1.TURF FERTILIZER SPREADER 9 cubic ft. capacity hopper (large granulars will weigh around 400 lbs., small granulars like sand will weigh around 800 lbs.). :

TYPES OF FERTILIZER SPREADER 1.TURF FERTILIZER SPREADER 9 cubic ft. capacity hopper (large granulars will weigh around 400 lbs., small granulars like sand will weigh around 800 lbs.).

Modeal 800 spreader spreads many types of materials because of it's internal drag chain. It easily spreads all granular materials, :

Modeal 800 spreader spreads many types of materials because of it's internal drag chain. It easily spreads all granular materials,

2.LELY FERTILIZER SPREADER:

2.LELY FERTILIZER SPREADER

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES www.google.com www.marketindia.com Book of horticulture by William Robinson of John Loudon's original text