RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY : RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Why study? : Why study? Psychology as a science.
We will encounter classic studies and experiments that use these different methods. Research Methods : Research Methods Descriptive Methods
Surveys and Interviews
Difference? Simply gather information; gives detailed description Investigates specific variables Naturalistic Observation : Naturalistic Observation Jane Goodall Advantages
Realistic view of how behavior occurs.
Each naturalistic setting is unique. Laboratory Observation : Laboratory Observation Bandura & Bobo Dolls Laboratory Observation : Laboratory Observation Advantage
The researcher has some degree of control; manageable
Artificial setting may result to artificial behavior. Case Studies : Case Studies Phineas Gage Advantage
Amount of detail it provides
The only way to get certain kind of information
Study things that are rare.
Observer bias Surveys and Interviews : Surveys and Interviews Advantages
Amount of data from large group of people.
(courtesy bias, misremember things, outright lying, distort truth) Correlational Research : Correlational Research Self-esteem versus loneliness
“Are you lonely because you have low self-esteem or you have low self-esteem because you are lonely?”
Correlation does not prove causation. Measure of the relationship between two or more variables. Experimental Research : Experimental Research Researchers deliberately manipulate the variable they think is causing some behavior while holding all other variables that might interfere with the experiment’s result constant and unchanging. Experimental Research : Experimental Research Extrinsic Reward and creativity (Amabile, 1982)
Variable 1 – presence of material reward
Variable 2 – creativity Experimental Research : Experimental Research Environmental condition and memory? Experimental Research : Experimental Research Advantages?
Changes in behavior can easily attribute to the manipulated variable
Experimenter effect Be CRITITCAL! : Be CRITITCAL! Internet Personality Tests What is your color tests Slide 15: QUESTIONS? :D Slide 16: NEXT MEETING:
SELF IN THE SOCIAL WORLD
Do you have a high or low self-esteem?
Do you wear different masks everyday?
Why do you deliberately sabotage your performance in an exam?