Child development (ages 2-5)

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Child development (ages 2-5):

Child development (ages 2-5) Charlotte Roberts Psy 201

Theories and theorists:

Theories and theorists

Piaget’s Theory of cognitive development:

Piaget’s Theory of cognitive development Piaget’s Theory has three main components Schema (building blocks) Accommodation and Assimilation Four Stages of development Piaget’s four stages. Sensorimotor Pre-operational Concrete Operational Formal Operaitonal McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology org. /piaget.html

Preoperational Stage (2 yrs. -7 yrs.):

Preoperational Stage (2 yrs. -7 yrs.) Children in this stage… Can mentally represent events and objects Can participate in play that is symbolic Are normally egocentric Have they belief that toys have human feelings and intentions. McLeod, S. A. (2010). Preoperational Stage. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/preoperational.html

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development:

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Autonomy Vs. Shame (1 ½ - 3 yrs.):

Autonomy Vs. Shame (1 ½ - 3 yrs.) Children in this stage… Are discovering independence Venturing away from parents Making choices about clothes Are learning they have many skills Putting on their own clothes Toilet training Parents should… Allow exploration of limits Be encouraging Balance success and failure “Self-control without loss of self-esteem” McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5 Yrs.):

Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5 Yrs.) Children in this stage… Need frequent interaction with children Are inventing their own games Initiating activities with others Are asking many questions Parents should… Understand that aggressive behaviors are normal Allow children to test boundaries Make the child feel like their questions are valid and important McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Developmental Milestones:

Developmental Milestones

Physical development:

Physical development Starts at the trunk and works to the limbs Has three components Fine motor skills Gross motor skills Health and Safety Dichtermiller , M. L. (2001). Omnibus guidelines: Preschool through third grade (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.

Language Development:

Language Development Occurs gradually over time Children need… Experience with language, print, and books Encouragement even when they make mistakes Time to explore print materials Dichtermiller , M. L. (2001). Omnibus guidelines: Preschool through third grade (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.

Language Development:

Language Development Begin to speak in longer sentences May play and talk at the same time Strangers will be able to understand most of what is said More abstract conversation Rapid vocabulary increase Curious about many topics Begins to understand grammar Begin to understand that sounds and language work together Uses different types of sentences Become a better story teller 2-3 years 4 years 5 years Raising Children Network. (2012, February 02). Language development: An amazing journey. Retrieved March 4, 2015

Social/Emotional Development:

Social/Emotional Development Begin to develop self-awareness Becoming more interested in peers As the year progress they begin… Empathizing Pretend play Begin to organize games Begin to understand humor More complex pretend play More independent More in control of behavior Prefer to play with peers 2-3 years 4 years 5 years Zero to Three. (2010). Social-Emotional Development:12-24 months. Retrieved March 4, 2015. Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Child development: 4-5 years. ( n.d. ). Retrieved March 4, 2015. Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Child development: 5-6 years. ( n.d. ). Retrieved March 4, 2015.

References:

References Dichtermiller , M. L. (2001). Omnibus guidelines: Preschool through third grade (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson . McLeod, S. A. (2010). Preoperational Stage. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/preoperational.html McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology org. /piaget.html McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http:// www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Child development: 4-5 years. ( n.d. ). Retrieved March 4, 2015. Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Child development: 5-6 years. ( n.d. ). Retrieved March 4, 2015 Raising Children Network. (2012, February 02). Language development: An amazing journey. Retrieved March 4, 2015 Zero to Three. (2010). Social-Emotional Development:12-24 months. Retrieved March 4, 2015.

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