Poetry : Poetry World Literature in English What is Poetry? : What is Poetry? It is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. It has been known to employ meter and rhyme, but this is by no means necessary. Parts of a Poem : Parts of a Poem Speaker : Speaker the created narrative voice of the poem When the poet creates another character to be the speaker, that character is called the persona. Persona - A character created by the poet to narrate the poem Audience : Audience the person or people to whom the speaker is speaking. The speaker can address another character in the poem.
The speaker can address a character who is not present or is dead, which is called apostrophe.
The speaker can address you, the reader. Tone : Tone the poet's attitude towards the subject of the poem We can identify the tone of the poem by noting the author's use of poetic devices such as diction, rhythm and syntax. Theme : Theme the main point or idea being expressed by the poet within the poem We can identify the theme of the poem by noting the author's use of language, images, allusions, sound, etc. Diction : Diction the poet’s choice of words denotation - its definition according to the dictionary
connotation - the emotions, thoughts and ideas associated with and evoked by the word.
Example: “Mother” Syntax : Syntax the organization of words, phrases and clauses Example:
"At fourteen I married My Lord, you.“
"I married you, My Lord, at fourteen.“
"Thirty-five years I lived with my husband.“
"I lived with my husband for thirty-five years“ Imagery : Imagery words and phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste. Imagery : Imagery OLFACTORY imagery stimulates the sense of smell.
TACTILE imagery stimulates the sense of touch.
VISUAL imagery stimulates the sense of sight.
AUDITORY imagery stimulates the sense of hearing.
GUSTATORY imagery stimulates the sense of taste.
KINESTHESIA is imagery that recreates a feeling of physical action or natural bodily function (like a pulse, a heartbeat, or breathing).
SYNAESTHESIA is imagery that involves the use of one sense to evoke another (Ex: loud color; feeling blue). Imagery : Imagery Charles Demuth
(1883 – 1935)
“I Saw the Figure 5
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Alfred Steiglitz Collection,1949.
Oil on Composition Board, 36 x 29 ¾ in. Imagery : Imagery The Great Figure (1938)
By William Carlos Williams
Among the rain
I saw the figure 5
on a red
to gong clangs
and wheels rumbling
through the dark city. Imagery : Imagery The Power of Words over Human Imagination
What senses are being stimulated by the poem? Cite specific lines or words to support your answer.
Draw the image that is being formed in your mind as you are reading the poem. Imagery : Imagery The Red Wheelbarrow (1923)
By William Carlos Williams
so much depends
a red wheel
glazed with rain
besides the white
chickens Imagery : Imagery In a Station of the Metro (1916)
By Ezra Pound
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough. Imagism (1912-1917) : Imagism (1912-1917) Name given to a movement in poetry, originating in 1912 and represented by Ezra Pound, Amy Lowell, and others, aiming at clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images. In the early period, it is often written in the French form Imagisme. Imagism : Imagism The Woods that Bring the Sunset Near
I. The wind from out of the west is blowing The homeward-wandering cows are lowing, Dark grow the pine woods, dark and drear, — The woods that bring the sunset near.
II. When o'er wide seas the sun declines, Far off its fading glory shines, Far off, sublime, and full of fear — The pine woods bring the sunset near.
III. This house that looks to east, to west, This dear one, is our home, our rest; Yonder the stormy sea, and here The woods that bring the sunset near. Imagery : Imagery Some Good Things to Be Said for the Iron Age (1970)
By Gary Snyder
A ringing tire iron
dropped on the pavement
Whang of a saw
brusht on limbs
of rust Imagery : Imagery The BEAT GENERATION – “beatniks” (late 1950s and early
Allen Ginsberg's - Howl
William S. Burroughs - Naked Lunch
Jack Kerouac's - On the Road
Celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity
The Sixties Counterculture – “hippie”
Romantic writers were highly influential to the Beats (Henry
David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville and
especially Walt Whitman, Edgar Allan Poe)
Influenced by the Modernist – “Postmodern” Imagery : Imagery Beat literature has changed the establishment so that
academia is now more open to more radical forms of
literature. - New Poets of England and America vs. The New
American Poetry 1945-1960
Influenced a lot of writers and poets: Gwendolyn Brooks,
Maya Angelou, and Nikki Giovanni.
Influenced a lot of artists and musicians: Beatles, Rage
Against the Machine, Kurt Cobain, The Beastie Boys,
R.E.M., etc. Figures of Speech : Figures of Speech Poetic devices in which two images or objects are compared to make language interesting and meaningful. Simile
Oxymoron Simile : Simile A direct comparison of two objects that uses the words like or as, or a verb like seems or appears establishing a relationship between them. Example:
Your eyes are as blue as the sky.
You eat like a bird. Slide 24: "Harlem"
What happens to a dream
Does it dry uplike a raisin in the sun?Or fester like a sore-And then run?Does it stink like rotten meat?Or crust and sugar over-like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sagslike a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
(Langston Hughes) Pastel Drawing of Langston Hughes by Winold Reiss Slide 26: Harlem Renaissance
(1924 to mid-1930s)
Started in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City
It explored the historical and contemporary
experiences of Black Americans in the urban North
It challenged white paternalism and racism and
African-American artists and intellectuals rejected the
idea of imitating the styles of Europeans and White
Afro-Caribbean artists and intellectuals from the
British West Indies
French-speaking black writers from African and
Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris. Metaphor : Metaphor An indirect comparison that draw two objects or images into a relationship. Example:
Your cheeks are red cherries.
Your eyes are stars that brighten my night sky. Personification : Personification A type of metaphor that gives living qualities to inanimate objects or abstract ideas; or human qualities (feelings, thoughts) to animals. It gives non-living things and animals the ability to think, feel emotions, or have human relationships. Slide 29: “The Wind"
The wind stood up, and gave a shout;
He whistled on his fingers, and
Kicked the withered leaves about,And thumped the branches with his hand,
And said he'd kill, and kill, and kill;
And so he will! And so he will!
(James Stephens) (February 25, 1859 – February 3, 1892) English poet and tutor to Prince Albert, son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. Synecdoche : Synecdoche A form of metaphor where one part stands for the whole, or the whole is substituted for one part. Example:
"Robby got wheels this summer.“
"All hands were on deck." Metonymy : Metonymy A play on words based on association. In metonymy, an object is referred to in terms of something closely related or associated to it, yet not actually a part of it. Example:
Queen Elizabeth controlled the crown for years.
He has always loved the stage.
He will follow the cross. Allusion : Allusion A reference made to another literary work, historical event, work of art, or a famous person's quote that adds more depth to the poet's/author's meaning. Symbolism : Symbolism When an author uses an object or idea to suggest more than its literal meaning. A person, place, or event stands for something other than it is, usually something broader or deeper than it is. Slide 34: To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time (1646)
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying;
And this same flower that smiles today,
Tomorrow will be dying.
The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,
The higher he’s a getting,
The sooner will his race be run,
And nearer he’s to setting. That age is best which is the first,
When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse,
Times still succeed the former.
Then be not coy, but use your time,
And while ye may, go marry;
For having lost but once your prime,
You may forever tarry. Verbal Irony : Verbal Irony One meaning is stated, but another, antithetical (opposite and opposed) meaning is intended. Example: From "Of Alphus"
No egg on Friday Alph will eat, But drunken will he be On Friday still. Oh, what a pure Religious man is he! (Anonymous, 16th Century) Overstatement (Hyperbole) : Overstatement (Hyperbole) An exaggeration; giving something more or less of a quality than it really has. Example:
After so many years, he can still feel the sting of his mother's slap. Understatement : Understatement Saying something with an overly light tone; the speaker's words convey less emotion than he actually feels. Example:
“Hello.” Paradox : Paradox A statement that appears to be absurd, untrue, or contradictory, but may actually be true. Example:
From "Death, Be Not Proud, Though Some Have Called Thee"
"One short sleep past, we wake eternally,
And death shall be no more; death, thou shalt die."
(John Donne) Oxymoron : Oxymoron A form of paradox where two contradictory terms are combined in one phrase. Examples:
honest thief Sound : Sound The use of specific vowels, consonants, accents and the combination of these three make up the sound of the poem. Alliteration - the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginnings of words that are near each other in a poem. Sound : Sound Alliteration - the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginnings of words that are near each other in a poem. Example: From "A Bird came down the Walk“
"Than Oars divide the Ocean, Too silver for a seam-- Or Butterflies, off Banks of Noon Leap, plashless as they swim." (Emily Dickinson) Sound : Sound Rhyme - the effect caused by matching vowel and consonant sounds at the end of words. Example:
song and long
hope and cope
sat and cat
love and dove Sound : Sound Rhyme scheme - a structural device that uses a pattern of end rhyme (where the last words in two or more lines rhyme) in a stanza. Rhythm : Rhythm The repetition of stress within a poem. It is the entire movement or flow of the poem as affected by rhyme, stress, diction and organization. Meter
Organization Rhythm : Rhythm Meter- the organization of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. Example: I came, I saw, I conquered. Rhythm : Rhythm Organization - The structure of the poem; the way the verses (lines) are organized on the page. Example: I came, I saw, I conquered.