NACE MR0175 Certified User- My Reading 10

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NACE MR0175 Welding Requirements

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong 10 th Dec 2017 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong Understanding NACE MR0175-Carbon Steel Written Exam Welding Requirements Reading 10 CS Post Read

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong Oil And Gas Production Industry

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong 过五关斩六将

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong 过五关斩六将

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong 过五关斩六将

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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NACE MR0175-Carbon Steel Written Exam NACE-MR0175-Carbon Steel -001 Exam Preparation Guide May 2017 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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NACE MR0175-Carbon Steel Written Exam NACE-MR0175-Carbon Steel -001 Exam Preparation Guide May 2017 Introduction The MR0175-Carbon Steel written exam is designed to assess whether a candidate has the requisite knowledge and skills that a minimally qualified MR0175 Certified User- Carbon Steel must possess. The exam comprises 50 multiple-choice questions that are based on the MR0175 Standard Parts 1 and 2. multiple-choice Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong https://www.naceinstitute.org/uploadedFiles/Certification/Specialty_Program/MR0175-Carbon-Steel-EPG.pdf

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Upon successful completion of all requirements the candidate will be awarded a MR0175 Certified User Carbon Steel. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong https://www.naceinstitute.org/uploadedFiles/Certification/Specialty_Program/MR0175-Carbon-Steel-EPG.pdf

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EXAM BOK Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong Suggested Study Material  NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 Standard 20171015-OK  EFC Publication 17  NACE TM0177  NACE TM0198 NACE TM0316 Books  Introductory Handbook for NACE MR0175

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Knowing little bits on Crude Oil Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Significant of Sour Crude Refining Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Prices of Crude by API Gravity and Sulfur So if quality doesnt affect the price what does Its the cost of transportation best summed up in the following graphic http://www.oilsandsmagazine.com/news/2015/12/26/how-much-for-that-heavy-oil Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Is It True Refineries prefer light sweet crude over heavy sour crude because processing lighter crude oil earns them more money. http://www.oilsandsmagazine.com/news/2015/12/26/how-much-for-that-heavy-oil Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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NACE Looks Back MR0175 2003 MR0175 Prior to 2003 Recommended materials for Hydrogen Sulfide services and other failure mechanisms. Old materials either removed or severely Restricted. Addressed fact that oilfield applications tend to contain both Hydrogen Sulfide Chlorides MR0103 2003 Refinery applications do not need protection from Chlorides No change in allowed materials from old MR0175 MR0175 Prior to 2003 Recommended materials for Hydrogen Sulfide services Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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NACE Looks Back MR0175 Prior to 2003 Recommended materials for Hydrogen Sulfide services MR0103 2003 Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries — Metallic materials resistant to sulfide stress cracking in corrosive petroleum refining environments Refinery applications do not need protection from Chlorides No change in allowed materials from old MR0175 2003 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong MR0175 2003 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas Production Old materials either removed or severely restricted Addressed fact that oilfield applications tend to contain both Hydrogen Sulfide Chlorides. All failure mechanisms included: SSC SCC HIC SWC SOHIC SZC GHIC

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NACE MR0175- all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S service conditions Failure Mechanism in H 2 S Environment SSC SCC SOHIC HIC SWC SZC  HIC hydrogen-induced cracking  HSC hydrogen stress cracking  SCC stress-corrosion cracking  SOHIC stress-oriented hydrogen- induced cracking  SWC step-wise cracking  SSC sulfide stress cracking  SZC soft-zone cracking  GHSC galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking GHSC Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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NACE MR0103 MR0175 Material Requirements Limitations Service Restrictions Requirements Limitations general overview NACE MR0175 NACE MR0103 Material Requirements Acceptable Materials X X Hardness Limits X X Heat Treatment Limitations X X Material Condition Limitations X X Chemical Compositions X X Welding Fabrication X X Service Restrictions Exposed Bolting X X Special Component Material Requirements X X Environment Exposure Restrictions X Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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APPLICABILITIES: ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2015E Table 1 — List of equipment Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Figure 1 — Regions of environmental severity with respect to the SSC of carbon and low-alloy steels Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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How to use MR0175-2015 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Part 1: General Part 2: Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Iron Part 3: CRA Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-1:2015 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Abstracts Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials It is a 17 pages document 9 chapters Terms and definitions are important in understanding NACE MR0175 The original and subsequent editions of ANSI/NACE MR0175 established limits of H2S partial pressure above which precautions against sulfide stress cracking SSC were always considered necessary. In more recent editions NACE MR0175 has also provided application limits for some corrosion-resistant alloys in terms of environmental composition and pH temperature and H2S partial pressures. In 2003 the publication of the three parts of ISO 15156 and ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 was completed for the first time. It supplements but does not replace the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes standards or regulations. This part of ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S including sulfide stress cracking SSC stress corrosion cracking SCC hydrogen-induced cracking HIC and stepwise cracking SWC stress- oriented hydrogen-induced cracking SOHIC soft zone cracking SZC and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking GHIC. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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 3.19 sour service exposure to oilfield environments that contain sufficient H 2 S to cause cracking of materials by the mechanisms addressed by this part of ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156.  Sour Crude Sour crude oil will have greater than 0.5 sulfur and some of this will be in the form of hydrogen sulfide. Sour crude also contains more carbon dioxide. Most sulfur in crude is actually bonded to carbon atoms nevertheless high quantities of hydrogen sulfide in sour crude can pose serious health problems or even be fatal http://www.petroleum.co.uk/sweet-vs-sour  6.1 Before selecting or qualifying materials using ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2 or ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-3 the user of the equipment shall define evaluate and document the service conditions to which materials can be exposed for each application. The defined conditions shall include both intended exposures and unintended exposures that can result from the failure of primary containment or protection methods. Particular attention shall be paid to the quantification of those factors known to affect the susceptibility of materials to cracking caused by H2S. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Environmental Factors – Service Conditions Factors affecting metallic materials to cracking in H2S service H 2 S partial pressure in situ pH PPM of dissolved chloride or other halide Presence of elemental sulfur or other oxidant Temperature Galvanic effects Mechanical stress Time of exposure to contact liquid phase Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Select Mtls. From existing lists and tables • See Clause 7 Qualification and selection based upon documented field experience Define the laboratory test requirements to qualify a material • See 8.3 Basis for the reassessment of the suitability of existing alloys of construction • Clause 7 8.2 and 8.3 • See 8.2 The documented service conditions shall be used for one or more of the following purposes: P H2S PH Cl- S0 °C ΔV σ applied/residual T s Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Selection Qualifications of materials for H2S service To qualifying materials using ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 • Owner responsibility Define evaluate and document the service conditions • 8 factors Material selection  Select Mtls from list. SSC/SCC only  Qualification by documented experience.  Qualification by testing. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Selection Qualifications of materials for H2S service 1.Selection of materials resistant to SSC/SCC in the presence of sulfides from existing lists and tables Annex “A” 2.Qualification of materials for H2S service All failure mechanisms  Qualification based upon documented field experience  Qualification based upon laboratory testing Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Selection Qualifications of materials for H 2 S service Materials for H 2 S service from existing lists and tables Annex “A” Qualification of materials for H 2 S service Based upon field experience Clause 8 Based upon laboratory testing Annex “B” a b Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2015 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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7 Qualification and selection of carbon and low-alloy steels with resistance to SSC SOHIC and SZC 7.1 Option 1 — Selection of SSC-resistant steels and cast irons using A.2 7.2 Option 2 — Selection of steels for specific sour-service applications or for ranges of sour service A.3 SSC-resistant steels for use throughout SSC region 2/ A.4 SSC-resistant steels for use throughout SSC region 1 7.2.1.4 SSC regions 1 2 and 3 Referring to the regions of severity of the exposure as defined in Figure 1 steels for region 1 may be selected using A.2 A.3 or A.4 steels for region 2 may be selected using A.2 or A.3 and steels for region 3 may be selected using A.2. 7.3 Hardness requirements A.2.1.2 Parent metal composition heat treatment and hardness Carbon and low-alloy steels are acceptable at 22 HRC maximum hardness provided they contain less than 1 mass fraction nickel are not free-machining steels and are used in one of the following heat-treatment conditions: Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Table A.1 — Maximum acceptable hardness values for carbon steel carbon- manganese steel and low-alloy steel welds Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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mmmm Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Parent Material Hardness Requirements Hardness Limitations Good for Region 1 Annex A.4 Downhole casing tubing and tubular components 30 HRC. Pipeline steels Typically fabrication and field weld hardness should not exceed 300 HV 31HRC Good for Region 2/1 Annex A.3 Good for Region 3/2/1 Annex A.2 22HRC Downhole casing tubing and tubular components - 27 HRC Pipeline steels Typically fabrication and field weld hardness should not exceed 280 HV 29HRC http://www.steelexpress.co.uk/steel-hardness-conversion.html Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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A.2 SSC-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels and the use of cast irons A.2 SSC-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels and the use of cast irons A.2.2 Application to product forms A.2.2.2 Pipe plate and fittings A.2.2.3 Downhole casing tubing and tubular components A.2.2.4 Bolting and fasteners A.2.3 Application to equipment A.2.3.2 Drilling blowout preventers A.2.3.3 Compressors and pumps A.2.1 General requirements for carbon and low alloy steels A.2.4 Requirements for the use of cast irons Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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What is A.2 A.2 SSC-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels and the use of cast irons A.2.1 General requirements for carbon and low alloy steels  A.2.1.1 General  Carbon and low-alloy steels shall comply with A.2.1.2 through A.2.1.9.  A.2.1.2 Parent metal composition heat treatment and hardness  Carbon and low-alloy steels are acceptable at 22 HRC maximum hardness provided they contain less than 1 mass fraction nickel are not free-machining steels and are used in one of the following heat- treatment conditions: a hot-rolled carbon steels only b annealed c normalized d normalized and tempered e normalized austenitized quenched and tempered f austenitized quenched and tempered.  A.2.1.3 Carbon steels acceptable with revised or additional restrictions a Forgings produced in accordance with ASTM A105 are acceptable if the hardness does not exceed 187 HBW. b Wrought pipe fittings to ASTM A234 grades WPB and WPC are acceptable if the hardness does not exceed 197 HBW.  A.2.1.4 Welding  A.2.1.5 Surface treatments overlays plating coatings linings etc.  A.2.1.6 Cold deformation and thermal stress relief  A.2.1.7 Threading  A.2.1.8 Cold deformation of surfaces  A.2.1.9 Identification stamping Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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A.2.2 Application to product forms A.2.2.1 General Except as modified below the general requirements of A.2.1 shall apply to all product forms. A.2.2.2 Pipe plate and fittings Examples of tubular products that can comply with A.2.1 are shown in Table A.2. Pressure vessel steels classified as P-No 1 Group 1 or 2 in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are acceptable. Products made from flat-rolled steels in contact with trace amounts of H2S i.e. even if p H2S is below 0.3 kPa 0.05 psi can be susceptible to HIC/SWC damage.  Pipe seam welds shall comply with A.2.1. A.2.1.4 Welding Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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A.2.2.3 Downhole casing tubing and tubular components A.2.2.4 Bolting and fasteners A.2.3 Application to equipment A.2.3.1 General The general requirements of A.2.1 apply with the following modifications. A.2.3.2 Drilling blowout preventers A.2.3.3 Compressors and pumps A.2.4 Requirements for the use of cast irons Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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A.2 SSC-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels and the use of cast irons A.2 SSC-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels and the use of cast irons A.2.2 Application to product forms A.2.2.2 Pipe plate and fittings A.2.2.3 Downhole casing tubing and tubular components A.2.2.4 Bolting and fasteners A.2.3 Application to equipment A.2.3.2 Drilling blowout preventers A.2.3.3 Compressors and pumps A.2.1 General requirements for carbon and low alloy steels A.2.4 Requirements for the use of cast irons Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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A.2.1.4 Welding Welding and weld-hardness determinations shall be performed in accordance with 7.3.3. Acceptable maximum hardness values for carbon steel carbon manganese steel and low alloy steel welds are given in Table A.1. As-welded carbon steels carbon-manganese steels and low-alloy steels that comply with the hardness requirements of Table A.1 do not require post-weld heat treatment. Tubular products with an SMYS not exceeding 360 MPa 52 ksi and listed in Table A.2 are acceptable in the as-welded condition. For these products hardness testing of welding procedures may be waived if agreed by the equipment user. Some tubular products with an SMYS exceeding 360 MPa 52 ksi see A.2.2.2 may be acceptable in the as welded condition if suitable qualified welding procedures are used. The conditions in Table A.1 shall be met. Carbon steel carbon manganese and low-alloy steel weldments that do not comply with other paragraphs of this sub-clause shall be post weld heat treated after welding. The heat treatment temperature and its duration shall be chosen to ensure that the maximum weld zone hardness determined in accordance with 7.3 shall be 250 HV or subject to the restrictions described in 7.3.3 22 HRC. A minimum post weld heat treatment temperature of 620 °C 1150 °F shall be used for low alloy steels. The acceptability of any effects on mechanical properties other than hardness caused by the chosen heat treatment and its duration shall be subject to the approval of the equipment user. Welding consumables and procedures that produce a deposit containing more than 1 mass fraction nickel are acceptable after successful weld SSC qualification by testing in accordance with Annex B. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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WPS/PQR Welding shall be carried out in compliance with appropriate codes and standards 7.3.3.1 Figure 2 Butt-weld Figure 3 Fillet weld Figure 4 Repair partial penetration welds Vickers hardness surveys 7.3.3.3 Figure 6 Weld overlay 7.3.3.4 Hardness acceptance criteria for welds  Weld hardness acceptance criteria for steels selected using option 1 see 7.1 shall be as specified in A.2.1.4.  Alternative weld hardness acceptance criteria may be established from successful SSC testing of welded samples. SSC testing shall be in accordance with Annex B.  Weld-hardness acceptance criteria for steels qualified and/or selected using option 2 see 7.2 may be established from successful SSC testing of welded samples. SSC testing shall be in accordance with Annex B. 250 275 cap HV max WPS complied Yes No SCC testing Annex B Proceed with Testing Annex B PQR Reject No Yes Pass testing Annex B Yes No Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Key A weld heat-affected zone visible after etching B lines of survey C hardness impressions: Impressions 2 3 6 7 10 11 14 15 17 and 19 should be entirely within the heat-affected zone and located as close as possible to the fusion boundary between the weld metal and the heat-affected zone The top line of survey should be positioned so that impressions 2 and 6 coincide with the heat-affected zone of the final run or change of profile of the fusion line associated with the final run. Figure 2 — Butt-weld survey method for Vickers hardness measurement Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Key A weld heat-affected zone visible after etching B line of survey C line of survey parallel to line B and passing through the fusion boundary between the weld metal and the heat- affected zone at the throat D hardness impressions: Impressions 3 6 10 and 12 should be entirely within the heat-affected zone and located as close as possible to the fusion boundary between the weld metal and the heat-affected zone Figure 3 — Fillet weld Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Key A original weld heat-affected zone B repair-weld heat-affected zone C parallel lines of survey D hardness impressions: Impressions in the heat-affected zone should be located as close as possible to the fusion boundary The top line of survey should be positioned so that the heat-affected zone impressions coincide with the heat- affected zone of the final run or change in profile of the cap of fusion line associated with the final run. Figure 4 — Repair and partial penetration welds Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Key A weld B weld heat-affected zone visible after etching C parent metal D lines of survey E hardness impressions: Impressions in the weld heat-affected zone should be located within 2 mm of the fusion boundary Figure 5 — Butt weld survey method for Rockwell hardness measurements Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-3:2015 Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas Production - Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs corrosion resistant alloys and other alloys Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-3:2015E 6 Qualification and selection of CRAs and other alloys with respect to SSC SCC and GHSC in H2S-containing environments 6.2.2 Cracking-resistance properties of welds 6.2.2.1 General  The metallurgical changes that occur when welding CRAs and other alloys can affect their susceptibility to SSC SCC and/or GHSC. Welded joints can have a greater susceptibility to cracking than the parent materials joined.  The equipment user may allow the cracking susceptibility of weldments to govern the limits of safe service conditions for a fabricated system.  Processes and consumables used in welding should be selected in accordance with good practice and to achieve the required corrosion and cracking resistances.  Welding shall be carried out in compliance with appropriate codes and standards as agreed between the supplier and the purchaser.  Welding procedure specifications WPSs and procedure qualification records PQRs shall be available for inspection by the equipment user. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Welding PQRs shall include documented evidence demonstrating satisfactory cracking resistance under conditions at least as severe as those of the proposed application. Such evidence shall be based upon one or more of the following:  compliance with the requirements and recommendations for the specific materials group of Annex A see also 6.2.2.2 and 6.2.2.3  weld cracking-resistance qualification testing in accordance with Annex B  documented field experience modelled upon that specified for parent materials in ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-1. The requirements and recommendations given in Annex A might not be appropriate for all combinations of parent and weld metals used in the fabrication of equipment and components. The equipment user may require evidence of successful cracking- resistance testing as part of the welding procedure qualification to ensure the weldment produced provides adequate resistance to SSC SCC and GHSC for the application. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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6.2.2.2 Qualification of welding procedures in accordance with Annex A based upon hardness 6.2.2.2.1 General The qualification of welding procedures for sour service shall if specified in Annex A include hardness testing in accordance with 6.2.2.2.2 6.2.2.2.3 and 6.2.2.2.4. 6.2.2.2.2 Hardness testing methods for welding procedure qualification Hardness testing for welding procedure qualification shall be carried out using Vickers HV 10 or HV 5 methods in accordance with ISO 6507-1 or the Rockwell 15N method in accordance with ISO 6508-1. The use of other methods shall require explicit user approval. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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6.2.2.2.3 Hardness surveys for welding procedure qualification Hardness surveys for butt welds fillet welds repair and partial penetration welds and overlay welds shall be carried out as described in ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO15156-2: 2015 7.3.3.3. 6.2.2.2.4 Hardness acceptance criteria for welds Weld hardness acceptance criteria for CRAs or other alloys given in Annex A shall apply to alloys selected using Annex A. Hardness acceptance criteria can also be established from successful cracking-resistance testing of welded samples. Testing shall be in accordance with Annex B. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong Figure 2 Butt-weld Figure 3 Fillet weld Figure 4 Repair partial penetration welds ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO15156-2: 2015 Vickers hardness surveys 7.3.3.3 Figure 6 Weld overlay

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6.3 PREN The PREN F PREN shall be calculated as given in Formula 1: F PREN w Cr + 33w Mo + 05w W + 6w N Comments: The weld consumable selection - Matching composition NO - Matching F PREN Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Only one find A.6.3 Welding of martensitic stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2.  The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and  the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable. Martensitic stainless steels welded with nominally matching consumables shall meet the following requirements.  Weldments in martensitic stainless steels shall undergo a PWHT at 621 °C 1 150 °F minimum and shall comply with 6.2.2.2.  Weldments in the low-carbon martensitic stainless steels cast J91540 CA6NM or wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall undergo a single- or double-cycle PWHT after first being cooled to 25 °C 77 °F as follows:  single-cycle PWHT shall be at 580 °C to 621 °C 1 075 °F to 1 150 °F  double-cycle PWHT shall be at 671 °C to 691 °C 1 240 °F to 1 275 °F then cooled to 25 °C 77 °F or less then heated to 580 °C to 621 °C 1 075 °F to 1 150 °F. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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THANK YOU Confidential Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Vicker HV10 Hardness Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Vicker HV15 Hardness - The determination of the Rockwell hardness of a material involves the application of a minor load followed by a major load. The minor load establishes the zero position. The major load is applied then removed while still maintaining the minor load. The depth of penetration from the zero datum is measured from a dial on which a harder material gives a higher number. That is the penetration depth and hardness are inversely proportional. The chief advantage of Rockwell hardness is its ability to display hardness values directly thus obviating tedious calculations involved in other hardness measurement techniques. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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MHV-1000Z/V3.0 Digital Vickers Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Digital Vickers Microhardness Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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Vicker Microhardness Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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HRC - Rockwell Hardness 15N Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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MODEL FH-11 UNIVERSAL HARDNESS TESTER KEY FEATURES  Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Vickers Knoop Brinell Ball indentation HVT and HBT scales Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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MODEL FH-11 UNIVERSAL HARDNESS TESTER Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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MODEL FH-11 UNIVERSAL HARDNESS TESTER Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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HRC - Rockwell Hardness “C” ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2015E 7.3.3.2 Hardness testing methods for welding procedure qualification The HRC method may be used for welding procedure qualification if the design stress does not exceed two thirds of SMYS and the welding procedure specification includes post-weld heat treatment. The use of the HRC method for welding procedure qualification in all other cases shall require the agreement of the equipment user. NOTE Hardness surveys using the Vickers or Rockwell 15N testing method produce a more detailed picture of weld hardness and its variations. Hardness surveys using the HRC testing method might not detect small zones in welds or HAZs where the hardness exceeds the acceptance criteria for the Vickers or Rockwell 15N testing method. The significance of such small hard zones is not well understood. Fion Zhang/ Charlie Chong

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