NACE MR0175 CRA Exam- Reading 1 (Part 2 0f 2b)

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NACE MR0175 CRA Text Reading Part 3

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang NACE MR0175- CRA Written Exam My Reading 1 Part 2 of 2b 2017 Nov 21 th

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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闭门练功 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production 闭门练功

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NACE MR0175 Written Exam Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex A normative Environmental cracking-resistant CRAs and other alloys including Table A.1 — Guidance on the use of the materials selection tables

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A9

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.9 Precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys identified as individual alloys A.9.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.9 lists the chemical compositions of the precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys shown in Table A.31 to Table A.37.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.9.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys Table A.31 to Table A.33 give the environmental and materials limits for the uses for any equipment or component of precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys divided into groups I II and III respectively. Table A.31 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys I used for any equipment or component Table A.32 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys II used for any equipment or component Table A.33 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys III used for any equipment or component Table A.34 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys used for wellhead and christmas tree components excluding bodies and bonnets and valve and choke components excluding bodies and bonnets

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.35 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys used as non-pressure containing internal valve pressure regulator and level controller components and miscellaneous equipment Table A.36 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys used as springs Table A.37 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation-hardened nickel- based alloys used in gas lift service

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.31 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys I used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a wrought UNS N07031 shall be in either of the following conditions: 1. solution-annealed to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 2. solution-annealed and aged at 760 °C to 871 °C 1 400 °F to 1 600 °F for a maximum of 4 h to a maximum hardness of 40 HRC. b wrought UNS N07048 wrought UNS N07773 and wrought UNS N09777 shall have a maximum hardness of 40 HRC and shall be in the solution- annealed and aged condition c wrought UNS N07924 shall be in the solution-annealed and aged condition at a maximum hardness of 35 HRC d cast UNS N09925 shall be in the solution-annealed and aged condition at a maximum hardness of 35 HRC e cast UNS N07718 shall be in the solution-annealed and aged condition at a maximum hardness of 40 HRC. a No data submitted

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.32 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys II used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a wrought UNS N07718 shall be in any one of the following conditions: 1. solution-annealed to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 2. hot-worked to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 3. hot-worked and aged to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 4. solution-annealed and aged to a maximum hardness of 40 HRC. b wrought UNS N09925 shall be in any one of the following conditions: 1. cold-worked to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 2. solution-annealed to a maximum hardness of 35 HRC 3. solution-annealed and aged to a maximum hardness of 38 HRC 4. cold-worked and aged to a maximum hardness of 40 HRC 5. hot-finished and aged to a maximum hardness of 40 HRC. c number-1 wrought UNS N09935 shall be in the solution annealed and aged condition to a maximum hardness of 34 HRC d number-1 wrought UNS N09945 shall be in the solution annealed and aged condition to a maximum hardness of 42 HRC a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.33 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys III used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a UNS N07626 totally dense hot-compacted by a powder metallurgy process HIP shall have a maximum hardness of 40 HRC and a maximum tensile strength of 1 380 MPa 200 ksi and shall be either: 1. solution-annealed 927 °C 1 700 °F minimum and aged 538 °C to 816 °C 1 000 °F to 1 500 °F or 2. direct-aged 538 °C to 816 °C 1 000 °F to 1 500 °F. b wrought UNS N07716 and wrought UNS N07725 shall have a maximum hardness of HRC 43 and shall be in the solution annealed and aged condition c wrought UNS N07716 and wrought UNS N07725 in the solution-annealed and aged condition can also be used at a maximum hardness of HRC 44 in the absence of elemental sulfur and subject to the other environmental limits shown for the maximum temperature of 204 °C 400 °F d wrought UNS N07022 shall have a maximum hardness of HRC 39 in the annealed and aged condition.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.34 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys used for wellhead and christmas tree components excluding bodies and bonnets and valve and choke components excluding bodies and bonnets

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.35 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys used as non-pressure containing internal valve pressure regulator and level controller components and miscellaneous equipment For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a wrought UNS N07750 shall have a maximum hardness of 35 HRC and shall be either 1. solution-annealed and aged 2. solution-annealed 3. hot-worked or 4. hot-worked and aged. b wrought UNS N05500 shall have a maximum hardness of 35 HRC and shall be either 1. hot-worked and age-hardened 2. solution-annealed or 3. solution-annealed and age-hardened. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.36 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys used as springs For this application these materials shall also comply with the following:  UNS N07750 springs shall be in the cold-worked and age-hardened condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 50 HRC  UNS N07090 can be used for springs for compressor valves in the cold- worked and age-hardened condition with a maximum hardness of 50 HRC. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.37 — Environmental and materials limits for precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys used in gas lift service

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.9.3 Welding of precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2.  The hardness of the base metal after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and  the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective metal for the weld alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A10

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.10 Cobalt-based alloys identified as individual alloys A.10.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.10 lists the chemical compositions of the cobalt-based alloys shown in Table A.38 to Table A.40.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.10.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of cobalt-based alloys  Table A.38 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used for any equipment or component  Table A.39 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used as springs  Table A.40 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used as diaphragms pressure measuring devices and pressure seals

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.10.3 Welding of cobalt-based alloys of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the base metal after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective metal for the weld alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.38 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.39 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used as springs

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.40 — Environmental and materials limits for cobalt-based alloys used as diaphragms pressure measuring devices and pressure seals

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A11

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.11 Titanium and tantalum individual alloys A.11.1 Materials chemical compositions A.11.1.1 Titanium alloys Table D.11 lists the chemical compositions of the titanium alloys shown in Table A.41. A.11.1.2 Tantalum alloys Table D.12 lists the chemical compositions of the tantalum alloys shown in Table A.42.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.11.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of titanium and tantalum alloys  Table A.41 — Environmental and materials limits for titanium used for any equipment or component  Table A.42 — Environmental and materials limits for tantalum used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.41 — Environmental and materials limits for titanium used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a UNS R50250 and R50400 shall have a maximum hardness of 100 HRB b UNS R56260 shall have a maximum hardness of 45 HRC and shall be in one of the three following conditions: 1 annealed 2 solution-annealed 3 solution-annealed and aged. c UNS R53400 shall be in the annealed condition. Heat treatment shall be annealing at 774 ± 14 °C 1 425 ± 25 °F for 2 h followed by air- cooling. Maximum hardness shall be 92 HRB d UNS R56323 shall be in the annealed condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 32 HRC e wrought UNS R56403 shall be in the annealed condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 36 HRC f UNS R56404 shall be in the annealed condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 35 HRC g UNS R58640 shall have a maximum hardness of 42 HRC.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Specific guidelines shall be followed for successful applications of each titanium alloy specified in this part of ISO 15156. For example hydrogen embrittlement of titanium alloys can occur if these alloys are galvanically coupled to certain active metals e.g. carbon steel in H2S-containing aqueous media at temperatures greater than 80 °C 176 °F. Some titanium alloys can be susceptible to crevice corrosion and/or SSC in chloride environments. Hardness has not been shown to correlate with susceptibility to SSC/SCC. However hardness has been included for alloys with high strength to indicate the maximum testing levels at which failure has not occurred.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.42 — Environmental and materials limits for tantalum used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.11.3 Welding of titanium and tantalum alloys of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the base metal after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective metal for the weld alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A12

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.12 Copper- and aluminium-based alloys identified as materials types A.12.1 Copper-based alloys Copper-based alloys have been used without restriction on temperature pH2S Cl − or in situ pH in production environments. NOTE 1 Copper-based alloys can undergo accelerated mass loss corrosion weight loss corrosion in sour oil field environments particularly if oxygen is present. NOTE 2 Some copper-based alloys have shown sensitivity to GHSC. A.12.2 Aluminium-based alloys These materials have been used without restriction on temperature pH2S Cl − or in situ pH in production environments. The user should be aware that mass loss corrosion weight loss corrosion of aluminium-based alloys is strongly dependent on environmental pH.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A13

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.13 Cladding overlays and wear-resistant alloys A.13.1 Corrosion-resistant claddings linings and overlays The materials listed and defined in A.2 to A.11 can be used as corrosion- resistant claddings linings or as weld overlay materials. Unless the user can demonstrate and document the likely long-term in- service integrity of the cladding or overlay as a protective layer the base material after application of the cladding or overlay shall comply with ISO 15156-2 or this part of ISO 15156 as applicable. This may involve the application of heat or stress-relief treatments that can affect the cladding lining or overlay properties. Factors that can affect the long-term in-service integrity of a cladding lining or overlay include environmental cracking under the intended service conditions the effects of other corrosion mechanisms and mechanical damage. Dilution of an overlay during application that can impact on its corrosion resistance or mechanical properties should be considered.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.13.2 Wear-resistant alloys A.13.2.1 Wear-resistant alloys used for sintered cast or wrought components Environmental cracking resistance of alloys specifically designed to provide wear-resistant components is not specified in ISO 15156 all parts. No production limits for temperature pH2S Cl− or in situ pH have been established. Some materials used for wear-resistant applications can be brittle. Environmental cracking can occur if these materials are subject to tension. Components made from these materials are normally loaded only in compression.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.13.2.2 Hard-facing materials Hard facing may be used. Environmental cracking resistance of alloys or surface layers specifically designed to provide hard facing is not specified in ISO 15156 all parts. No production limits for temperature pH2S Cl − or in situ pH have been established. Some materials used for hard-facing applications can be brittle. Environmental cracking of the hard facing can occur if these materials are subjected to tension. Unless the user can demonstrate and document the likely long-term in- service integrity of the hardfacing materials the base material after application of the hard-facing material shall comply with ISO 15156-2 or this part of ISO 15156 as applicable.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex B normative Qualification of CRAs for H2S-service by laboratory testing

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.1 General This Annex specifies minimum requirements for qualifying CRAs for H2S service by laboratory testing. Requirements are given for qualifying resistance to the following cracking mechanisms:  SSC at ambient temperature  SCC at maximum service temperature in the absence of elemental sulfur S 0  HSC of CRAs when galvanically coupled to carbon or low alloy steel i.e. GHSC. Supplementary requirements concern a. testing at intermediate temperatures when the distinction between SSC and SCC is unclear and b. SCC testing in the presence of S 0 .

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Guidance on the potential for corrosion to cause cracking of CRAs is given in Table B.1. The alloy groups are the same as those used in Annex A. The test requirements of this Annex do not address the possible consequences of sequential exposure to different environments. For example the consequence of cooling after hydrogen uptake at a higher temperature is not evaluated.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table B.1 — Cracking mechanisms that shall be considered for CRA and other alloy groups

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2 Uses of laboratory qualifications B.2.1 General An overview of the uses of laboratory qualifications is given in Figure B.1  ©

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Key a. This part of ISO 15156 addresses SSC SCC and GHSC of CRAs and other alloys. ISO 15156-2 addresses SSC HIC SOHIC and SZC of carbon and low alloy steels. b. Annex A addresses SSC SCC and GHSC of CRAs and other alloys. ISO 15156-2:2015 Annex A addresses SSC of carbon and low alloy steels. c. See final paragraphs of “Introduction” for further information regarding document maintenance. NOTE Flowchart omits qualification by field experience as described in ISO 15156-1. Figure B.1 — Alternatives for alloy selection and laboratory qualification

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.2 Qualification of manufactured products The user of this part of ISO 15156 shall define the qualification requirements for the material in accordance with ISO 15156-1 and Annex B. This definition shall include the application of the following: a. general requirements see ISO 15156-1:2015 Clause 5 b. evaluation and definition of service conditions see ISO 15156-1:2015 Clause 6 c. material description and documentation see ISO 15156-1:2015 8.1 d. requirements for qualification based upon laboratory testing see ISO 15156-1:2015 8.3 e. report of the method of qualification see ISO 15156-1:2015 Clause 9. Appropriate “test batches” and sampling requirements shall be defined having regard to the nature of the product the method of manufacture testing required by the manufacturing specification and the required qualifications see Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Samples shall be tested in accordance with Annex B for each cracking mechanism to be qualified. A minimum of three specimens shall be tested per test batch. The test batch shall be qualified if all specimens satisfy the test acceptance criteria. Retesting is permitted in accordance with the following. If a single specimen fails to meet the acceptance criteria the cause shall be investigated. If the source material conforms to the manufacturing specification two further specimens may be tested. These shall be taken from the same source as the failed specimen. If both satisfy the acceptance criteria the test batch shall be considered qualified. Further retests shall require the purchaser’s agreement.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Testing of manufactured products may be carried out at any time after manufacture and before exposure to H2S service. Before the products are placed in H2S service the equipment user shall review the qualification and verify that it satisfies the defined qualification requirements. Products with a qualification that has been verified by the equipment user may be placed into H2S service.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route A defined production route may be qualified for the production of qualified material. A qualified production route may be followed to avoid order release testing for H2S cracking resistance. A materials supplier may propose to a materials purchaser that a qualified production route be used to produce qualified materials. The qualified production route may be used if the materials supplier and materials purchaser agree to its use. A qualified production route may be used to produce qualified material for more than one materials user. To qualify a production route the material supplier shall demonstrate that a defined production route is capable of consistently manufacturing material that satisfies the applicable qualification test requirements of Annex B.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The qualification of a production route requires all of the following: a. definition of the production route in a written quality plan that identifies the manufacturing locations all manufacturing operations and the manufacturing controls required to maintain the qualification b. initial testing of products produced on the defined production route in accordance with B.2.2 and verifying they satisfy the acceptance criteria c. periodic testing to confirm that the product continues to have the required resistance to cracking in H2S service. The frequency of “periodic” testing shall also be defined in the quality plan and shall be acceptable to the purchaser. A record of such tests shall be available to the purchaser d. retaining and collating the reports of these tests and making them available to material purchasers and/or equipment users. A material purchaser may agree additional quality control requirements with the manufacturer. The accuracy of the quality plan may be verified by site inspection by an interested party. Changes to a production route that fall outside the limits of its written quality plan require qualification of a new route in accordance with a b c and d above.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  initial testing of products produced on the defined production route in accordance with B.2.2 and verifying they satisfy the acceptance criteria  periodic testing to confirm that the product continues to have the required resistance to cracking in H2S service.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.4 Use of laboratory testing as a basis for proposing additions and changes to Annex A Changes to Annex A may be proposed see Introduction. Proposals for changes shall be documented in accordance with ISO 15156-1. They shall also be subject to the following additional requirements. Representative samples of CRAs and other alloys for qualification by laboratory testing shall be selected in accordance with ISO 15156-1. Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route 3 Separate Process Heats Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route 3 Separate Process Heats Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route 3 Separate Process Heats Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route 3 Separate Process Heats Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.2.3 Qualification of a defined production route 3 Separate Process Heats Material representing a minimum of three separately processed heats shall be tested for resistance to cracking in accordance with B.3. Test requirements shall be established by reference to the appropriate materials group in Table B.1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  Tests shall be performed for the primary cracking mechanisms listed in Table B.1.  Tests shall also be performed for the secondary cracking mechanisms listed in Table B.1 otherwise the justification for their omission shall be included in the test report. For other alloys not covered by Table B.1 the choice of qualification tests used shall be justified and documented. Sufficient data shall be provided to allow the members of ISO/TC 67 to assess the material and decide on the suitability of the material for inclusion into this part of ISO 15156 by amendment or revision in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives Part 1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 3 types of testing 1. Qualification of manufactured products 2. Qualification of a defined production route 3. Pproposing additions and changes to Annex A

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3 General requirements for tests B.3.1 Test method descriptions The test requirements are based on NACE TM0177 and EFC Publication 17. • TM0177-2016 Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulfide Stress Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking in H2S Environments • European Federation of Corrosion Publications NUMBER 17 Second Edition A Working Report on Corrosion Resistant Alloys for 0il and Gas Production: Guidance on General Requirements and Test Methods for H2S Service These documents shall be consulted for details of test procedures. When necessary suppliers purchasers and equipment users may agree variations to these procedures. Such variations shall be documented.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.2 Materials The materials tested shall be selected in accordance with the requirements found in ISO 15156-1:2015 8.3.2. In addition consideration shall be given to the following: a. the cracking mechanism for which testing is required see Table B.1 b. the testing of appropriately aged samples of alloys that can age in service particularly HSC testing of downhole materials that can be subject to ageing in service “well ageing” c. the directional properties of alloys because cold-worked alloys may be anisotropic with respect to yield strength and for some alloys and products the susceptibility to cracking varies with the direction of the applied tensile stress and consequent orientation of the crack plane. 8.3.2 Sampling of materials for laboratory testing The method of sampling the material for laboratory testing shall be reviewed and accepted by the equipment user. The test samples shall be representative of the commercial product. For multiple batches of a material produced to a single specification an assessment shall be made of the properties that influence cracking behaviour in H2S-containing environments see 8.1. The distributions of these properties shall be considered when selecting samples for testing according to the requirements of ISO 15156-2 and ISO 15156-3. The materials in the metallurgical condition that has the greatest susceptibility to cracking in H2S service shall be used for the selection of the test samples. Materials source method of preparation and surface condition of samples for testing shall be documented.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Directional Properties Of Alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.3 Test methods and specimens Primary test methods use 1 constant load 2 sustained load proof-ring or 3 constant total strain constant displacement loading of smooth test specimens. Uniaxial tensile UT tests four-point bend FPB tests and C-ring CR tests may be performed with the above loading arrangements. Generally constant load tests using UT specimens are the preferred method of testing homogeneous materials. Test specimens shall be selected to suit the product form being tested and the required direction of the applied stress.  A minimum of three specimens shall be taken from each component tested.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang UT specimens may be taken from welded joints in accordance with EFC Publication Number 17 Figure 8.1. Other specimens taken from welded joints may be tested with weld profiles as intended for service. When double back-to-back FPB specimens are used in accordance with EFC Publication Number 17 Figure 8.2a or similar uncracked specimens shall be disqualified as invalid if the opposing specimen cracks.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Fig. 8.1 Designation of tensile specimens taken from welded samples. W: Weld metal H: Heat affected zone T: Transverse to weld.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Fig. 8.2 Schematic illustration of 4-point bend specimens and jigs based on ISO 7539-2:1989. a DOUBLE BENT BEAM CONFIGURATION LOADED BY STUDS. Alternative to welded configurations shown in ASTM 39 and ISO 7539-2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Fig. 8.2 Schematic illustration of 4-point bend specimens and jigs based on ISO 7539-2:1989. b FOUR-POINT BEND SPECIMEN: STRESS TRANSVERSE TO WELD.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Fig. 8.3 Schematic illustration of welded C-ring specimen based on ISO 7539-5:1989.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Alternative test methods or specimens may be used when appropriate. The basis and use of such tests shall be documented and agreed with the equipment user. Examples of test methods that may be considered are as follows:  Fracture mechanics tests e.g. double cantilever beam DCB tests may be used if cracks are unaffected by branching and remain in the required plane. This normally limits DCB tests to SSC and HSC tests.  Tests involving the application of a slow strain rate e.g. SSRT in accordance with NACE TM0198 interrupted SSRT in accordance with ISO 7539-7 or RSRT in accordance with the method published as NACE CORROSION/97 Paper 58. Tests may utilize testing of full-size or simulated components when appropriate.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Acceptable Test Methods 1. UT 2. FBT 3. C Ring 4. DCB 5. SSRT/ ISSRT/ RSRT

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Acceptable Test Methods 1. UT 2. FBT 3. C Ring 4. DCB fracture mechanic test 5. SSRT/ ISSRT/ RSRT

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.4 Applied test stresses/loads for smooth specimens The yield strengths of CRAs used to derive test stresses shall be determined at the test temperature in accordance with the applicable manufacturing specification. In the absence of an appropriate definition of yield strength in the manufacturing specification the yield strength shall be taken to mean the 02 proof stress of non-proportional elongation Rp02 as defined in ISO 6892-1 determined at the test temperature. Directional properties shall be considered when selecting test specimens and defining test stresses.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For welded specimens the parent metal yield strength shall normally be used to determine test stresses. For dissimilar joints the lower parent metal yield strength shall normally be used. When design stresses are based on the yield strength of a weld zone that is lower than the yield strength of either adjoining parent metals the yield strength of the weld zone may be used to determine test stresses.  For constant-load tests and sustained-load proof-ring tests specimens shall be loaded to 90 of the AYS of the test material at the test temperature.  For constant total strain deflection tests specimens shall be loaded to 100 of the AYS of the test material at the test temperature. NOTE Constant total strain deflection tests might not be suitable for materials that can relax by creep when under load. Lower applied stresses can be appropriate for qualifying materials for specific applications. The use and basis of such tests shall be agreed with the purchaser and documented.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Constant Total Strain For constant total strain deflection tests specimens shall be loaded to 100 of the AYS of the test material at the test temperature. NOTE Constant total strain deflection tests might not be suitable for materials that can relax by creep when under load.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.5 SSC/SCC test environments B.3.5.1 General The following environmental test variables shall be controlled and recorded:  p H2S  p CO2  temperature  test solution pH the means of acidification and pH control all pH measurements shall be recorded  test solution formulation or analysis  elemental sulfur S 0 additions  galvanic coupling of dissimilar metals the area ratio and coupled alloy type shall be recorded. In all cases the p H2S chloride and S 0 concentrations shall be at least as severe as those of the intended application. The maximum pH reached during testing shall be no greater than the pH of the intended application.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Elememntal Sulfur

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Elememntal Sulfur

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Elememntal Sulfur

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang P CO2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang P H2S / P CO2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang In all cases the p H2S chloride and S 0 concentrations shall be at least as severe as those of the intended application. The maximum pH reached during testing shall be no greater than the pH of the intended application.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang It can be necessary to use more than one test environment to achieve qualification for a particular service. The following test environments may be used either :  to simulate intended service conditions or  to simulate a nominated condition when intended applications are insufficiently defined. Use can be made of nominated test conditions to provide information on the environmental limits within which a CRA or other alloy is resistant to cracking if no specific application is foreseen. Table E.1 may be used to define the test environments for the standard tests for SSC and GHSC identified as level II and level III respectively. For type 1 environments see B.3.5.2 Table E.1 also provides a number of nominated sets of conditions for temperature p CO2 p H2S and chloride Cl - concentration that may be considered. These are identified as levels IV V VI and VII.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table E.1 may be used to define the test environments for the standard tests for SSC and GHSC identified as level II and level III respectively. For type 1 environments see B.3.5.2 Table E.1 also provides a number of nominated sets of conditions for temperature p CO2 p H2S and chloride Cl - concentration that may be considered. These are identified as levels IV V VI and VII. Note:  SSC Level II  GHSC Level III  as levels IV V VI and VII

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table E.1 — Test conditions

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table E.1 — Test conditions

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table E.1 — Test conditions  Level I Test conditions defined and documented by the user/ 25 ± 3 °C  Level II Test in accordance with B.4 B.4- SCC Testing  Level III Test in accordance with B.4 B.8 B.4- SCC Testing B.8- GHSC testing with carbon steel couple  Level IV/ V/ VI/ VII Nominated sets of conditions

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang When using nominated test conditions all other requirements of this Annex shall be met. NOTE 1 The nominated sets of conditions are not intended to limit the freedom of the document user to test using other test conditions of their choice. The equipment user should be aware that oxygen contamination of the service environment can influence the cracking resistance of an alloy and should be considered when choosing the test environment. NOTE 2 Reference 15 gives information on the charging of autoclaves.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.5.2 Service simulation at actual H2S and CO2 partial pressures - Type 1 environments In these test environments the service in situ pH is replicated by controlling the parameters that determine pH under field conditions. Test environments shall be established in accordance with the following requirements: a. test limits: the pressure shall be ambient or greater b. test solution: synthetic produced water that simulates the chloride and bicarbonate concentrations of the intended service. The inclusion of other ions is optional c. test gas: H2S and CO2 at the same partial pressures as the intended service not absolute d. pH measurement: pH is determined by reproduction of the intended service conditions. The solution pH shall be determined at ambient temperature and pressure under the test gas or pure CO2 immediately before and after the test. This is to identify changes in the solution that influence the test pH. Any pH change detected at ambient temperature and pressure is indicative of a change at the test temperature and pressure.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Any pH change detected at ambient temperature and pressure is indicative of a change at the test temperature and pressure.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.5.3 Service simulation at ambient pressure with natural buffering agent — Type 2 environments In these test environments the service in situ pH is replicated by adjusting the buffer capacity of the test solution using a natural buffer to compensate for the reduced pressure of acid gases in the test. Test environments shall be established in accordance with the following requirements: a. test limits: the pressure shall be ambient temperature shall be maximum 60 °C and pH shall be 45 or greater b. test solution: distilled or de-ionized water with sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 added to achieve the required pH. Chloride shall be added at the concentration of the intended service. If necessary a liquid reflux shall be provided to prevent loss of water from the solution c. test gas: H2S at the partial pressure of the intended service and CO2 as the balance of the test gas. The test gas shall be continuously bubbled through the test solution d. pH control: the solution pH shall be measured at the start of the test periodically during the test and at the end of the test adjusting as necessary by adding HCl or NaOH. The variation of the test pH shall not exceed ±02 pH units.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.5.4 Service simulation at ambient pressure with acetic buffer — Type 3a and Type 3b environments In these test environments the service in situ pH is replicated by adjusting the buffer capacity of the test solution using an artificial buffer and adding HCl to compensate for the reduced pressure of acid gases in the test. Test environments shall be established in accordance with the following requirements: a. test limits: the pressure shall be ambient the temperature shall be 24 ± 3 °C b. test solution: one of the following test solutions shall be used: 1 for general use environment 3a distilled or de-ionized water containing 4 g/l sodium acetate and chloride at the same concentration as the intended service 2 for super-martensitic stainless steels prone to corrosion in solution for environment 3a environment 3b de-ionized water containing 04 g/l sodium acetate and chloride at the same concentration as the intended service. HCl shall be added to both solutions to achieve the required pH

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang c. test gas: H2S at the partial pressure of the intended service and CO2 as the balance of the test gas. The test gas shall be continuously bubbled through the test solution d. pH control: the solution pH shall be measured at the start of the test periodically during the test and at the end of the test adjusting as necessary by adding of HCl or NaOH. The variation of the test pH shall not exceed ± 02 pH units.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.6 Test duration Constant-load sustained-load and constant-total-strain tests shall have a minimum duration of 720 h. Tests shall not be interrupted.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.7 Acceptance criteria and test report Specimens exposed in constant-load sustained-load and constant-total- strain tests shall be assessed in accordance with NACE TM0177 test methods A and C. No cracks are permissible. Specimens exposed in fracture mechanics and slow strain rate tests shall be assessed as required by the test method. Fracture toughness values shall only be valid for substantially unbranched cracks. Acceptance criteria for fracture toughness tests shall be specified by the equipment user. In all cases any indication of corrosion causing metal loss including pitting or crevice corrosion shall be reported. NOTE The occurrence of pitting or crevice corrosion outside the stressed section of a specimen can suppress SCC of the specimen. A written test report conforming to the requirements in ISO 15156-1:2015 Clause 9 shall be completed and retained.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ANSI/NACE TM0177-2016 Section 8: Method A —NACE Standard Tensile Test

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ANSI/NACE TM0177-2016 Section 8: Method A —NACE Standard Tensile Test

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ANSI/NACE TM0177-2016 Section 8: Method A — NACE Standard Tensile Test

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ANSI/NACE TM0177-2016 Section 10: Method C —NACE Standard C-Ring Test

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ANSI/NACE TM0177-2016 Section 10: Method C —NACE Standard C-Ring Test

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.8 Validity of tests Satisfactory test results qualify materials for environmental conditions that are less severe than the test environment. Users shall determine the validity of tests for individual applications. Environmental everity is decreased by the following at any given temperature:  — a lower pH2S  — a lower chloride concentration  — a higher pH  — the absence of S 0 .

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.4 SSC testing Tests shall be performed in accordance with the general requirements for tests given in B.3. Tests shall normally be performed at 24 ± 3 °C 75 ± 5 °F in accordance with NACE TM0177 and/or EFC Publication 17. The test temperature may be at the lowest service temperature if this is above 24 °C 75 °F. The use of a test temperature above 24 °C shall be justified in the test report.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.5 SCC testing without S 0 Tests shall be performed in accordance with the general requirements of B.3. SCC testing procedures shall be based on NACE TM0177 and/or EFC Publication 17 subject to the following additional requirements options and clarifications:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang a. the test temperature shall not be less than the maximum intended service temperature. This can require the use of a pressurized test cell b. water vapour pressure shall be allowed for in determining gas-phase partial pressures c. acetic acid and acetates shall not be used for pH control. The solution pH shall be controlled as described in B.3.5.2 d. during initial exposure of specimens to the test environment the applied load and the environmental conditions shall be controlled so that all test conditions are already established when the test temperature is first attained e. for constant-total-strain tests applied stresses shall be verified by measurement NOTE It is good practice to verify the deflection calculations in many CRA material specifications. f. loading procedures used for constant-total-strain tests shall be shown to achieve a stable stress before specimens are exposed to the test environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.6 SSC/SCC testing at intermediate temperatures Testing at intermediate temperatures i.e. between 24 ± 3 °C 75 ± 5 °F and the maximum intended service temperature shall meet the requirements of the equipment user. Testing shall be performed at the specified temperature in accordance with the above requirements for SCC testing. For qualification for inclusion by amendment in A.7 duplex stainless steels shall be tested at: 1. 24 ± 3 °C 75 ± 5 °F 2. 90 ± 3 °C 194 ± 5 °F and 3. at the maximum intended service temperature of the alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.7 SCC testing in the presence of S 0 Tests shall be performed in accordance with the previous requirements for SCC tests with the addition that the procedure published in NACE CORROSION/95 Paper 47 shall be implemented for control of S 0 additions. The integration of this procedure into CRA test methods is addressed in EFC Publication 17 Appendix S1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.8 GHSC testing with carbon steel couple GHSC tests shall be performed in accordance with the previously stated requirements for SSC testing subject to the following additional requirements options and clarifications: a. the CRA specimen shall be electrically coupled to unalloyed i.e. carbon steel that is fully immersed in the test solution. The ratio of the area of the unalloyed steel to the wetted area of the CRA specimen shall be between 05 and 1 as required by NACE TM0177. Loading fixtures shall be electrically isolated from the specimen and the coupled steel. For application-specific qualifications the CRA may be coupled to a sample of the lower alloyed material to which it will be coupled in service. b. the test environment shall be NACE TM0177 Solution A under H2S at a pressure of 100 kPa and at a temperature of 24 ± 3 °C 75 ± 5 °F. For application-specific qualifications SSC test environments described in B.3.5 may be used.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex C informative Information that should be supplied for material purchasing

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ISO 15156-1 indicates that cooperation and exchange of information can be necessary between the various users of this part of ISO 15156 e.g.  equipment users  purchasers and  manufacturers of equipment  purchasers of materials and  manufacturers and suppliers of materials. The following tables can be used to assist this cooperation. The materials purchaser should indicate the required options in Table C.1 and Table C.2. Table C.1 and Table C.2 also suggest designations that may be included in markings of materials to show compliance of individual CRAs or other alloys with this part of ISO 15156. The purchase order details should form part of a material’s documentation to ensure its traceability. Where selection of materials is based upon laboratory testing in accordance with Annex B traceability documentation should also include the details of the conditions derived from Table C.2 that were applied during testing.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table C.1 — Information for material purchase and marking

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang a. For use when a purchaser requires a known material that is either listed in Annex A or qualified in accordance with Annex B. The purchaser should indicate the method of qualification below. b. User may insert material type and condition. c. User may insert equipment type for which material is required. d. Indicate which option is required. e. A suggested scheme for designation of listed CRAs to be included in markings of materials is for manufacturers/suppliers to indicate compliance of individual CRAs or other alloys by reference to the materials group clause number e.g. A.2. For materials qualified to Annex B the suggested designations are B B1 B2 B3 see Table C.2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table C.2 — Additional information for SSC SCC and GHSC testing and suggested marking

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang a. Indicate which options is are required. b. For materials qualified to Annex B the suggested designations for marking are B B1 B2 and B3 where B1 is SSC B2 is SCC B3 is GHSC and B indicates that the material has been shown to be resistant to all three cracking mechanisms. c. Test conditions to be appropriate to the service conditions shown in this table see also B.2 and B.3.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex D informative Materials chemical compositions and other information

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang D.1 The tables that follow are included for the convenience of the users of this part of ISO 15156 and are based on the SAE — ASTM standard. Users are encouraged to confirm the accuracy of the information shown using the latest edition of this SAE — ASTM standard. D.2 These tables provide a link between the UNS numbers used in the tables of Annex A and the chemical compositions of the alloys to which they refer. Document users are encouraged to consult the SAE — ASTM standard which gives a written description of each alloy its chemical composition common trade names and cross references to other industry specifications. D.3 Alloy acceptability depends upon actual chemical composition within the ranges shown and upon any additional chemical composition heat treatment and hardness requirements listed for the alloy in Annex A. Some alloy chemical compositions that comply with the tables do not meet these additional qualification requirements.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  NOTE 1 ISO 15510 2 provides assistance for the cross-referencing for some UNS numbers to other standards. ISO 13680 1 provides information relating to materials their chemical compositions and their availability for use as casing tubing and coupling stock.  NOTE 2 Mass fraction w is often expressed in US customary units as parts per million by weight and in SI units as milligrams per kilogram. The mass fractions given in the tables of this Annex are expressed as percentage mass fractions 1 being equal to 1 g per 100 g.  NOTE 3 For Tables D.1 D.2 D.5 D.6 D.7 and D.8 the balance of composition up to 100 is Fe.  NOTE 4 For Tables D.1 D.2 and D.7 the values of Ni + 2Mo and/or FPREN have been rounded to whole numbers. They are provided for guidance only.

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.1 — Chemical compositions of some austenitic stainless steels see A.2 and D.3 UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si P S Mo N Other F PREN Ni + 2Mo max a max a max a max max max w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w P w S w Mo w N J92500 003 170 to 210 80 to 120 150 200 004 004 — — — 17 to 21 8 to 12 J92600 008 180 to 210 80 to 110 150 200 004 004 — — — 18 to 21 8 to 11 J92800 003 170 to 210 90 to 130 150 150 004 004 20 to 30 — — 24 to 31 13 to 19 J92843 028 to 035 180 to 210 80 to 110 075 to 150 100 004 004 100 to 175 — Other b 23 to 30 10 to 15 J92900 008 180 to 210 90 to 120 150 200 004 004 20 to 30 — — 24 to 31 13 to 18 S20100 015 160 to 180 35 to 55 55 to 75 100 0060 0030 — 025 — 20 to 22 4 to 6 S20200 015 170 to 190 40 to 60 75 to 100 100 0060 0030 — — — 17 to 19 4 to 6 S20500 012 to 025 160 to 180 100 to 175 140 to 155 100 0060 0030 — — — 16 to 18 1 to 2 S20910 006 205 to 235 115 to 135 40 to 60 100 0040 0030 15 to 30 020 to 040 Other c 29 to 38 15 to 20 S30200 015 170 to 190 80 to 100 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 17 to 19 8 to 10 S30400 008 180 to 200 80 to 105 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 18 to 20 8 to 11 S30403 003 180 to 200 80 to 120 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 18 to 20 8 to 12 S30500 012 170 to 190 100 to 130 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 17 to 19 10 to 13 S30800 008 190 to 210 100 to 120 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 19 to 21 10 to 12 S30900 020 220 to 240 120 to 150 200 100 0045 0030 — — — 22 to 24 12 to 15 S31000 025 240 to 260 190 to 220 200 150 0045 0030 — — — 24 to 26 19 to 22 S31600 008 160 to 180 100 to 140 200 100 0045 0030 20 to 30 — — 23 to 28 14 to 20 S31603 0030 160 to 180 100 to 140 200 100 0045 0030 20 to 30 — — 23 to 28 14 to 20 S31635 008 16 to 18 10 to 14 200 10 0045 0030 2 to 3 010 Other d 23 to 30 14 to 20 a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Cu 050 max Ti 015 to 050 W 100 to 175 Nb + Ta 030 to 070 . c Nb 010 to 030 V 010 to 030 . d Minimum value of Ti shall be five times the percentage mass fraction of carbon. e Minimum value of Nb shall be 10 times the percentage mass fraction of carbon. © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 69

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ISO 15156-3:2015E UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si P S Mo N Other F PREN Ni + 2Mo max a max a max a max max max w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w P w S w Mo w N S31700 008 180 to 200 110 to 150 200 100 0045 0030 30 to 40 — — 28 to 33 17 to 23 S32100 008 170 to 190 90 to 120 200 100 0045 0030 — — Other d 17 to 19 9 to 12 S34700 008 170 to 190 90 to 130 200 100 0045 0030 — — Other e 17 to 19 9 to 13 S38100 008 170 to 190 175 to 185 200 150 to 250 003 0030 — — — 17 to 19 18 to 19 a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Cu 050 max Ti 015 to 050 W 100 to 175 Nb + Ta 030 to 070 . c Nb 010 to 030 V 010 to 030 . d Minimum value of Ti shall be five times the percentage mass fraction of carbon. e Minimum value of Nb shall be 10 times the percentage mass fraction of carbon. Table D.1 continued 70 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.2 — Chemical compositions of some highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels see A.3 and D.3 UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si P S Mo N Cu W F PREN Ni + 2Mo max max a max max max w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w P w S w Mo w N w Cu w W S31254 0020 195 to 205 175 to 185 100 080 0030 0010 60 to 65 018 to 022 050 to 100 — 42 to 45 30 to 32 J93254 0025 195 to 205 175 to 197 120 10 045 0010 60 to 70 018 to 024 050 to 100 — 42 to 47 30 to 34 J95370 b 003 24 to 25 17 to 18 8 to 9 050 0030 0010 4 to 5 07 to 08 0 to 050 0 to 010 48 to 54 25 to 28 S31266 0030 230 to 250 210 to 240 20 100 0035 0020 50 to 70 035 to 060 050 to 300 100 to 300 46 to 62 31 to 38 S32200 003 200 to 230 230 to 270 10 05 003 0005 25 to 35 — — — 28 to 35 28 to 34 S32654 002 240 to 250 210 to 230 200 to 400 050 003 0005 700 to 800 045 to 055 030 to 060 — 54 to 60 35 to 39 N08007 007 190 to 220 275 to 305 150 15 — — 200 to 300 — 300 to 400 — 26 to 32 32 to 37 N08020 c 007 190 to 210 320 to 380 200 100 0045 0035 20 to 30 — 300 to 400 — 256 to 309 36 to 44 N08320 005 210 to 230 250 to 270 25 10 004 003 40 to 60 — — — 34 to 43 33 to 39 N08367 0030 200 to 220 235 to 255 200 100 004 003 600 to 700 018 to 025 075 max. — 43 to 49 36 to 40 N08904 002 190 to 230 230 to 280 200 100 0045 0035 400 to 500 — 1 to 2 — 32 to 40 31 to 38 N08925 002 190 to 210 240 to 260 100 050 0045 0030 60 to 70 010 to 020 050 to 150 — 40 to 47 36 to 40 N08926 0020 190 to 210 240 to 260 20 05 003 001 60 to 70 015 to 025 05 to 15 — 41 to 48 36 to 40 a Where a range is shown it indicates min. to max. percentage mass fractions. b Additional elements expressed as percentage mass fractions are Al 001 max A 001 max B 0003 to 0007 Co 025 max Nb 010 max Pb 001 max Sn 0010 max Ti 010 max and V 010 max. c w Nb shall be eight times w C mass fraction with a maximum of 1 . © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 71

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.3 — Chemical compositions of some solid-solution nickel-based alloys see A.4 and D.3 UNS C Cr Ni Fe Mn Si Mo Co Cu P S Ti Nb + Ta Nb V W N Al max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Fe w Mn w Si w Mo w Co w Cu w P w S w Ti w Nb+Ta w Nb w V w W w N w Al N06002 005 to 015 205 to 230 bal. b 170 to 200 100 100 80 to 100 05 to 25 — 004 0030 — — — — 02 to 10 — — N06007 005 210 to 235 bal. b 180 to 210 10 to 20 100 55 to 75 25 15 to 25 004 003 — — 175 to 25 — 100 — — N06022 0015 200 to 225 bal. b 20 to 60 050 008 125 to 145 25 — 002 002 — — — 035 25 to 35 — — N06030 003 280 to 315 bal. b 130 to 170 15 08 40 to 60 50 10 to 24 004 002 — 03 to 15 030 to 150 004 15 to 40 — — N06059 0010 220 to 240 bal. b 15 05 010 150 to 165 03 — 0015 0005 — — — — — — 01 to 04 N06060 003 190 to 220 540 to 600 bal. b 150 050 120 to 140 — 100 0030 0005 — — 125 — 125 — — N06110 015 270 to 330 bal. b — — — 800 to 120 120 — — — 150 — 200 — 400 — 150 N06250 002 200 to 230 500 to 530 bal. b 10 009 101 to 120 — 100 0030 0005 — — — — 100 — — N06255 003 230 to 260 470 to 520 bal. b 100 10 60 to 90 — 120 003 003 069 — — — 30 — — N06625 010 200 to 230 bal. b 50 050 050 80 to 100 — — 0015 0015 040 — 315 to 415 — — — 040 N06686 0010 190 to 230 bal. b 50 075 008 150 to 170 — — 004 002 002 to 025 — — — 30– 44 — — N06950 0015 190 to 210 500 min 150 to 200 100 100 80 to 100 25 05 004 0015 050 — 004 10 — — N06952 003 230 to 270 480 to 560 bal. b 10 10 60 to 80 — 05 to 15 003 0003 06 to 15 — — — — — — N06975 003 230 to 260 470 to 520 bal. b 10 10 50 to 70 — 070 to 120 003 003 070 to 150 — — — — — — N06985 0015 210 to 235 bal. b 180 to 210 100 100 60 to 80 50 15 to 25 004 003 — 050 — — 15 — — a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c w Nb shall be eight times w C mass fraction with a maximum of 1 . d Additional elements by mass fraction: w Ta 02 max and w B 0006 max. 72 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved —

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ISO 15156-3:2015E UNS C Cr Ni Fe Mn Si Mo Co Cu P S Ti Nb + Ta Nb V W N Al max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Fe w Mn w Si w Mo w Co w Cu w P w S w Ti w Nb+Ta w Nb w V w W w N w Al N07022 d 0010 200 to 214 bal. b 18 05 008 155 to 174 10 05 0025 0015 — — — — 08 — 05 N08007 007 190 to 220 275 to 305 bal. b 150 150 200 to 300 — 300 to 400 — — — — — — — — — N08020 007 190 to 210 320 to 380 bal. b 200 100 20 to 30 — 300 to 400 0045 0035 — — 8xC to 100 c — — — — N08024 003 225 to 250 350 to 400 bal. b 100 050 35 to 50 — 050 to 150 0035 0035 — — 015 to 035 — — — — N08026 003 220 to 260 330 to 372 bal. b 100 050 500 to 670 — 200 to 400 003 003 — — — — — — — N08028 003 260 to 280 295 to 325 bal. b 250 100 30 to 40 — 06 to 14 0030 0030 — — — — — — — N08032 001 22 32 bal. b 04 03 43 — — 0015 0002 — — — — — — — N08042 003 200 to 230 400 to 440 bal. b 10 05 50 to 70 — 15 to 30 003 0003 06 to 12 — — — — — N08135 003 205 to 235 330 to 380 bal. b 100 075 40 to 50 — 070 003 003 — — — — 02 to 08 — — N08535 0030 240 to 270 290 to 365 bal. b 100 050 25 to 40 — 150 003 003 — — — — — — — N08825 005 195 to 235 380 to 460 bal. b 100 05 25 to 35 — 15 to 30 003 06 to 12 — — — — — 02 N08826 005 195 to 235 380 to 460 220 min. 100 100 25 to 35 — 15 to 30 0030 0030 — — 060 to 120 — — — — N08932 0020 240 to 260 240 to 260 bal. b 20 050 47 to 57 — 10 to 20 0025 0010 — — — — — 017 to 025 — N10002 008 145 to 165 bal. b 40 to 70 100 100 150 to 170 25 — 0040 0030 — — — 035 30 to 45 — — N10276 002 145 to 165 bal. b 40 to 70 100 008 150 to 170 25 — 0030 0030 — — — 035 30 to 45 — — CW12MW 012 155 to 175 bal. b 45 to 75 10 10 160 to 180 — — 0040 0030 — — — 020 to 04 375 to 525 — — a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c w Nb shall be eight times w C mass fraction with a maximum of 1 . d Additional elements by mass fraction: w Ta 02 max and w B 0006 max. Table D.3 continued © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 73 — —

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ISO 15156-3:2015E UNS C Cr Ni Fe Mn Si Mo Co Cu P S Ti Nb + Ta Nb V W N Al max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Fe w Mn w Si w Mo w Co w Cu w P w S w Ti w Nb+Ta w Nb w V w W w N w Al CW6MC 006 200 to 230 bal. b 50 10 10 80 to 100 — — 0015 0015 — — 315 to 45 10 — — — a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c w Nb shall be eight times w C mass fraction with a maximum of 1 . d Additional elements by mass fraction: w Ta 02 max and w B 0006 max. Table D.3 continued 74 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.4 — Chemical compositions of some copper nickel alloys see A.4 UNS C Cu Ni a Fe Mn Si S a max max max max max max w C w Cu w Ni w Fe w Mn w Si w S N04400 03 Bal. b 630 to 700 250 200 050 0024 N04405 030 Bal. b 630 to 700 25 20 050 0025 to 0060 a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions . b Bal. is the balance of composition up to 100 . © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 75

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.5 — Chemical compositions of some ferritic stainless steels see A.5 UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si Mo N P S Other max max a max max max max max max a w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w Mo w N w P w S w S40500 008 115 to 145 — 100 100 — — 0040 0030 Al 010 to 030 S40900 008 105 to 1175 050 100 100 — — 0045 0045 Ti 6 × C to 075 b S43000 012 160 to 180 — 100 100 — — 0040 0030 — S43400 012 160 to 180 — 100 100 075 to 125 — 0040 0030 — S43600 012 160 to 180 — 100 100 075 to 125 — 0040 0030 Nb + Ta 5 × C to 070 b S44200 020 180 to 230 — 100 100 — — 0040 0030 — S44400 0025 175 to 195 100 100 100 175 to 250 0025 0040 0030 Nb + 02 × Ti+ 4C + N 08 b S44500 002 190 to 210 060 100 100 — 003 0040 0012 Nb 10C + N to 08 b Cu 030 to 060 S44600 020 230 to 270 — 150 100 — 025 0040 0030 — S44626 006 250 to 270 050 075 075 075 to 150 004 0040 0020 Ti 7 × C + N min b and 020 to 100 Cu 020 S44627 0010 250 to 270 050 040 040 075 to 150 0015 0020 0020 Nb 005 to 020 Cu 020 S44635 0025 245 to 260 350 to 450 100 075 350 to 450 0035 0040 0030 Nb + 02 × Ti+ 4C + N 08 b S44660 0025 250 to 270 150 to 350 100 100 250 to 350 0035 0040 0030 Nb + 02 × Ti+ 4C + N 08 b S44700 0010 280 to 300 015 030 020 35 to 42 0020 0025 0020 C + N 0025 Cu 015 S44735 0030 280 to 300 100 100 100 360 to 420 0045 0040 0030 Nb + Ta – 6 C + N 020 to 100 b S44800 0010 280 to 300 20 to 25 030 020 35 to 42 0020 0025 0020 C + N 0025 b Cu 015 a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Expresses values for elements by reference to the mass fraction of other elements e.g. Ti 6 × C to 075 indicates a value for Ti between six times w C and 075 . 76 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.6 — Chemical compositions of some martensitic stainless steels see A.6 UNS Name C Cr Ni Mo Si P S Mn N Other max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Mo w Si w P w S w Mn w N w S41000 — 015 115 to 135 — — 1 004 003 1 — — S41425 — 005 12 to 15 4 to 7 15 to 2 05 002 0005 05 to 10 006 to 012 Cu 03 S41426 — 003 115 to 135 45 to 65 15 to 3 05 002 0005 05 — Ti 001 to 05 V 05 S41427 — 003 115 to 135 45 to 60 15 to 25 050 002 0005 10 — Ti 001 V 001 to 050 S41429 — 01 105 to 140 20 to 30 04 to 08 10 003 003 075 003 b S41500 — 005 115 to 140 35 to 55 05 to 10 06 003 003 05 to 10 — — S42000 — 015 min a 12 to 14 — — 1 004 003 1 — — S42400 — 006 120 to 140 35 to 45 03 to 07 03 to 06 003 003 05 to 10 — — S42500 — 008 to 02 14 to 16 1 to 2 03 to 07 1 002 001 1 02 — J91150 — 015 115 to 14 1 05 15 004 004 1 — — J91151 — 015 115 to 14 1 015 to 1 1 004 004 1 — — J91540 — 006 115 to 14 35 to 45 04 to 1 1 004 003 1 — — — 420 M 015 to 022 12 to14 05 — 1 002 001 025 to 1 — Cu 025 K90941 — 015 8 to 10 — 09 to 11 05 to 1 003 003 03 to 06 — — — L80 13 Cr 015 to 022 12 to 14 05 — — 002 001 025 to 1 — Cu 025 a Min indicates minimum percentage mass fraction. Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Additional elements expressed as percentage mass fractions are Al 005 max B 001 max Nb 002 max Co 10 max Cu 05 max Se 001 max Sn 002 max Ti 015 to 075 V 025 max. © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 77

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.7 — Chemical compositions of some duplex stainless steels see A.7 and D.3 UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si Mo N Cu W P S F PREN max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w Mo w N w Cu w W w P w S S31200 003 240 to 260 55 to 65 2 1 12 to 20 014 to 020 — — 0045 003 30 to 36 S31260 003 240 to 260 55 to 75 1 075 25 to 35 010 to 030 020 to 080 010 to 050 003 003 34 to 43 S31803 003 210 to 230 45 to 65 2 1 250 to 350 008 to 020 — — 003 002 31 to 38 S32404 004 205 to 225 55 to 85 2 1 20 to 30 020 10 to 20 0030 003 001 27 to 36 S32520 003 240 to 260 55 to 80 15 08 30 to 50 020 to 035 050 to 300 — 0035 002 37 to 48 S32550 004 240 to 270 45 to 65 15 1 200 to 400 010 to 025 15 to 25 — 004 003 32 to 44 S32750 003 240 to 260 60 to 80 12 08 30 to 50 024 to 032 — — 0035 002 38 to 48 S32760 003 240 to 260 60 to 80 1 1 30 to 40 02 to 03 05 to 10 05 to 10 003 001 38 to 46 S32803 b 001 280 to 290 30 to 40 05 05 18 to 25 0025 — — 002 0005 34 to 38 S32900 02 230 to 280 25 to 50 1 075 100 to 200 — — — 004 003 26 to 35 S32950 003 260 to 290 350 to 520 2 06 100 to 250 015 to 035 — — 0035 001 32 to 43 S39274 003 240 to 260 60 to 80 1 08 250 to 350 024 to 032 02 to 08 15 to 25 003 002 39 to 47 S39277 0025 240 to 260 65 to 80 08 30 to 40 023 to 033 12 to 20 080 to 120 0025 0002 39 to 46 J93370 004 245 to 265 475 to 60 1 1 175 to 225 — 275 to 325 — 004 004 30 to 34 J93345 008 200 to 270 89 to 110 1 30 to 45 010 to 030 — — 004 0025 31 to 47 J93380 003 240 to 260 60 to 85 1 1 30 to 40 02 to 03 05 to 10 05 to 10 003 0025 38 to 46 J93404 003 240 to 260 60 to 80 15 1 40 to 50 010 to 030 — — — — 39 to 47 a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Ratio Nb/C + N 12 min C + N 0030 max Nb 015 to 050 . 78 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.8 — Chemical compositions of some precipitation-hardened stainless steels see A.8 UNS C Cr Ni Mn Si Mo Nb Ti Cu Al P S B V max max max max a max max w C w Cr w Ni w Mn w Si w Mo w Nb w Ti w Cu w Al w P w S w B w V S66286 008 135 to 160 240 to 270 200 100 100 to 150 — 190 to 235 — 035 0040 0030 0001 to 001 010 to 050 S15500 007 140 to 155 350 to 550 100 100 — 015 to 045 — 250 to 450 — 0040 0030 — — S15700 009 140 to 160 650 to 775 100 100 200 to 300 — — — 075 to 150 004 003 — — S17400 007 150 to 175 300 to 500 100 100 — 015 to 045 — 300 to 500 — 004 003 — — S45000 005 140 to 160 500 to 700 100 100 050 to 100 8 × C b — 125 to 175 — 0030 0030 — — a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b Indicates a minimum value for w Nb of eight times the w C . © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 79

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.9 — Chemical compositions of some precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys see A.9 UNS C Cr Ni Fe Mn Mo Si Nb Ti Cu Al Co N B P S max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Fe w Mn w Mo w Si w Nb w Ti w Cu w Al w Co w N w B w P w S N06625 010 200 to 230 Bal. b 50 050 80 to 100 050 315 to 415 040 — 040 — — — 0015 0015 N07022 e 0010 200 to 214 Bal. b 18 05 155 to 174 008 — — 05 05 10 — 0006 0025 0015 N07031 003 to 006 220 to 230 550 to 580 Bal. b 020 17 to 23 020 — 210 to 260 060 to 120 100 to 170 — — 0003 to 0007 0015 0015 N07048 0015 210 to 235 Bal. b 180 to 210 10 50 to 70 010 05 15 to 20 15 to 22 04 to 09 20 — — 002 001 N07090 013 180 to 210 Bal. b 30 10 — — — 18 to 30 — 08 to 20 150 to 210 — — — — N07626 005 200 to 230 Bal. b 60 050 80 to 100 050 450 to 550 060 050 040 to 080 100 005 — 002 0015 N07716 003 190 to 220 570 to 630 Bal. b 020 70 to 95 020 275 to 400 100 to 160 — 035 — — — 0015 001 N07718 008 170 to 210 500 to 550 Bal. b 035 28 to 33 035 475 to 550 065 to 115 030 020 to 080 100 — 0006 0015 0015 N07725 003 190 to 225 550 to 590 Bal. b 035 700 to 950 020 275 to 400 100 to 170 — 035 — — — 0015 001 N07773 003 180 to 270 450 to 600 Bal. b 100 25 to 55 050 25 to 60 20 — 20 — — — 003 001 N07924 c 0020 205 to 225 520 min 70 to 130 020 55 to 70 020 275 to 35 10 to 20 10 to 40 075 30 020 — 0030 0005 N09777 003 140 to 190 340 to 420 Bal. b 100 25 to 55 050 01 — — 035 — — — 003 001 N09925 003 195 to 235 380 to 460 220 min 100 250 to 350 050 050 190 to 240 150 to 300 010 to 050 — — — — 003 a Min indicates minimum percentage mass fraction. Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c Additional elements by mass fraction: w W 05 max and w Mg 0005 0 max. d Additional elements by mass fraction: w W 10 max. e Additional elements by mass fraction: w Ta 02 max and w W 08 max. 80 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E UNS C Cr Ni Fe Mn Mo Si Nb Ti Cu Al Co N B P S max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w C w Cr w Ni w Fe w Mn w Mo w Si w Nb w Ti w Cu w Al w Co w N w B w P w S N09935 d 0030 195 to 220 340 to 380 Bal. b 10 30 to 50 050 020 to 10 180 to 250 10 to 20 050 10 — — 0025 0001 N09945 0005 to 004 195 to 230 450 to 550 Bal. b 10 30 to 40 05 25 to 45 05 to 25 15 to 30 001 to 07 — — — 003 003 N05500 025 — 630 to 700 200 150 — 050 — 035 to 085 Bal. b 230 to 315 — — — — — N07750 008 140 to 170 700 min 50 to 90 100 — 050 070 to 120 225 to 275 05 040 to 100 — — — — 001 a Min indicates minimum percentage mass fraction. Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c Additional elements by mass fraction: w W 05 max and w Mg 0005 0 max. d Additional elements by mass fraction: w W 10 max. e Additional elements by mass fraction: w Ta 02 max and w W 08 max. Table D.9 continued © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 81

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.10 — Chemical compositions of some cobalt-based alloys see A.10 UNS C Cr Ni Co Fe Mn Si Mo B P S Be Ti W N max a max a max a max a max max a max max max a w C w Cr w Ni w Co w Fe w Mn w Si w Mo w B w P w S w Be w Ti w W w N R30003 015 190 to 210 150 to 160 390 to 410 Bal. b 15 to 25 — 60 to 80 — — — 100 — — — R30004 017 to 023 190 to 210 120 to 140 410 to 440 Bal. b 135 to 180 — 20 to 28 — — — 006 — 23 to 33 — R30035 0025 190 to 210 330 to 370 Bal. b 10 015 015 90 to 105 — 0015 001 — 100 — — R30159 004 180 to 200 Bal. b 340 to 380 800 to 1000 020 020 600 to 800 003 002 001 — 250 to 325 — — R30260 c 005 117 to 123 Bal. b 410 to 420 98 to 104 040 to 110 020 to 060 370 to 430 — — — 020 to 030 080 to 120 360 to 420 — R31233 002 to 010 235 to 275 70 to 110 Bal. b 10 to 50 01 to 15 005 to 100 40 to 60 — 003 002 — — 10 to 30 003 to 012 R30605 005 to 015 190 to 210 90 to 110 Bal. b 30 20 100 — — — — — — 130 nom. — a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c Additional elements expressed as percentage mass fractions are Nb 01 max and Cu 030 max. 82 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 15156-3:2015E Table D.11 — Chemical compositions of some titanium alloys see A.11 UNS Al V C Cr Fe H Mo N Ni Sn Zr Other Ti max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a max a w Al w V w C w Cr w Fe w H w Mo w N w Ni w Sn w Zr w R50250 — — 010 — 020 0015 — 003 — — — O 018 Bal. b R50400 — — 010 — 030 0015 — 003 — — — O 025 Bal. b R56260 6 — — — — 6 — — 2 4 — Bal. b R53400 — — 008 — 030 0015 02 to 04 003 06 to 09 — — O 025 Bal. b R56323 25 to 35 20 to 30 008 — 025 0015 — 003 — — — O 015 Ru 008 to 014 Bal. b R56403 55 to 675 35 to 45 010 — 040 00125 — 005 03 to 08 — — O 020 Pd 004 to 008 Resid- uals c Bal. b R56404 55 to 65 35 to 45 008 — 025 0015 — 003 — — — O 013 Ru 008 to 014 Bal. b R58640 3 8 — 6 — — 4 — — — 4 — Bal. b a Where a range is shown it indicates min to max percentage mass fractions. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . c Residuals each 01 max mass fraction total 04 ma. mass fraction. Table D.12 — Chemical composition of R05200 tantalum alloy see A.11 UNS C Co Fe Si Mo W Ni Ti Other Ta max max max max max max max max max w C w Co w Fe w Si w Mo w W w Ni w Ti w R05200 a 001 005 001 0005 001 003 001 001 0015 Bal. b a Additional elements expressed as percentage mass fractions are Nb 005 max H 0001 max and O 0015 max. b “Bal.” is the balance of composition up to 100 . © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 83

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex E informative Nominated sets of test conditions

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table E.1 — Test conditions

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Further Reading https://www.azom.com/article.aspxArticleID470 http://apac.totalmateria.com/page.aspxIDCheckArticlesiteKTSNM232 http://www.georgesbasement.com/Microstructures/Introduction.htm http://www.paintertoolinc.com/metallurgy.html http://iso-iran.ir/standards/iso/ISO_15156_3_2015__Petroleum_and.pdf

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Technical Reading on: CPM/HIP Metallurgy

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang HIP CPM Technology GENERAL INFORMATIONCPM –Crucible Particle Metallurgy The proprietary Crucible Particle Metallurgy CPM ® process has been used for the commercial production of high speed steels and other high alloy tool steels since 1970. The process lends itself not only to the production of superior quality tool steels but to the production of higher alloyed grades which cannot be produced by conventional steelmaking. For most applications the CPM process offers many benefits over conventionally ingot- cast tool steels. https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Conventional Steelmaking vs.Particle Metallurgy Processing Conventional steelmaking begins by melting the steel in a large electric arc furnace. It is usually followed by a secondary refining process such as Argon Oxygen Decarburization AOD. After refining the molten metal is poured from the furnace into a ladle and then teemed into ingot molds. Although the steel is very homogeneous in the molten state as it slowly solidifies in the molds the alloying elements segregate resulting in a non- uniform as-cast microstructure. In high speed steels and high carbon tool steels carbides precipitate from the melt and grow to form a coarse intergranular network. Subsequent mill processing is required to break up and refine the microstructure but the segregation effects are never fully eliminated. The higher the alloy content and the higher the carbon content the more detrimental are the effects of the segregation on the resultant mechanical properties of the finished steel product. https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The CPM process also begins with a homogeneous molten bath similar to conventional melting. Instead of being teemed into ingot molds the molten metal is poured through a small nozzle where high pressure gas bursts the liquid stream into a spray of tiny spherical droplets. These rapidly solidify and collect as powder particles in the bottom of the atomization tower. The powder is relatively spherical in shape and uniform in composition as each particle is essentially a micro-ingot which has solidified so rapidly that segregation has been suppressed. The carbides which precipitate during solidification are extremely fine due to the rapid cooling and the small size of the powder particles. The fine carbide size of CPM steel endures throughout mill processing and remains fine in the finished bar. https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The powder is screened and loaded into steel containers which are then evacuated and sealed. The sealed containers are hot isostatically pressed HIP at temperatures approximately the same as those used for forging. The extremely high pressure used in HIP consolidates the powder by bonding the individual particles into a fully dense compact. The resultant microstructure is homogeneous and fine grained and in the high carbon grades exhibits a uniform distribution of tiny carbides. Although CPM steels can be used in the as-HIP condition the compacts normally undergo the same standard mill processing used for conventionally melted ingots resulting in improved toughness. https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang CPM Eliminates Segregation Conventionally produced high alloy steels are prone to alloy segregation during solidification. Regardless of the amount of subsequent mill processing non-uniform clusters of carbides persist as remnants of the as-cast microstructure. This alloy segregation can detrimentally affect tool fabrication and performance. CPM steels are HIP consolidated from tiny powder particles each having uniform composition and a uniform distribution of fine carbides. Because there is no alloy segregation in the powder particles themselves there is no alloy segregation in the resultant compact. The uniform distribution of fine carbides also prevents grain growth so that the resultant microstructure is fine grained. https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Advantages of CPM For the End User: • Higher Alloy Grades Available • Improved Wear Resistance • Improved Toughness less chipping • Consistent Tool Performance • Good Grindability on resharpening For the Tool Manufacturer: • Consistent Heat Treat Response • Predictable Size Change on Heat Treat • Excellent Stable Substrate for Coatings • Excellent Grindability • Improved Machinability w/sulfur enhancement • Efficient Wire EDM Cutting https://www.crucible.com/eselector/general/generalpart3.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Fig. 4.14. Microstructural anisotropy in hot worked HIP tool steels a: 3.8 C 24.5 Cr 3.1 Mo 9 V dark: round MC carbides grey: M7C3 carbides larger carbides aligned in deformation direction scanning electron microscope back scattered electrons 300:1 b: 1.55 C 4 Cr 12 W 5 V 5 Co light microscopy nital etch 115:1 a b https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/10689123_12

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These images illustrate the improved microstructure from the HIP process: forged duplex steel HIP duplex steel https://www.kennametal.com/hi/products/engineered-wear-solutions/engineered-components/hot-isostatic-pressing.htmldv1511254652406

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