NACE MR0175 CRA Exam- Reading 1 (Part 2 0f 2a)

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NACE MR0175 Exam CRA Study Note

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang NACE MR0175- CRA Written Exam Reading 1 Part 2 of 2a 2017 Nov 16 th Reading 10

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Oil Exploration Production 闭门练功

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NACE MR0175 Written Exam Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex A normative Environmental cracking-resistant CRAs and other alloys including Table A.1 — Guidance on the use of the materials selection tables

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1 General A.1.1 Materials groups The materials groups used to list CRAs or other alloys see 6.1 are as follows:  austenitic stainless steels identified as material type and as individual alloys see A.2  highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels identified as material types and as individual alloys see A.3  solid-solution nickel-based alloys identified as material types and as individual alloys see A.4  ferritic stainless steels identified as material type see A.5  martensitic stainless steels identified as individual alloys see A.6  duplex stainless steels identified as material types see A.7  precipitation-hardened stainless steels identified as individual alloys see A.8  precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys identified as individual alloys see A.9  cobalt-based alloys identified as individual alloys see A.10  titanium and tantalum identified as individual alloys see A.11  copper aluminium identified as materials types see A.12.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Stainless Ni alloys Co alloys Ti/Ta alloys Cu/Al alloys  austenitic stainless steels A.2  highly alloyed austenitic stain A.3  ferritic stainless steels less steels A.5  martensitic stainless steels A.6  duplex stainless steels A.7  precipitation-hardened stainless steels A.8  solid- solution nickel-based alloys A.4  precipitation- hardened nickel-based alloys A.9 cobalt- based alloys A.10 titanium and tantalum A.11 copper aluminium A.12

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2013/10/the-stainless-steel-family-an-overview/  austenitic stainless steels identified as material type and as individual alloys see A.2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2013/10/the-stainless-steel-family-an-overview/  ferritic stainless steels identified as material type see A.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ■ ωσμ∙Ωπ∆ ∇ º≠δ≤ηθφФρ|β≠Ɛ ∠ ʋ λ α ρτ√ ≠≥ѵФε ≠≥ѵФ : http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2013/10/the-stainless-steel-family-an-overview/  martensitic stainless steels identified as individual alloys see A.6

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Subject to A.1.2 A.1.3 A.1.4 and A.1.5 below the CRAs and other alloys listed in Table A.1 to Table A.42 may be used without further testing for SSC SCC and GHSC cracking-resistance within the environmental limits shown. Clause Titles A.1.2 Limits of chemical composition A.1.3 Environmental and metallurgical limits for cracking- resistance A.1.4 Requirements and recommendations on welding A.1.5 Other requirements and recommendations on CRAs and other alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Information on the use of copper and aluminium alloys is contained in A.12. A.13 contains recommendations on the use of cladding overlays and wear- resistant alloys. NOTE The materials listed and the restrictions shown are those originally listed in NACE MR0175:2003 no longer available except for balloted changes introduced since 2003.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.2 Limits of chemical composition The user of a CRA or other alloy shall ensure that the chemical analysis of the material used meets the material analysis requirements shown for the material in:  SAE-  ASTM  Metals and alloys in the Unified Numbering System. To comply with this part of ISO 15156 the material shall also meet any provision shown in the text and/or tables of its materials group. A.1.2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The user of a CRA or other alloy shall ensure that the chemical analysis of the material used meets the material analysis requirements shown for the material in:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The user of a CRA or other alloy shall ensure that the chemical analysis of the material used meets the material analysis requirements shown for the material in:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Metals and alloys in the Unified Numbering System The unified numbering system UNS is an alloy designation system widely accepted in North America. It consists of a prefix letter and five digits designating a material composition. For example a prefix of S indicates stainless steel alloys C indicates copper brass or bronze alloys T indicates tool steels and so on. The first 3 digits often match older 3-digit numbering systems while the last 2 digits indicate more modern variations. For example Copper Alloy No. 377 forging brass in the original 3-digit system became C37700 in the UNS System. The UNS is managed jointly by the ASTM International and SAE International. A UNS number alone does not constitute a full material specification because it establishes no requirements for material properties heat treatment form or quality. The user of a CRA or other alloy shall ensure that the chemical analysis of the material used meets the material analysis requirements shown for the material in:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.3 Environmental and metallurgical limits for cracking-resistance A.2.2 to A.11.2 contain materials selection tables showing the environmental limits of the materials when used for any equipment or component. These subclauses also often contain materials selection tables showing the less restrictive environmental limits of the materials when used for named equipment or components. The tables show the application limits with respect to 1 temperature 2 p H2S 3 Cl − 4 pH 5 S 0 . These limits apply collectively. The pH used in the tables corresponds to the minimum in situ pH. • NOTE 1 In the tables of this Annex the SI unit “milligrams per litre” is used for mass concentration. In US Customary units these are commonly expressed in parts per million ppm. • NOTE 2 Guidance on the calculation of p H2S is given in ISO 15156-2:2015 Annex C. • NOTE 3 Guidance on the calculation of pH is given in ISO 15156-2:2015 Annex D. • NOTE 4 In preparing the materials selection tables it is assumed that no oxygen is present in the service environment. A.1.3

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang • NOTE 4 In preparing the materials selection tables it is assumed that no oxygen is present in the service environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Where no specified limit for a variable can be defined in a table explanatory remarks that reflect current knowledge have been included in the table. The environmental limits for an alloy are valid only within any additional metallurgical limits given for the alloy in the text of the same table. Where tempering of a material is required the tempering time shall be sufficient to ensure the achievement of the required through-thickness hardness. When purchasing materials metallurgical properties known to affect the materials’ performance in H2S-containing oil and gas environments in addition to those specifically listed in this Annex should also be considered. ISO 15156-1:2015 8.1 lists such properties. 8.1 Material description and documentation The material being qualified shall be described and documented such that those of its properties likely to affect performance in H2S-containing media are defined. The tolerances or ranges of properties that can occur within the material shall be described and documented. Metallurgical properties known to affect performance in H2S-containing environments include chemical composition method of manufacture product form strength hardness amount of cold work heat-treatment condition and microstructure.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ISO 15156-1:2015 8.1 Material description and documentation The material being qualified shall be described and documented such that those of its properties likely to affect performance in H2S-containing media are defined. The tolerances or ranges of properties that can occur within the material shall be described and documented. Metallurgical properties known to affect performance in H2S-containing environments include 1. chemical composition 2. method of manufacture 3. product form strength 4. hardness 5. amount of cold work 6. heat-treatment condition and 7. microstructure.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.4 Requirements and recommendations on welding The clauses for the materials groups contain requirements and recommendations for welding the materials of the group to achieve satisfactory cracking-resistance in the weldment produced. A.1.4

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Friction Welding A.1.4

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Friction Welding A.1.4 http://www.redneckrepairs.com/video/linear-friction-welding-uses-vibrations-to-stick-wood-together/

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5 Other requirements and recommendations on CRAs and other alloys A.1.5.1 Requirements for overlays surface treatments plating coatings linings etc. For the composition cracking-resistance and use of overlays see A.13. Metallic coatings electroplated and electroless plated conversion coatings plastic coatings or linings may be used but are not acceptable for preventing cracking. The effect of their application on the cracking-resistance of the substrate shall be considered. Nitriding with a maximum case depth of 015 mm 0006 in is an acceptable surface treatment if conducted at a temperature below the lower critical temperature of the alloy being treated. The use of nitriding as a means of preventing cracking in sour service is not acceptable. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5.2 Threading  Threads produced using a machine-cutting process are acceptable.  Threads produced by cold forming rolling are acceptable on CRAs and other alloys if the material and the limits of its application otherwise comply with this part of ISO 15156. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Threads Produced Using A Machine-cutting Process Are Acceptable. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Threads Produced Using A Machine-cutting Process Are Acceptable. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Threads Produced By Cold Forming Rolling A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Threads Produced By Cold Forming Rolling A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Threads Produced By Cold Forming Rolling A.1.5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threading_manufacturing

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5 Rolled Vs Cut Thread Bolts Irrespective of whether were talking about headed bolts bent bolts or rods threads constitute a mechanical fastener that is produced by rolling or cutting. As its name suggests roll threading implies introducing a hardened steel die between the diameters of the finished thread. The dies penetrate the blank space leading the newly formed thread roots outwards to create the crests. On the other hand cut threading entails removing the material from a round bar of steel to form the threads. While technically both processes yield the same results the main distinctions between the cut threads and rolled threads bolts reside mostly in the manufacturing process. the burnishing effect of the rolling makes the bolts smoother while the cold working makes them overall more resilient to damage and harder.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5 Cut Threading Leaves Behind Tiny Tears If you were to put two bolts obtained via roll threading and respectively cut threading side by side and analyzed with a magnifying glass you will notice that the latter presents tiny tear marks. Cut threading tends to tear the material leaving a set of marks that run perpendicular to the direction of the thread and that travel into the fasteners body. Unfortunately the minor fractures made by the tool cutting the thread can and in most cases will grow over time threatening the bolts stability. Opposite to the cut threading process roll threading deforms and cold works the material thus adding to its innate endurance. Not only does the hardened steel die add to the bolts resilience and strength but the process doesnt leave any tears that can later on transform into cracks. Rolled Thread Bolts Cost Less The main advantage of the cut threaded bolts is that they can be manufactured to all specifications as there are few limitations with regards to diameter and thread length. Without denying that cut threading could be invaluable for manufacturing special fasteners for sensitive pieces of equipments lets not forget that the process implies significantly longer labor times and the implicit higher costs. Opting for rolled thread bolts means shorter labor times and substantially lower costs. The lower cost of roll threaded bolts also comes from the smaller body diameter a smaller body means less weight and consequentially less materials and resources used for heat-treating galvanizing plating so on and so forth. Moreover the burnishing effect of the rolling makes the bolts smoother while the cold working makes them overall more resilient to damage. http://www.melfast.com/blog/2014/03/what-are-the-main-differences-between-cut-thread-and-rolled-thread-bolts/

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5.3 Cold deformation of surfaces Cold deformation of surfaces is acceptable if caused by processes such as burnishing that do not impart more cold work than that incidental to normal machining operations such as turning or boring rolling threading drilling etc.. Cold deformation by controlled shot-peening is acceptable if applied to base materials that comply with this part of ISO 15156 and if restricted to a maximum shot size of 20 mm 0080 in and an Almen intensity not exceeding 10C. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS-2430. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation of surfaces is acceptable if caused by processes such as burnishing that do not impart more cold work than that incidental to normal machining operations such as turning or boring rolling threading drilling etc.. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation of surfaces is acceptable if caused by processes such as burnishing that do not impart more cold work than that incidental to normal machining operations such as turning or boring rolling threading drilling etc.. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation by controlled shot-peening is acceptable if applied to base materials that comply with: 1. this part of ISO 15156 and 2. if restricted to shot peening carried with  a maximum shot size of 20 mm 0080 in and  an Almen intensity not exceeding 10C. 3. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS-2430. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation by controlled shot-peening is acceptable if applied to base materials that comply with: 1. this part of ISO 15156 and 2. if restricted to shot peening carried with  a maximum shot size of 20 mm 0080 in and  an Almen intensity not exceeding 10C. 3. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS-2430. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation by controlled shot-peening is acceptable if applied to base materials that comply with: 1. this part of ISO 15156 and 2. if restricted to shot peening carried with  a maximum shot size of 20 mm 0080 in and  an Almen intensity not exceeding 10C. 3. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS-2430. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cold deformation by controlled shot-peening is acceptable if applied to base materials that comply with: 1. this part of ISO 15156 and 2. if restricted to shot peening carried with  a maximum shot size of 20 mm 0080 in and  an Almen intensity not exceeding 10C. 3. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS-2430. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Subsea Christmas Three A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.5.4 Identification stamping The use of identification stamping using low-stress dot vibratory and round-V stamps is acceptable. The use of conventional sharp V-stamping is acceptable in low-stress areas such as the outside diameter of flanges. Conventional sharp V-stamping shall not be performed in high-stress areas unless agreed with the equipment user. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Round-V Stamp Round Face Low Stress Steel Hand Stamp The use of identification stamping using low-stress dot vibratory and round-V stamps is acceptable. A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Conventional sharp V-stamp A.1.5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.6 Use of materials selection tables Table A.1 provides a guide to the materials selection tables for any equipment or component. It also provides a guide to additional materials selection tables for specific named equipment or components when other less restrictive environmental or metallurgical limits may be applied. NOTE See Note in introduction of this part of ISO 15156 regarding Annex F of Technical Circular ISO 15156-3:2009/Cir.2:2013 and Technical Circular ISO 15156-3:2009/Cir.3:2014.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.1.6 Use of materials selection tables Table A.1 provides a guide to the materials selection tables for any equipment or component. It also provides a guide to additional materials selection tables for specific named equipment or components when other less restrictive environmental or metallurgical limits may be applied. All equipment - More stringent requirements Specific named equipment – less restritive requirements 2 type of tables for each material type and indivisual alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2 Austenitic stainless steels identified as material type and as individual alloys A.2.1 Materials analyses Austenitic stainless steels of this material type shall contain the following elements in the following proportions expressed as mass fractions:  C 008 max  Cr 16 min  Ni 8 min  P 0045 max  S 004 max  Mn 20 max and  Si 20 max.  Other alloying elements are permitted. Higher carbon contents for UNS S30900 and S31000 are acceptable up to the limits of their respective specifications.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2013/10/the-stainless-steel-family-an-overview/  austenitic stainless steels identified as material type and as individual alloys see A.2

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 3.13 stainless steel steel containing 105 mass fraction or more chromium possibly with other elements added to secure special properties

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Austenitic Grades Austenitic grades are those alloys which are commonly in use for stainless applications. The austenitic grades are not magnetic. The most common austenitic alloys are iron-chromium-nickel steels and are widely known as the 300 series. The austenitic stainless steels because of their high chromium and nickel content are the most corrosion resistant of the stainless group providing unusually fine mechanical properties. They cannot be hardened by heat treatment but can be hardened significantly by cold-working. Straight Grades The straight grades of austenitic stainless steel contain a maximum of .08 carbon. There is a misconception that straight grades contain a minimum of .03 carbon but the spec does not require this. As long as the material meets the physical requirements of straight grade there is no minimum carbon requirement. http://www.spiusa.com/stainlesssteel_overview.php

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Low Carbon Grades The “L” grades are used to provide extra corrosion resistance after welding. The letter “L” after a stainless steel type indicates low carbon as in 304L. The carbon is kept to .03 or under to avoid carbide precipitation. Carbon in steel when heated to temperatures in what is called the critical range 800 degrees F to 1600 degrees F precipitates out combines with the chromium and gathers on the grain boundaries. This deprives the steel of the chromium in solution and promotes corrosion adjacent to the grain boundaries. By controlling the amount of carbon this is minimized. For weldability the “L” grades are used. You may ask why all stainless steels are not produced as “L” grades. There are a couple of reasons:  "L" grades are more expensive  Carbon at high temperatures imparts great physical strength Frequently the mills are buying their raw material in “L” grades but specifying the physical properties of the straight grade to retain straight grade strength. A case of having your cake and heating it too. This results in the material being dual certified 304/304L 316/316L etc. http://www.spiusa.com/stainlesssteel_overview.php

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang High Carbon Grades The “H” grades contain a minimum of .04 carbon and a maximum of .10 carbon and are designated by the letter “H” after the alloy. People ask for “H” grades primarily when the material will be used at extreme temperatures as the higher carbon helps the material retain strength at extreme temperatures. You may hear the phrase “solution annealing”. This means only that the carbides which may have precipitated or moved to the grain boundaries are put back into solution dispersed into the matrix of the metal by the annealing process. “L” grades are used where annealing after welding is impractical such as in the field where pipe and fittings are being welded. http://www.spiusa.com/stainlesssteel_overview.php

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The alloys listed in Table D.1 can but do not necessarily meet the requirements above. In some cases more restrictive chemistries are required to comply with the requirements of this materials group. See also A.3.1. It is common industry practice to dual certify 300 series stainless steels as standard grade and low carbon grade such as S31600 316 and S31603 316L. The environmental limits given for low carbon 300 series stainless steels are acceptable for the dual certified grades. Free-machining austenitic stainless steel products shall not be used.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Dual Grade Stainless Steel Frequently the mills are buying their raw material in “L” grades but specifying the physical properties of the straight grade to retain straight grade strength. A case of having your cake and heating it too. This results in the material being dual certified 304/304L 316/316L etc. http://www.spiusa.com/stainlesssteel_overview.php

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Higher carbon contents for UNS S30900 and S31000 are acceptable up to the limits of their respective specifications. UNS 30900 Alloy 309 is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel which has excellent heat-resisting properties. Alloy 309 has improved corrosion resistance and better creep strength than alloy 304. Alloy 309 is used in furnace parts fire box sheets high temperature containers and weld wire. Chemical Composition Limits Weight C P Si Ni Mn S Cr Fe Mo Cu Alloy 309 0.08 max 0.040 max 1 max 12-15 2 max 0.030 max 22-24 Bal 0.75 max 0.75 max

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Free-machining austenitic stainless steel products shall not be used. Here we have a free machining steel shown as a transverse section at 200X with a Nital etch. The material is AISI B1112 steel. The dark phase is manganese sulfide MnS which has the FCC crystal structure of sodium chloride NaCl and which is quite ductile at hot working temperatures in contrast to ferrous sulfide FeS which has a hexagonal crystal structure. http://www.georgesbasement.com/Microstructures/LowAlloySteels/Lesson-1/Specimen06.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of austenitic stainless steels 1. Table A.2 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components 2. Table A.3 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used as valve stems pins and shafts 3. Table A.4 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in surface applications for control-line tubing instrument tubing associated fittings and screen devices 4. Table A.5 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used as seal rings and gaskets 5. Table A.6 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in compressors and instrumentation and control devices 6. Table A.7 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in gas lift service and for special components for subsurface applications such as downhole screens control-line tubing hardware e.g. set screws etc. injection tubing and injection equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Environmental and materials limits for the uses of austenitic stainless steels A3- Valve A4- Surface App. Control line tubing A5- Seal ring Gasket A6- Compressor Instrument A7- Gas lift Subsurface A2-All Component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.2 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  A limit on the retained martensite content of these austenitic stainless steels should be considered.  The stress corrosion cracking resistance of all austenitic stainless steels of the material type described in A.2 can be adversely affected by cold working. a. These materials shall 1. be in the 1 solution-annealed and quenched or 2 annealed and thermally-stabilized heat-treatment condition 2. be free of cold work intended to enhance their mechanical properties and 3. have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC. Keywords: annealed and thermally-stabilized heat-treatment condition

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b. UNS S31603 shall be in the solution-annealed and quenched condition when used in environments outside the limits imposed for the material type i.e. in the top two rows but within those given specifically for S31603. The following conditions shall apply: 1. the material shall be free from cold work caused by shaping forming cold reducing tension expansion etc. after the final solution annealing and quenching treatment 2. after the final solution annealing and quenching treatment hardness and cold work incidental to machining or straightening shall not exceed the limits imposed by the appropriate product specification. c. UNS S20910 is acceptable for environments inside the limits imposed for the material type and for this alloy specifically in the annealed or hot- rolled hot/cold-worked condition at a maximum hardness of 35 HRC. d. No data submitted NDS to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable in service with presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of austenitic stainless steels 22 HRC 35HRC HRC

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of austenitic stainless steels shall not exceed the limits imposed by the appropriate product specification.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of austenitic stainless steels Less Stringent More Stringent More Stringent

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.3 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used as valve stems pins and shafts

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.4 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in surface applications for control-line tubing instrument tubing associated fittings and screen devices

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.5 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used as seal rings and gaskets

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang J92600 J92900 API compression seal rings and gaskets made of centrifugally cast material in the as-cast or solutionannealed condition shall have a hardness of 160 HBW 83 HRB maximum http://www.tribology-abc.com/calculators/hardness.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang J92600 J92900 API compression seal rings and gaskets made of centrifugally cast material in the as- cast or solutionannealed condition shall have a hardness of 160 HBW 83 HRB maximum http://www.calculatoredge.com/metallurgy/hardness.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang HRC22 HB136

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang UNS series Metal types A Aluminum and aluminum alloys C Copper and copper alloys brasses and bronzes D Specified mechanical property steels E Rare earth and rare earthlike metals and alloys F Cast irons G AISI and SAE carbon and alloy steels except tool steels H AISI and SAE H-steels J Cast steels except tool steels K Miscellaneous steels and ferrous alloys L Low-melting metals and alloys M Miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys N Nickel and nickel alloys P Precious metals and alloys R Reactive and refractory metals and alloys S Heat and corrosion resistant stainless steels T Tool steels wrought and cast W Welding filler metals Z Zinc and zinc alloys https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_numbering_system

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.6 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in compressors and instrumentation and control devices

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also  be in the solution-annealed and quenched or annealed and stabilized heat-treatment condition  be free of cold work intended to enhance their mechanical properties and  have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC. A limit on the martensite content of these austenitic stainless steels should be considered. a. No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment. b. Instrumentation and control devices include but are not limited to diaphragms pressure measuring devices and pressure seals.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.7 — Environmental and materials limits for austenitic stainless steels used in gas lift service and for special components for subsurface applications such as downhole screens control-line tubing hardware e.g. set screws etc. injection tubing and injection equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.2.3 Welding of austenitic stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2.  The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and  the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable. Austenitic stainless steel “L” filler metal shall have a maximum carbon content of 003 mass fraction. Weldments may be repair-welded if they meet the welding procedure requirements.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang S20910 UNS S20910 is a Nitrogen-strengthened austenitic alloy that provides high strength as well as high corrosion resistance. Nitronic 50 has better corrosion resistance compared to 316 Stainless with twice the yield strength.. 0.2 Yield Strength Ultimate Ten sile Strength Elongation in 2” 50.8mm Reduction of Area Brinell Hardness Charpy V- notch impact Strength ksi Mpa ksi Mpa Ft lb J 65 448 120 827 45 65 150 160 217 http://www.tooldiesteel.com/Stainless-Steel/UNS-S20910.html 0.2 Yield Strength Ultimate Ten sile Strength Elongation in 2” 50.8mm Reduction of Area Brinell Hardness Charpy V- notch impact Strength ksi Mpa ksi Mpa Ft lb J 205 515 40 217 S31600

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Chemical composition of UNS S20910 is as follows: Chemistry Analysis Carbon 0.06 Manganese 4.00-6.00 Phosphorus 0.040 Sulfur 0.030 Silicon 1.00 Chromium 20.50 - 23.50 Nickel 11.50-13.50 Molybdenum 1.50-3.00 Nitrogen 0.20-0.30 Columbium/Niobium 0.10-0.30 Iron 51.87-60.97 Vanadium 0.10-0.30 http://www.tooldiesteel.com/Stainless-Steel/UNS-S20910.html

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Mechanical Properties of S31600 Grade Tensile Str MPa min Yield Str 0.2 Proof MPa min Elong in 50mm min Hardness Rockwell B HR B max Brinell HB max 316 515 205 40 95 217 316L 485 170 40 95 217 316H 515 205 40 95 217

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Composition ranges for 316 grade of stainless steels. Grade C Mn Si P S Cr Mo Ni N 316 Min - - - 0 - 16.0 2.00 10.0 - Max 0.08 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 18.0 3.00 14.0 0.10 316L Min - - - - - 16.0 2.00 10.0 - Max 0.03 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 18.0 3.00 14.0 0.10 316H Min 0.04 0.04 0 - - 16.0 2.00 10.0 - max 0.10 0.10 0.75 0.045 0.03 18.0 3.00 14.0 -

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Question: You are require to decide the suitability of selection of material for a austenitic stainless steel pump ball valve trim in contact with aquoes sour fluid with following conditions  P H2S 1000 Kpa  PH 3.5  Temperature 70 °C  Cl - 50 mg/l  S 0 No a Austenitic stainless steel from materials type described in A.2a only b S31603 and materials from a above c S31603 only d S21910 0nly e S21910 S31603 and a Answer: b

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Question: Do conversion a 50mg/l 5ppm 22 °C 71.6 °F 1psi 6.9Kpa 20bar 2Mpa b 35mg/l 35ppm 29 °C 90 °F 10psi 69Kpa 120bar 12Mpa c 4mg/l 4ppm 122 °C 251.6 °F 1psi 6.9 Kpa 26bar 2600 Kpa d 23mg/l 23ppm 32 °C 89.6°F 15psi 100Kpa 7bar 0.7Mpa e 12mg/l 12ppm 60 °C 140 °F 1psi 6.9Kpa 180bar 1800Psi Answer: c

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Tips To convert parts per million to milligrams per liter use the conversion factor of 1 ppm 1 mg/L. This means that 1 part per million is equal to 1 milligram per liter. °F 9/5 °C + 32 http://www.mathsisfun.com/temperature-conversion.html 1 bar 14.503773800721814 psig 1 bar 0.1 Mpa 100 Kpa https://www.convertunits.com/from/megapascal/to/bar 1 atm 14.695950253959 psi

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Summary:  Annex A is a Guidance on the use of the materials selection tables.  There are 5 groups of material with total 11 subgroups  4 prerequisite conditions to be complied A1.2/1.3/1.4/1.5  The material chemical composition shall be within the specifications limits of ASTM/SAE or UNS  There are specific limits on manufacturing routes on heat treatments cold working and hardness.  There is a table for all components  There is specific table for specific components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A3

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.3 Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels identified as material types and as individual alloys A.3.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.2 lists the chemical compositions of some alloys of this type that can meet the analysis-related requirements shown in the text of Table A.8 and Table A.9. However in some cases this requires production within more restricted ranges of chemical analysis than those specified in Table D.2. Austenitic stainless steels included in Table D.2 that do not meet the restricted ranges of chemical analysis required in Table A.8 and Table A.9 but meet the requirements of A.2.1 may be considered as part of materials group A.2. Free-machining highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels shall not be used.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table D.2 lists the chemical compositions of some alloys of this type that can meet the analysis-related requirements shown in the text of Table A.8 and Table A.9. However in some cases this requires production within more restricted ranges of chemical analysis than those specified in Table D.2. Austenitic stainless steels included in Table D.2 that do not meet the restricted ranges of chemical analysis required in Table A.8 and Table A.9 but meet the requirements of A.2.1 may be considered as part of materials group A.2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang That can meet and that do not meet

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ................ may be considered as part of materials group A.2. A.2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.3.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels 1. Table A.8 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components 2. Table A.9 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used for downhole tubular components and packers and other subsurface equipment 3. Table A.10 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used in gas lift service 4. Table A.11 — Environmental and materials limits for highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels used as instrument tubing control-line tubing compression fittings and surface and downhole screen devices

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The PREN F PREN shall be calculated as given in Formula 1: F PREN w Cr + 33w Mo + 05w W + 16w N 1 Where w X is the mass fraction of “X” element n in the alloy expressed as a percentage mass fraction of the total composition.  w Cr is the mass fraction of chromium  w Mo is the mass fraction of molybdenum  w W is the mass fraction of tungsten  w N is the mass fraction of nitrogen NOTE : There are several variations of the PREN. All were developed to reflect and predict the pitting resistance of Fe/Ni/Cr/Mo CRAs in the presence of dissolved chlorides and oxygen e.g. in sea water. Though useful these indices are not directly indicative of corrosion resistance in H2S- containing oil field environments.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.8 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following:  materials type 3a shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with w Ni + 2w Mo 30 where w Mo has a minimum value of 2 . The symbol w represents the percentage mass fraction of the element indicated by the subscript  materials type 3b shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with F PREN 400  materials types 3a and 3b including N08926 shall be in the solution- annealed condition  UNS J93254 CK3McuN cast 254SMO in accordance with ASTM A351 ASTM A743 or ASTM A744 shall be in the cast solution heat-treated and water-quenched condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 100 HRB  UNS J95370 shall be in the solution heat-treated and water-quenched condition and shall have a maximum hardness of 94 HRB.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.9 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used for downhole tubular components and packers and other subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following:  highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels used for downhole tubular components shall contain at least these elements expressed as percentage mass fractions: C 008 max Cr 16 min Ni 8 min P 003 max S 0030 max Mn 2 max and Si 05 max. Other alloying elements may be added  materials type 3a shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with w Ni + 2w Mo 30 where wMo has a minimum value of 2  materials type 3b shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with a FPREN 400. All the above alloys shall be in the solution-annealed and cold-worked condition with a maximum hardness of 35 HRC.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ......All the above alloys shall be in the solution-annealed and cold-worked condition with a maximum hardness of 35 HRC. Question ? Is cold-worked condition a must

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.10 — Environmental and materials limits for highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels used in gas lift service

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.11 — Environmental and materials limits for highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels used as instrument tubing control-line tubing compression fittings and surface and downhole screen devices

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Materials type 3a shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with w N i + 2w Mo 30 where wMo has a minimum value of 2 mass fraction. The symbol w represents the percentage mass fraction of the element indicated by the subscript. Materials type 3b shall be highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel with a FPREN 400. Wrought N08904 for use as instrument tubing shall be in the annealed condition with a maximum hardness of 180 HV10. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.3.3 Welding highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable. Weldments may be repair-welded if they meet the weld procedure requirements.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A4

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.4 Solid-solution nickel-based alloys identified as material types and as individual alloys A.4.1 Materials chemical compositions Table A.12 provides a breakdown of this materials group into types 4a 4b 4c 4d and 4e used in Table A.13 and Table A.14. Table D.4 contains the chemical compositions of some copper-nickel alloys of this group.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.12 — Materials types of solid-solution nickel-based alloys

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.4.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of solid-solution nickel-based alloys Table A.13 — Environmental and materials limits for solid-solution nickel- based alloys used in any equipment or component Table A.14 — Environmental and materials limits for annealed and cold- worked solid-solution nickel-based alloys used as any equipment or component a Table A.15 — Environmental and materials limits for nickel-based alloys used for bearing pins Table A.16 — Environmental and materials limits for nickel-based alloys used in gas lift service and for downhole running setting and service tool applications for temporary service

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.13 — Environmental and materials limits for solid-solution nickel-based alloys used in any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.14 — Environmental and materials limits for annealed and cold- worked solid-solution nickel-based alloys used as any equipment or component a

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.15 — Environmental and materials limits for nickel-based alloys used for bearing pins

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.16 — Environmental and materials limits for nickel-based alloys used in gas lift service and for downhole running setting and service tool applications for temporary service

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.4.3 Welding solid-solution nickel-based alloys of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable. There are no hardness requirements for welding solid-solution nickel-based alloys with solid-solution nickel-based weld metal.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Gas lift Sevices

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A5

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.5 Ferritic stainless steels identified as material type A.5.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.5 lists the chemical compositions of some alloys of this type.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.5.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of ferritic stainless steels Table A.17 — Environmental and materials limits for ferritic stainless steels used for any equipment or components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.17 — Environmental and materials limits for ferritic stainless steels used for any equipment or components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.5.3 Welding of ferritic stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. Hardness testing of qualification welds shall be carried out and the maximum hardness shall be 250 HV or if a different hardness test method is permitted its equivalent.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A6

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.6 Martensitic stainless steels identified as individual alloys A.6.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.6 lists the chemical compositions of the martensitic steel alloys shown in Table A.18 to Table A.23. Free-machining martensitic stainless steels shall not be used.  ©

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.6.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of martensitic stainless steels 1. Table A.18 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components 2. Table A.19 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as downhole tubular components and for packers and other subsurface equipment 3. Table A.20 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic alloy steel used as subsurface equipment 4. Table A.21 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as packers and subsurface equipment 5. Table A.22 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as compressor components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 6. Table A.23 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as wellhead and tree components and valve and choke components excluding casing and tubing hangers and valve stems

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.18 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a cast or wrought alloys UNS S41000 J91150 CA15 and J91151 CA15M shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC and shall be: 1. austenitized and quenched or air-cooled 2. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum then cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum but lower than the first tempering temperature then cooled to ambient temperature.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b. low-carbon martensitic stainless steels either cast J91540 CA6NM or wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall have a maximum hardness of 23 HRC and shall be: 1. austenitized at 1 010 °C 1 850 °F minimum then air- or oil-quenched to ambient temperature 2. tempered at 649 °C to 691 °C 1200 °F to 1275 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 593 °C to 621 °C 1100 °F to 1150 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature. c. cast or wrought alloy UNS S42000 shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC and shall be in the quenched and tempered heat-treatment condition d. wrought low-carbon UNS S41425 martensitic stainless steel in the austenitized quenched and tempered condition shall have a maximum hardness of 28 HRC. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.19 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as downhole tubular components and for packers and other subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.20 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic alloy steel used as subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.21 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as packers and subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.22 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as compressor components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a cast or wrought alloys UNS S41000 J91150 CA15 and J91151 CA15M shall have 22 HRC maximum hardness if used for compressor components and shall be: 1. austenitized and quenched or air-cooled 2. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum then cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum but lower than the first tempering temperature then cooled to ambient Temperature.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b low-carbon martensitic stainless steels either cast J91540 CA6NM or wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall have a maximum hardness of 23 HRC and shall be: 1. austenitized at 1 010 °C 1 850 °F minimum then air- or oil-quenched to ambient temperature 2. tempered at 649 °C to 690 °C 1200 °F to 1275 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 593 °C to 621 °C 1100 °F to 1150 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature. c if used for impellers cast or w rought alloys UNS S41000 J91150 CA15 and J91151 CA15M cast J91540 CA6NM and wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall exhibit a threshold stress ≥95 of actual yield strength in the anticipated service environment. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.23 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as wellhead and tree components and valve and choke components excluding casing and tubing hangers and valve stems

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a cast or wrought alloys UNS S41000 J91150 CA15 and J91151 CA15M shall have 22 HRC maximum hardness and shall be: 1. austenitized and quenched or air-cooled 2. tempered at 620 °C 1150 °F minimum then cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 620 °C 1150 °F minimum but lower t han t he f irst tempering temperature t hen cooled to ambient temperature.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b low-carbon martensitic stainless steels either cast J91540 CA6NM or wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall have 23 HRC maximum hardness and shall be: 1. austenitized at 1 010 °C 1 850 °F minimum then air- or oil-quenched to ambient temperature 2. tempered at 648 °C to 690 °C 1200 °F to 1275 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 593 °C to 620 °C 1100 °F to 1150 °F then air-cooled to ambient temperature. 4. cast or wrought alloy UNS S42000 shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC and shall be in the quenched and tempered heat-treatment condition. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.6.3 Welding of martensitic stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Martensitic stainless steels welded with nominally matching consumables shall meet the following requirements.  Weldments in martensitic stainless steels shall undergo a PWHT at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum and shall comply with 6.2.2.2.  Weldments in the low-carbon martensitic stainless steels cast J91540 CA6NM or wrought S42400 or S41500 F6NM shall undergo a single- or double-cycle PWHT after first being cooled to 25 °C 77 °F as follows:  single-cycle PWHT shall be at 580 °C to 621 °C 1075 °F to 1150 °F  double-cycle PWHT shall be at 671 °C to 691 °C 1240 °F to 1275 °F then cooled to 25 °C 77 °F or less then heated to 580 °C to 621 °C 1075 °F to 1150 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Looking at S41000 Martensitic Stainless Steel used at different components Table A.18 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used for any equipment or components Table A.22 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as compressor components Table A.23 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as wellhead and tree components and valve and choke components excluding casing and tubing hangers and valve stems S41000

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang S41000

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang These materials shall also comply with the following: a cast or wrought alloys UNS S41000 J91150 CA15 and J91151 CA15M shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC and shall be: 1. austenitized and quenched or air-cooled 2. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum then cooled to ambient temperature 3. tempered at 621 °C 1150 °F minimum but lower than the first tempering temperature then cooled to ambient temperature. S41000

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.22 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as compressor components S41000

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.23 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic stainless steels used as wellhead and tree components and valve and choke components excluding casing and tubing hangers and valve stems S41000

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A7

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.7 Duplex stainless steels identified as material types A.7.1 Materials chemical compositions Table D.7 lists the chemical compositions of some duplex stainless steel alloys that can but do not necessarily meet the restrictions of this materials group. In some cases more restrictive chemistries than those shown in Table D.7 are needed.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.7.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of duplex stainless steels Table A.24 — Environmental and materials limits for duplex stainless steels used for any equipment or component Table A.25 — Environmental and materials limits for duplex stainless steels used as downhole tubular components and as packers and other subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Downhole Tubular Components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.24 — Environmental and materials limits for duplex stainless steels used for any equipment or component

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Wrought and cast duplex stainless steels shall:  be solution-annealed and liquid-quenched or rapidly cooled by other methods b  have a ferrite content volume fraction of between 35 and 65 and  not have undergone ageing heat-treatments. Hot isostatic pressure-produced HIP15 duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 30 ≤ FPREN ≤ 400 Mo ≥ 15 shall have a maximum hardness of 25 HRC and shall:  be in the solution-annealed and water-quenched condition  have a ferrite content volume fraction of between 35 and 65 and  not have undergone ageing heat-treatments.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang NOTE Higher values of FPREN provide higher corrosion resistance however they also lead to increased risk of sigma- and alphaprime phase formation in the materials’ ferrite phase during manufacture depending on product thickness and achievable quench rate. The ranges of FPREN quoted are typical of those found to minimize the problem of sigma- and alpha-prime phase formation. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment. b A rapid cooling rate is one sufficiently fast to avoid the formation of deleterious phases such as sigma-phase and precipitates. The presence of deleterious phases can reduce the cracking-resistance of duplex stainless steels.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.25 — Environmental and materials limits for duplex stainless steels used as downhole tubular components and as packers and other subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.7.3 Welding of duplex stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the HAZ after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective alloy used for the welding consumable. A cross-section of the weld metal HAZ and base metal shall be examined as part of the welding procedure qualification. The microstructure shall be suitably etched and examined at ×400 magnification and shall have grain boundaries with: 1 no continuous precipitates. 2 Intermetallic phases nitrides and carbides shall not exceed 10 in total. 3 The sigma phase shall not exceed 05 . 4 The ferrite content in the weld metal root and unreheated weld cap shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E562 and shall be in the range of 30 to 70 volume fraction.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Sigma- And Alphaprime Phase Formation https://www.slideshare.net/JimGray2/duplex-welding

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang HIP Hot isostatic pressing HIP is a manufacturing process used to reduce the porosity of metals and increase the density of many ceramic materials. This improves the materials mechanical properties and workability. The HIP process subjects a component to both elevated temperature and isostatic gas pressure in a high pressure containment vessel. The pressurizing gas most widely used is argon. An inert gas is used so that the material does not chemically react. The chamber is heated causing the pressure inside the vessel to increase. Many systems use associated gas pumping to achieve the necessary pressure level. Pressure is applied to the material from all directions hence the term "isostatic". For processing castings metal powders can also be turned to compact solids by this method the inert gas is applied between 7350 psi 50.7 MPa and 45000 psi 310 MPa with 15000 psi 100 MPa being most common. Process soak temperatures range from 900 °F 482 °C for aluminium castings to 2400 °F 1320 °C for nickel-based superalloys. When castings are treated with HIP the simultaneous application of heat and pressure eliminates internal voids and microporosity through a combination of plastic deformation creep and diffusion bonding this process improves fatigue resistance of the component. Primary applications are the reduction of microshrinkage the consolidation of powder metals ceramic composites and metal cladding. Hot isostatic pressing is also used as part of a sintering powder metallurgy process and for fabrication of metal matrix composites https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_isostatic_pressing

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Hot isostatic pressed HIP products Sandvik is a world-leading producer of Enhanced product properties The ability to manufacture HIP products with irregular shapes and complex geometry offers several advantages over castings forgings and fabricated materials both in terms of design flexibility and material properties. The fine microstructure and isostatic pressure with which the HIP products are processed result in isotropic mechanical properties in other words properties that are equal in all directions. The isotropic properties can contribute to for example lighter constructions. Near-net shape NNS products produced by hot isostatic pressing HIP. Sandviks HIP products are based on powder metallurgy and range from 100 grams to 15 tonnes in weight. They are produced in a wide range of materials such as:  Austenitic stainless steels  Duplex stainless steels  Martensitic steels  Metal matrix composites MMC  Nickel alloys  Titanium Enhanced product properties The ability to manufacture HIP products with irregular shapes and complex geometry offers several advantages over castings forgings and fabricated materials both in terms of design flexibility and material properties. The fine microstructure and isostatic pressure with which the HIP products are processed result in isotropic mechanical properties in other words properties that are equal in all directions. The isotropic properties can contribute to for example lighter constructions. Main advantages with products produced by hot isostatic pressing:  Increased design flexibility  Reduction of costly operations like machining and welding  Improved process safety  Enhanced material properties https://www.materials.sandvik/en/products/hot-isostatic-pressed-hip-products/

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A8

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.8 Precipitation-hardened stainless steels identified as individual alloys A.8.1 Materials chemical compositions  Table D.8 lists the chemical compositions of the precipitation-hardened stainless steels shown in the tables of A.8.2.  Austenitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels are addressed in Table A.26.  Martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels are addressed in Table A.27 to Table A.30.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.8.2 Environmental and materials limits for the uses of precipitation- hardened stainless steels

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.27 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels used for wellhead and christmas tree components excluding bodies and bonnets valves and chokes excluding bodies and bonnets and packers and other subsurface equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a wrought UNS S17400 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels shall have a maximum hardness of 33 HRC and shall have been heat- treated in accordance with either 1 or 2 as follows: 1 double age-hardening process at 620 °C 1150 °F:  solution-anneal at 1040 ± 14 °C 1 900 ± 25 °F and air-cool or liquid- quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature then air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature then aircool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 2 modified double age-hardening process:  solution-anneal at 1 040 ± 14 °C 1 900 ± 25 °F then air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 760 ± 14 °C 1 400 ± 25 °F for 2 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature then aircool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b wrought UNS S45000 molybdenum-modified martensitic precipitation- hardened stainless steel shall have a maximum hardness of 31 HRC equivalent to 306 HBW for this alloy and shall have undergone the following two-step heat-treatment procedure: 1. solution-anneal 2. precipitation-harden at 620 ± 8 °C 1150 ± 15 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.28 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels used as non-pressure-containing internal-valve pressure-regulator and level controller components and miscellaneous equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a cast CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2 shall be in the H1150 DBL condition in accordance with ASTM A747/A747M and shall have a maximum hardness of 30 HRC b wrought UNS S17400 and S15500 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels shall have a maximum hardness of 33 HRC and shall have been heat-treated in accordance with either 1 or 2 as follows: 1. double age-hardening process at 620 °C 1150 °F:  solution-anneal at 1 040 ± 14°C 1 900 ± 25 °F then air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 2 modified double age-hardening process:  solution-anneal at 1 040 ± 14 °C 1 900 ± 25 °F and air-cool or liquid- quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 760 ± 14 °C 1 400 ± 25 °F for 2 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang c for UNS 17400 limits on its ferrite content should be considered d wrought UNS S45000 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steel shall have a maximum hardness of 31 HRC equivalent to 306 HBW for this alloy and shall be heat-treated using the following two-step process: 1. solution-anneal 2. precipitation-harden at 621 ± 8 °C 1150 ± 14 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.29 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels used as snap rings

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.29 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels used as snap rings

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For this application UNS S15700 snap rings originally in the RH950 solution- annealed and aged condition shall also be further heat-treated to a hardness of between 30 HRC and 32 HRC using the following three-step process: a temper at 620 °C 1 150 °F for 4 h 15 min then cool to room temperature in still air b re-temper at 620 °C 1 150 °F for 4 h 15 min then cool to room temperature in still air c temper at 560 °C 1 050 °F for 4 h 15 min then cool to room temperature in still air. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table 1 — List of equipment

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table A.30 — Environmental and materials limits for martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels used in compressor components

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang For these applications these materials shall also comply with the following: a wrought UNS S17400 and S15500 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels shall have a maximum hardness of 33 HRC and shall have been heat- treated in accordance with either 1 or 2 as follows: 1 double age-hardening process at 620 °C 1 150 °F: 2 solution-anneal at 1 040 ± 14 °C 1 900 ± 25 °F and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1 150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1 150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F. 2 modified double age-hardening process:  solution-anneal at 1 040 ± 14 °C 1 900 ± 25 °F and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  first precipitation-hardening cycle at 760 ± 14 °C 1 400 ± 25 °F for 2 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F  second precipitation-hardening cycle at 620 ± 14 °C 1 150 ± 25 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature and air-cool or liquid-quench to below 32 °C 90 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b for UNS 17400 limits on its ferrite content should be considered c for use as impellers at higher hardness strength levels these alloys shall be tested in accordance with Annex B at a test stress level of at least 95 of AYS d wrought UNS S45000 molybdenum-modified martensitic precipitation- hardened stainless steel shall have a maximum hardness of 31 HRC equivalent to 306 HBW for this alloy and shall have undergone the following two-step heat-treatment procedure: 1. solution annealing 2. precipitation hardening at 620 ± 8 °C 1150 ± 15 °F for 4 h minimum at temperature. e UNS S17400 or S15500 used for impellers at a hardness of 33 HRC shall exhibit a threshold stress ≥95 of AYS in the anticipated service environment see B.3.4. a No data submitted to ascertain whether these materials are acceptable for service in the presence of elemental sulfur in the environment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang threshold stress Threshold stress for stress-corrosion-cracking. The critical gross section stress at the onset of stress-corrosion cracking under specified conditions.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A.8.3 Welding of precipitation-hardened stainless steels of this materials group The requirements for the cracking-resistance properties of welds shall apply see 6.2.2. The hardness of the base metal after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal and the hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective metal for the weld alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The hardness of the base metal after welding shall not exceed the maximum hardness allowed for the base metal The hardness of the weld metal shall not exceed the maximum hardness limit of the respective metal for the weld alloy.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Reading 1 Part 2 of 2b

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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