Understanding API ICP653 Reading 22-Post Exam Summary A

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Understanding API ICP653 Reading 22-Post Exam Summary A

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang API653 Post Exam Summary 1 st April 2016 –Passed.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang AST Tanks

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang AST Tanks

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang AST Tanks

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang AST Tanks

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Fion Zhang at Shanghai 1 st April 2016 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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API 653 Exam Administration -- Publications Effectivity Sheet FOR: November 2015 March 2016 and July 2016 Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for this exam for the dates shown above. API Recommended Practice 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry Second Edition April 2011 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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API 653 Exam Administration -- Publications Effectivity Sheet FOR: November 2015 March 2016 and July 2016 Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for this exam for the dates shown above. API Recommended Practice 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry Second Edition April 2011 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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ATTENTION: Only the following sections / mechanisms from RP 571 are included on the exam: Section 3 Definitions Par. 4.2.7 Brittle Fracture 4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue 4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion 4.3.3 Corrosion Under insulation CUI 4.3.8 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion MIC 4.3.9 Soil Corrosion 4.3.10 Caustic Corrosion 4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking Cl-SCC 4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking Caustic Embrittlement 5.1.1.10 Sour Water Corrosion Acidic 5.1.1.11 Sulfuric Acid Corrosion Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  API Recommended Practice 575 Inspection of Atmospheric and Low- Pressure Storage Tanks Third Edition April 2014  API Recommended Practice 577 – Welding Inspection and Metallurgy Second Edition December 2013  API Standard 650 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage Twelfth Edition March 2013 with Addendum 1 September 2014 Errata 1 July 2013 and Errata 2 December 2014.  API Recommended Practice 651 Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks Fourth Edition September 2014.  API Recommended Practice 652 Lining of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tank Bottoms Fourth Edition September 2014  API Standard 653 Tank Inspection Repair Alteration and Reconstruction Fifth Edition November 2014.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang  American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 2013 Edition i. ASME Section V Nondestructive Examination Articles 1 2 6 7 and 23 section SE-797 only ii. Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications Welding Only See end of this study note for API Official BOK

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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http://independent.academia.edu/CharlieChong1 http://www.yumpu.com/zh/browse/user/charliechong http://issuu.com/charlieccchong Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Magical Book of Tank Inspection ICP

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 闭门练功

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Prometric Reference Screen: will be similar like this. no search function

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry API Recommended Practice 571 Second Edition April 2011

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 5.1.1.10 Sour Water Corrosion Acidic 5.1.1.10.3 Critical Factors a H 2 S content pH temperature velocity and oxygen concentration are all critical factors. b The H 2 S concentration in the sour water is dependent on the H 2 S partial pressure in the gas phase as well as temperature and pH. c At a given pressure the H 2 S concentration in the sour water decreases as temperature increases. d Increasing concentrations of H 2 S tend to decrease solution pH down to about 4.5. Streams with a pH below 4.5 indicate the presence of a strong acid which would be the main corrosion concern see 5.1.1. PH 4.5 Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.3.8 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion MIC 4.3.8.5 Appearance or Morphology of Damage a MIC corrosion is usually observed as localized pitting under deposits or tubercles that shield the organisms. b Damage is often characterized by cup-shaped pits within pits in carbon steel or subsurface cavities in stainless steel Figure 4-89 through Figure 4-95. Pitting Tubercles Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Welding Inspection and Metallurgy API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 577 FIRST EDITION OCTOBER 2004

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.9.1 Ultrasonic Inspection System Calibration …………… Calibration system checks should be performed prior to and at the completion of an examination. In addition a system check is required with any change in the search unit cabling and examiner. The temperature of the calibration standard should be within 25 °F 14 °C of the part to be examined. If the temperature falls out of that range the reference standard is brought to within 25 °F 14 °C and a calibration check should be performed. For high temperature work special high temperature transducers and couplants are usually necessary. Consideration should be given to the fact that temperature variations within the wedge or delay line can cause beam angle changes and/or alter the delay on the time base. Open Book Open Book Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 651 FOURTH EDITION SEPTEMBER 2014

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4 Corrosion of Aboveground Steel Storage Tanks 4.1.4 Physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte also influence the location of cathodic and anodic areas on the metal surface. For example differing oxygen concentrations between areas on a steel surface may generate differences in potential. Areas with lower oxygen concentrations become anodic and areas with higher oxygen concentrations become cathodic. This phenomenon can cause corrosion of steel tank bottoms on a homogeneous sand pad and/or when contaminated with clay or other debris or natural soil that does not have a uniform consistency see Figure 2. Rock Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Linings of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tank Bottoms API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 652 FOURTH EDITION SEPTEMBER 2014

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.3.4 Lining Discontinuities Holiday testing of thick-film linings shall be carried out with a high-voltage detector in accordance with NACE RP0188. Holiday testing of thin-film linings should be performed with a low-voltage 67.5 volts wet sponge detector. When testing with high voltage detectors it is important that the voltage be properly set in accordance with the manufacturers recommended volts per mil and that the film thickness properly matches the specified thickness. Otherwise damage may occur from the testing operation. Also nothing in this document shall preclude the testing of a thin-film lining using a high voltage detector if there are temperature considerations provided that the voltage be properly set to correspond with the film thickness. Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.3.4 Lining Discontinuities Holiday testing of thick-film linings shall be carried out with a high-voltage detector in accordance with NACE RP0188. Holiday testing of thin-film linings should be performed with a low-voltage 67.5 volts wet sponge detector. When testing with high voltage detectors it is important that the voltage be properly set in accordance with the manufacturers recommended volts per mil and that the film thickness properly matches the specified thickness. Otherwise damage may occur from the testing operation. Also nothing in this document shall preclude the testing of a thin-film lining using a high voltage detector if there are temperature considerations provided that the voltage be properly set to correspond with the film thickness. Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 7.5 Surface Profile or Anchor Pattern The abrasive used for blasting should be selected to produce the necessary profile depth or anchor pattern for the lining to be applied. The lining manufacturer’s recommendation for surface profile depth must be achieved in order to optimize the mechanical adhesion of the lining to the steel tank bottom. The anchor pattern required for linings is typically 1.5 mils to 4.0 mils 38 microns to 102 microns and generally increases with the thickness of the lining. To achieve adhesion necessary for long-term performance it is important that the anchor pattern is sharp and angular. It may be difficult when using recycled media on tank linings to ensure a uniform proper profile depth as well as a proper degree of sharpness and angularity. Owners should weigh the benefits of recycled media against the risk of not having adequate surface profile that may be required for internal linings.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 8.3 Temperature and Humidity Control The temperature of the steel surface should conform to the lining manufacturer’s recommended application and curing ranges. As a general rule the surface temperature must be at least 5 °F 3 °C above the dew point temperature in the tank and the relative humidity should be below 80 at the steel surface. If the surface temperatures and/or humidity level expected to deviate from the recommended range climate control equipment should be employed to ensure the proper conditions are maintained. It should be noted that durations of surface preparation lining application and cure may be continuous over a 24-hour period. If so the required environmental conditions must be maintained around the clock. Owner operations may interfere with continuous use of environmental control equipment. These operational considerations should be reviewed prior to the execution of the tank lining project. Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 7 Surface Preparation Generally abrasive blast cleaning to a white metal finish NACE No. 1/SSPC- SP5 is desired. Abrasive blast cleaning to a near-white metal finish NACE No. 2/SSPC-SP10 is often specified as the minimum degree of surface cleanliness.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Tank Inspection Repair Alteration and Reconstruction API STANDARD 653 FIFTH EDITION NOVEMBER 2014

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 1.3 Jurisdiction If any provision of this standard presents a direct or implied conflict with any statutory regulation the regulation shall govern. However if the requirements of this standard are more stringent than the requirements of the regulation then the requirements of this standard shall govern. 1.4 Safe Working Practices An assessment shall be made of the potential hazards to which personnel may be exposed when conducting internal tank inspections making repairs or dismantling tanks. Procedures shall be developed according to the guidelines given in API 2015 and API 2217A that will include safeguard for personnel health and safety prevention of accidental fires and explosions and the prevention of property damage. Conformance to permit procedures is an essential safe work practice for protection of personnel and property.Where welding and hot work are involved API 2009 states “Except in areas specifically designated as safe for hot work a hot work permit shall be obtained before starting any work that can involve a source of ignition.” See also API Recommended Practice 2016.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Closed Book 3.20 major alteration/or major repair An alteration or repair that includes any of the following: a installing a shell penetration larger than NPS 12 beneath the design liquid level b installing a bottom penetration within 12 in. of the shell c removing and replacing or adding a shell plate beneath the……… 4.2.4.3 Operation at Elevated Temperature All requirements of API 650 Annex M shall be considered before changing the service of a tank to operation at temperatures above 200 °F. 4.2.4.4 Operation at Lower Temperature Than Original Design If the operating temperature is changed to a lower temperature than the original design the requirements of the current applicable standard for the lower temperature shall be met.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang b Calculate the critical length L: L 3.7 √Dt 2 but not more than 40 in. e The criteria for continued operation is as follows: i the value t1 shall be greater than or equal to tmin see 4.3.3 or 4.3.4 subject to verification of all other loadings listed in 4.3.3.5 ii the value t2 shall be greater than or equal to 60 of tmin and iii any corrosion allowance required for service until the time of the next inspection shall be added to tmin and 60 of tmin. 4.3.2.2 Widely scattered pits may be ignored provided that: a no pit depth results in the remaining shell thickness being less than one- half the minimum acceptable tank shell thickness exclusive of the corrosion allowance and b the sum of their dimensions along any vertical line does not exceed 2 in. in an 8-in. length see Figure 4.2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Both Equations Shell Based Specific locality Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.4.3 Tank Bottom Release Prevention Systems RPSs API supports the use of a release prevention system RPS to maintain the integrity of tank bottoms. The term RPS refers to the suite of API standards and recommended practices that are designed to maintain tank integrity and thus protect the environment. With respect to tank bottoms these include: internal inspection of the tank bottom Leak detection systems and leak testing of the tank installing cathodic protection for the underside of the tank bottom lining the bottom of the tank interior providing a release prevention barrier RPB under the tank bottom or some combination of these measures depending on the operating environment and service of the tank.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.4.5 Minimum Thickness for Tank Bottom Plate Quantifying the minimum remaining thickness of tank bottoms based on the results of measurement can be done by the method outlined in 4.4.5.1. Other approaches such as the probabilistic method in 4.4.5.2 may be used. 4.4.5.1 An acceptable method for calculating the minimum acceptable bottom thickness for the entire bottom or portions thereof is as follows: MRT Minimum of RTbc or RTip – Or StPr + UPr Given required MRT calculate Or

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.4.6 Minimum Thickness for Annular Plate Ring Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.5 Tank Foundation Evaluation 4.5.1 General 4.5.1.1 The principal causes of foundation deterioration are settlement erosion cracking and deterioration of concrete initiated by: calcining attack by underground water attack by frost and attack by alkalies and acids. To ensure suitability for service all tank foundations shall be inspected periodically see 6.3. 4.5.1.2 Some mechanisms of concrete deterioration are briefly described below. a Calcining loss of water of hydration can occur when concrete has been exposed to sufficiently high temperature for a period of time. During intermediate cooling periods the concrete can absorb moisture swell lose its strength and crack.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 5.3.5 Step 4—If a tank shell thickness is no greater than 0.5 in. the risk of failure due to brittle fracture is minimal provided that an evaluation for suitability of service in accordance with Section 4 has been performed. The original nominal thickness for the thickest tank shell plate shall be used for this assessment. 5.3.6 Step 5—No known tank failures due to brittle fracture have occurred at shell metal temperatures of 60 °F or above. Similar assurance against brittle fracture can be gained by increasing the metal temperature by heating the tank contents.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 6.3.2 External Inspection 6.3.2.1 All tanks shall be given a visual external inspection by an authorized inspector. This inspection shall be called the external inspection and must be conducted at least every five years or RCA/4N years where RCA is the difference between the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mils and N is the shell corrosion rate in mils per year whichever is less. Tanks may be in operation during this inspection. 6.3.3 Ultrasonic Thickness Inspection b When the corrosion rate is known the maximum interval shall be the smaller of RCA/2N years where RCA is the difference between the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mils and N is the shell corrosion rate in mils per year or 15 years.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 6.4.2.1 Initial Internal Inspection Interval The initial internal inspection intervals for newly constructed tanks and/or refurbished tanks shall be established either per 6.4.2.1.1 or 6.4.2.1.2. 6.4.2.1.1 The interval from initial service date until the first internal inspection shall not exceed 10 years unless a tank has one or more of the leak prevention detection corrosion mitigation or containment safeguards listed in Table 6.1. The initial internal inspection date shall be based on incremental credits for the additional safeguards in Table 6.1 which are cumulative. 6.8.1 General Inspection records form the basis of a scheduled inspection/maintenance program. It is recognized that records may not exist for older tanks and judgments must be based on experience with tanks in similar services. The owner/ operator shall maintain a complete record file consisting of three types of records namely: construction records inspection history and repair/alteration history.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 7.3.1.2 Each individual plate for which adequate identification does not exist shall be subjected to chemical analysis and mechanical tests as required in ASTM A6 and ASTM A370 including Charpy V-notch.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Section 9—Tank Repair and Alteration 9.1 General 9.1.1 The basis for repairs and alterations shall be an API 650 equivalence. 9.2.1 Minimum Thickness of Replacement Shell Plate The minimum thickness of the replacement shell plate material shall be calculated in accordance with the as-built standard. The thickness of the replacement shell plate shall not be less than the greatest nominal thickness of any plate in the same course adjoining the replacement plate except where the adjoining plate is a thickened insert plate. Any changes from the original design conditions such as specific gravity design pressure liquid level and shell height shall be considered. 9.2.2 Minimum Dimensions of Replacement Shell Plate 9.2.2.1 The minimum dimension for a replacement shell plate is 12 in. or 12 times the thickness of the replacement plate whichever is greater.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.3 Shell Repairs Using Lap-welded Patch Plates 9.3.1.2 Lapped patch shell repairs shall not be used on any shell course thickness original construction that exceeds 1/2 in. nor to replace doorsheets or shell plates. 9.3.1.3 Except as permitted in 9.3.3.2 and 9.3.4.3 the repair plate material shall be the smaller of 1/2 in. or the thickness of the shell plate adjacent to the repairs but not less than 3/16 in. 9.3.1.7 The maximum vertical and horizontal dimension of the repair plate is 48 in. and 72 in. respectively. The minimum repair plate dimension is 4 in. The repair plate shall be formed to the shell radius.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.8 Addition or Replacement of Shell Penetrations Figure 9.7—Typical Details for Addition of Reinforcing Plate to Existing Shell Penetration Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Figure 9.10—Details for Installing a New Bottom Through an Existing Tombstone Reinforcing Plate Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.10 Repair of Tank Bottoms 9.10.1 Repairing a Portion of Tank Bottoms 9.10.1.1 General Repair Requirements b A welded-on patch plate smaller than 12 in. in diameter is permitted if: it is equal to or exceeds 6 in. in diameter it does not overlap a bottom seam it is not placed fully or partially over an existing patch and it extends beyond the corroded bottom area if any by at least 2 in. 9.11.2 Supported Cone Roofs 9.11.2.1 The minimum thickness of new roof plates shall be 3/16 in. plus any corrosion allowance as specified in the repair specifications. In the event roof live loads in excess of 25 lbf/ft2 are specified such as insulation operating vacuum high snow loads the plate thickness shall be based on analysis using the allowable stresses in conformance with API 650 Section 5.10.3 see 9.11.2.2. Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table 9.1—Hot Tap Connection Sizes and Shell Plate Thicknesses Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 10.4 Reconstruction 10.4.2.3 No welding of any kind shall be performed when the surfaces of the parts to be welded are wet from rain snow or ice when rain or snow is falling on such surfaces or during periods of high winds unless the welder and the work are properly shielded. No welding of any kind shall be performed when the temperature of the base metal is less than 0 °F. When the temperature of the base metal is between 0 °F and 32 °F or the thickness is in excess of 1 in. the base metal within 3 in. of the place where welding is to be started shall be heated to a temperature warm to the hand approximately 140 °F before welding. See 10.4.4.3 for preheat requirements for shell plates over 1 1/2-in. thick.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table 10.1—Maximum Thicknesses on New Welds Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 10.4.4 Shells 10.4.4.1 Plates to be joined by butt welding shall be matched accurately and retained in position during welding. Misalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/8-in. thick shall not exceed 10 of the plate thickness with a maximum of 1/8 in. Misalignment in joints 5/8-in. thick or less shall not exceed 1/16 in. Vertical joints shall be completed before the lower horizontal weld is made. 10.4.4.2 In completed horizontal butt joints the upper plate shall not project beyond the face of the lower plate at any point by more than 20 of the thickness of the upper plate with a maximum projection of 1/8 in. except that a projection of 1/16 in. is acceptable for upper plates less than 5/16-in. thick. 10.4.4.3 For horizontal and vertical joints in tank shell courses constructed of material over 1 1/2-in. thick based on the thickness of the thicker plate at the joint multi-pass weld procedures are required with no pass more than 3/4-in. thick permitted. A minimum preheat of 200 °F is required of these welds. Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 10.5 Dimensional Tolerances Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 10.5.4 Peaking With a horizontal sweep board 36-in. long peaking shall not exceed 1/2 in. The sweep board shall be made to the true outside radius of the tank. 10.5.5 Banding With a vertical sweep board 36-in. long banding shall not exceed 1 in.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 10.5.6 Foundations 10.5.6.2 Where foundations true to a horizontal plane are specified tolerances shall be as follows: a where concrete ringwalls are provided under the shell the top of the ringwall shall be level within ±1/8 inches in any 30 ft of the circumference and within ±1/4 inches in the total circumference measured from the average elevation b where concrete ringwalls are not provided the foundation under the shell shall be level within ±1/8 in. in any 10 ft of circumference and within ±1/2 in. in the total circumference measured from the average elevation. Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Section 11—Welding Welding with inert gas safety and danger from inert gas asphyxiation Section 12—Examination and Testing 12.1.6 Shell-to-bottom Weld 12.1.6.1 New welding on the shell-to-bottom joint shall be examined for its entire length by using a right-angle vacuum box and a solution film or by applying light diesel oil. Additionally the first weld pass shall be examined by applying light diesel oil to the side opposite the first weld pass made. The oil shall be allowed to stand at least 4 hours preferably overnight and then the weld examined for wicking action. The oil shall be removed before the weld is completed.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 12.2 Radiographs 12.2.1 Number and Location of Radiographs The number and location of radiographs of the full penetration shell plate to shell plate welds shall be in accordance with API 650 Section 8.1.2 and the following additional requirements: 12.2.1.1 For vertical joints: a new replacement shell plates to new shell plates no additional radiographs required other than those required by API 650 Section 8.1.2.2 and Figure 8-1 for new construction b new replacement shell plates to existing shell plates one additional radiograph shall be taken in each joint c repaired joints in existing shell plates shall have one additional radiograph taken in each joint. Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 12.2.1.3 For intersections of vertical and horizontal joints: a new replacement shell plates to new shell plates no additional radiographs required other than those required by API 650 Section 8.1.2 and Figure 8-1 for new construction b new replacement shell plates to existing shell plates each intersection shall be radiographed c all repaired intersections in existing shell plates shall be radiographed. 12.2.3 Marking and Identification of Radiographs 12.2.3.1 Each film shall show an identification of the welders making the weld. A weld map showing location of welds weld number radiograph number welder identification and grading of each weld is an acceptable alternative to this requirement. Note: weld ID on actual workpiece- 3feet 12.2.3.2 Radiographs and radiograph records of all repaired welds shall be marked with the letter “R.” Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 12.3 Hydrostatic Testing 12.3.1 When Hydrostatic Testing is Required A full hydrostatic test held for 24 hours shall be performed on the following. a A reconstructed tank. no exemption 12.3.2.2 Review/Approval/Authorization Requirements Items a and b below must be satisfied. a The repair has been reviewed and approved by an engineer experienced in storage tank design in accordance with API 650. The engineer must concur in writing with taking the hydrostatic testing exemption. b The tank owner/operator has authorized the exemption in writing.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 12.3.2.3.3 Existing tank materials in the repair area shall meet at least one of the following requirements. a API 650 requirements Seventh Edition or later. b Fall within the “safe for use” area on Figure 5.2. c Stress in the repair area shall not exceed 7000 lbf/in.2. This limiting stress shall be calculated as follows: Given t calculate H Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 12.5 Settlement Survey During Hydrostatic Testing The minimum number of elevation points shall be as indicated by the following equation: N D/10 where D is the tank diameter in feet ft. And N is the minimum required number of settlement measurement points but no less than eight. All values of N shall be rounded to the next higher even whole number. The maximum spacing between settlement measurement points shall be 32 ft.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Section 13—Marking and Recordkeeping 13.1 Nameplates 13.1.1.2 The new nameplate shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to the existing nameplate if any. An existing nameplate shall be left attached to the tank. Nameplates shall be attached as specified in API 650 Section 10.1 and Figure 10-1.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex B normative Evaluation of Tank Bottom Settlement Figure B.2—Measurements of Bottom Settlement Internal Tank Out-of- service Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang B.3.3 Internal Bottom Settlements or Bulges Measure the bulge or depression. The permissible bulge or depression is given by the following equation see Note. BB 0.37R where BB is maximum height of bulge or depth of local depression in inches R is radius of inscribed circle in bulged area or local depression in feet. Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Figure B.11—Maximum Allowable Edge Settlement for Areas with Bottom Lap Welds Approximately Parallel to the Shell Open Book Open Book

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang D.5 Recertification D.5.2 Actively engaged as an authorized inspector shall be defined as one of the following provisions: a a minimum of 20 of the time spent performing inspection activities or supervision of inspection activities or engineering support of inspection activities as described in API 653 over the most recent three-year certification period b performance of inspection activities or supervision of inspection activities or engineering support of inspection activities on 75 aboveground storage tanks as described in API 653 over the most recent three-year certification period NOTE Inspection activities common to other API inspection documents NDE record keeping review of welding documents etc. may be considered here.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex F normative NDE Requirements Summary Definitions: MT Magnetic Particle Pen Oil Penetrating Oil Testing PT Liquid Penetrant Examination RT Radiographic Examination UT Ultrasonic Examination VB Vacuum Box Testing VE Visual Examination

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Acceptance Standards: Air Test: None Pen Oil: None MTPT: ASME Section VIII Appendix 8 paragraphs 8-3 8-4 8-5 RT: ASME Section VIII paragraph UW-51b Tracer Gas: None UE: API Std. 650 Section 8.3.2.5 VB: None VE: API Std 650 Section 8.5.1

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Examiner Qualifications: Air Test: None Pen Oil: None MTPT: API Std 650 Section 8.2.3 RT: ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level II or III. Level I personnel may be used under the supervision of Level II or Level III personnel with a written procedure in accordance with ASME Section V Article 2. Tracer Gas: None UE: ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level II or III. Level I personnel may be used under the supervision of Level II or Level III personnel with a written procedure in accordance with ASME Section V Article 2. VB: API Std 650 Section 8.6.4 VE: API Std 650 Section 8.5.1

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Annex G informative Qualification of Tank Bottom Examination Procedures and Personnel G.5 Qualification Testing G.5.1 Qualification Test Plates G.5.1.1 The qualification test will be performed on a sample tank bottom with designed flaws. The sample tank bottom should be a minimum of 70 ft2 to provide space for the designed flaws. The plate material used to fabricate sample plates may be either new steel or used steel. It should be noted that the results obtained during qualification tests might not be indicative of the results of examinations performed on other plates of differing quality or permeability. When used steel is utilized for qualification purposes the qualification test acceptance standards recommended in G.5.2 may not be appropriate. The owner/operator should establish its own acceptance standards in such cases.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Welded Tanks for Oil Storage API Standard 650 Twelfth Edition March 2013 Addendum 1 September 2014 Errata 1 July 2013 Errata 2 December 2014

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang SECTION 1—SCOPE 1.1 General 1.1.1 This standard establishes minimum requirements for material design fabrication erection and inspection for vertical cylindrical aboveground closed- and open-top welded storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure internal pressures not exceeding the weight of the roof plates but a higher internal pressure is permitted when additional requirements are met see 1.1.13. This standard applies only to tanks whose entire bottom is uniformly supported and to tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum design temperature of 93 °C 200 °F or less see 1.1.20.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 1.1.3 This standard has requirements given in two alternate systems of units. The Manufacturer shall comply with either: 1 all of the requirements given in this standard in SI units or 2 all of the requirements given in this standard in US Customary units. The selection of which set of requirements SI or US Customary to apply shall be a matter of mutual agreement between the Manufacturer and Purchaser and indicated on the Data Sheet Page 1. 1.1.20 Annex M provides requirements for tanks with a maximum design temperature exceeding 93 °C 200 °F but not exceeding 260 °C 500 °F.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 1.3 Responsibilities 1.3.1 The Manufacturer is responsible for complying with all provisions of this standard. Inspection by the Purchaser’s inspector does not negate the Manufacturer’s obligation to provide quality control and inspection necessary to ensure such compliance. The Manufacturer shall also communicate specified requirements to relevant subcontractors or suppliers working at the request of the Manufacturer.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Figure 4.1b—Minimum Permissible Design Metal Temperature for Materials Used in Tank Shells without Impact Testing USC

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Figure 4.2—Isothermal Lines of Lowest One-Day Mean Temperatures °F

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Figure 4.1b—Minimum Permissible Design Metal Temperature for Materials Used in Tank Shells without Impact Testing USC

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang LA

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.8 Welding Electrodes 4.8.1 For the welding of materials with a minimum tensile strength less than 550 MPa 80 ksi the manual arc- welding electrodes shall conform to the E60 and E70 classification series suitable for the electric current characteristics the position of welding and other conditions of intended use in AWS A5.1 and shall conform to 7.2.1.10 as applicable. 4.8.2 For the welding of materials with a minimum tensile strength of 550 MPa to 585 MPa 80 ksi to 85 ksi the manual arc-welding electrodes shall conform to the E80XX-CX classification series in AWS A5.5.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang SECTION 5—DESIGN 5.1.1.2 double-welded butt joint A joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane that is welded from both sides. 5.2 Design Considerations 5.2.1 Loads Loads are defined as follows. a Dead Load DL: The weight of the tank or tank component including any corrosion allowance unless otherwise noted. b Design External Pressure Pe: Shall not be less than 0.25 kPa 1 in. of water except that the Design External Pressure Pe shall be considered as 0 kPa 0 in. of water for tanks with circulation vents meeting Annex H requirements. Refer to Annex V for design external pressure greater than 0.25 kPa 1 in. of water. Requirements for design external pressure exceeding this value and design requirements to resist flotation and external fluid pressure shall be a matter of agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer see Annex V. Tanks that meet the requirements of this standard may be subjected to a partial vacuum of 0.25 kPa 1 in. of water without the need to provide any additional supporting calculations. c Design Internal Pressure Pi: Shall not exceed 18 kPa 2.5 lbf/in.2.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 5.4.5 If specified on the Data Sheet Line 12 a foundation drip ring shall be provided to prevent ingress of water between the tank bottom and foundation. Unless the Purchaser specifies otherwise the ring shall meet the following requirements see Figure 5.5. 1 Material shall be carbon steel 3 mm 1/8 in. minimum thickness. 2 All radial joints between sections of the drip rings as well as between the drip ring and the annular plate or bottom shall be continuously seal-welded. 3 The drip ring shall extend at least 75 mm 3 in. beyond the outer periphery of the foundation ringwall and then turn down up to 90 ° at its outer diameter.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table 5.2b—Permissible Plate Materials and Allowable Stresses USC

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Table 5.6b—Dimensions for Shell Nozzles USC

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 5.10.2.6 Frangible Roof: A roof is considered frangible see 5.8.5 for emergency venting requirement if the roof- to-shell joint will fail prior to the shell-to-bottom joint in the event of excessive internal pressure. When a Purchaser specifies a tank with a frangible roof the tank design shall comply with a b c or d of the following: a For tanks 15 m 50 ft in diameter or greater the tank shall meet all of the following. 1 The slope of the roof at the top angle attachment does not exceed 2:12. 2 The roof support members shall not be attached to the roof plate.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 7.3.7 Testing of the Roof 7.3.7.1 Upon completion the roof of a tank designed to be gas-tight except for roofs designed under 7.3.7.2 F.4.4 and E.7.5 shall be tested by one of the following methods. a Applying internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of the roof plates and applying to the weld joints a bubble solution or other material suitable for the detection of leaks. b Vacuum testing the weld joints in accordance with 8.6 to detect any leaks. 7.3.7.2 Upon completion the roof of a tank not designed to be gas-tight such as a tank with peripheral circulation vents or a tank with free or open vents shall receive only visual examination of its weld joints unless otherwise specified by the Purchaser.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 7.5.3 Roundness Radii measured at 0.3 m 1 ft above the bottom corner weld shall not exceed the following tolerances:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 8.1.5 Radiographic Standards Welds examined by radiography shall be judged as acceptable or unacceptable by the standards of Paragraph UW- 51b in Section VIII of the ASME Code. 8.1.6 Determination of Limits of Defective Welding When a section of weld is shown by a radiograph to be unacceptable under the provisions of 8.1.5 or the limits of the deficient welding are not defined by the radiograph two spots adjacent to the section shall be examined by radiography however if the original radiograph shows at least 75 mm 3 in. of acceptable weld between the defect and any one edge of the film an additional radiograph need not be taken of the weld on that side of the defect. If the weld at either of the adjacent sections fails to comply with the requirements of 8.1.5 additional spots shall be examined until the limits of unacceptable welding are determined or the erector may replace all of the welding performed by the welder or welding operator on that joint. If the welding is replaced the inspector shall have the option of requiring that one radiograph be taken at any selected location on any other joint on which the same welder or welding operator has welded. If any of these additional spots fail to comply with the requirements of 8.1.5 the limits of unacceptable welding shall be determined as specified for the initial section.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 8.1.3.4 The finished surface of the weld reinforcement at the location of the radiograph shall either be flush with the plate or have a reasonably uniform crown not to exceed the following values:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 8.5 Visual Examination d The reinforcement of the welds on all butt joints on each side of the plate shall not exceed the following thicknesses:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 8.6 Vacuum Testing 8.6.3 A partial vacuum of 21 kPa 3 lbf/in.2 6 in. Hg to 35 kPa 5 lbf/in.2 10 in Hg gauge shall be used for the test. If specified by the Purchaser a second partial vacuum test of 56 kPa 8 lbf/in.2 16 in. Hg to 70 kPa 10 lbf/in.2 20 in. Hg shall be performed for the detection of very small leaks.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang SECTION 9—WELDING PROCEDURE AND WELDER QUALIFICATIONS Qualification of Welding Procedures 9.2.1 General Requirements 9.2.1.1 The erection Manufacturer and the fabrication Manufacturer if other than the erection Manufacturer shall prepare welding procedure specifications and shall perform tests documented by procedure qualification records to support the specifications as required by Section IX of the ASME Code and any additional provisions of this standard. If the Manufacturer is part of an organization that has to the Purchaser’s satisfaction established effective operational control of the qualification of welding procedures and of welder performance for two or more companies of different names then separate welding procedure qualifications are not required provided all other requirements of 9.2 9.3 and Section IX of the ASME Code are met. Welding procedures for ladder and platform assemblies handrails stairways and other miscellaneous assemblies but not their attachments to the tank shall comply with either AWS D1.1 AWS D1.6 or Section IX of the ASME Code including the use of standard WPSs.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9.4 Identification of Welded Joints The welder or welding operator’s identification mark shall be hand- or machine-stamped adjacent to and at intervals not exceeding 1 m 3 ft along the completed welds. In lieu of stamping a record may be kept that identifies the welder or welding operator employed for each welded joint these records shall be accessible to the inspector. Roof plate welds and flange-to-nozzle-neck welds do not require welder identification.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Good Luck

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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