Electromagnetic Testing-Eddy Current-Equipment, Methods and Applicatio

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Electromagnetic Testing-Eddy Current-Equipment, Methods and Application

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Electromagnetic Testing Eddy Current-Basic Theory Equipment Methods and Applications 1976’s RQA/M1-5330.12 Volume I II George C. Marshall SFC My ASNT Level III Pre-Exam Preparatory Self Study Notes 13th April 2015 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Aerospace Applications

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一本很古远的教材-1976 很简易虽然一些方法已经变浮云 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Year - 1976 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Year - 1976 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Fion Zhang at Shanghai 13th April 2015 http://meilishouxihu.blog.163.com/ Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Greek letter

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang IVONA TTS Capable. http://www.naturalreaders.com/

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Eddy Current

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang INTRODUCTION This handbook is one of a series on nondestructive testing and is the second in a set of two volumes presented on the subject of Eddy Current Testing. The identification and inspection of base metals and metal alloys has become an increasingly important factor in the production and fabrication of metal products. Special alloys differing only slightly in composition and not at all in appearance can be identified and inspected for discontinuities by the eddy current test method. Applications of some of the various eddy current testing methods are presented in thisvolume. Some discussion of the different coils that are used and their physical andelectrical design should help the reader get a feel for the electromagnetic testing systems. The indications displays and charts that are used for testing purposes as wellas some of the requirements for acceptable test standards are also presented. The eddy current testing programmed instruction series two volumes will provide some of the background material necessary to take you one step closer to your goals in the area of nondestructive testing. The two volumes should be read in sequence because much of the material in Volume II is based on facts learned in Volume I. Year: 1967

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Eddy Current An eddy current is defined as a circulating electrical current induced in an isolated conductor by an alternating magnetic field. Eddy current testing is based on the fact that the flow of eddy currents generates a magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field developed by the test coil. An indicating device connected to a test coil will be affected by the coils magnetic field. This field in turn is affected by the eddy currents magnetic field. This means that if the flow of eddy current changes the indication of the indicating device will change.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Principle of Eddy Current’s NDT When eddy currents are induced into a material small circular paths are formed. These eddy current paths can be changed among many others by crack or inclusion in the material. Such discontinuities change the flow of current and cause a change in the indicating device connected across the test coil. Eddy current testing is based on the fact that discontinuities affect the flow of eddy currents. If the eddy current path is interrupted or changed the eddy current magnetic field will change and will affect the test coils magnetic field. The stronger the eddy current the more sensitive the system will be to the detection of discontinuities. Since eddy currents are greater near the surface of a rod placed in a coil eddy current sensitivity is greater near the surface.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Test coils for eddy current testing can be divided into three classes as shown below. An encircling coil surrounds the material and the material is fed through the coil. In some cases the coil is placed inside the material hollow tube. In other instances a surface probe coil is moved over the surface of the material. Note that in the below illustrations each of the three classes only a single primary coil is used.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Single Coil: In single coil. The same coil is used to induce eddy currents into the specimen and to detect changes within the specimen. Note as shown below that the alternating current ac is applied to the coil and that the indicating device is connected across the coil. This arrangement can-be used for all three classes: encircling coils inside coils and surface coils.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Primary Secondary Coils: It is also possible to use two coils one to establish the magnetic field and induce eddy currents into the specimen and one to detect the changes in eddy current flow. Note that this secondary coil has the indicating device connected across the coil and is not connected to an ac source. Normally the secondary coil is located inside the primary coil and the two coils are referred to as a double coil. In the double coil arrangement the primary coil induces eddy currents into the specimen. The eddy currents in turn generate a magnetic field that reacts against the primary coil and also induce current in the secondary coil. The indicating device indicates the changes in eddy current flow.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Single Coil Double Coils

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Flux Density: The amount of eddy current induced into a specimen is related to the test coils magnetic field intensity it is important to understand how the magnetic intensity varies with distance. Visualize that you have a meter that measures average values of magnetic field intensity. Using this meter you measure the coils field intensity at three distances A B and C from the outer surface of the coil. From this you learn that the coils field intensity decreases as you move further from the coils surface. Thus the intensity at point C is less than at point B and point Bs intensity is less than point As. For eddy current testing it is assumed that the magnetic field intensity across the in side diameter is constant. There are reasons for this however these reasons are beyond the scope of this manual. Just accept the fact but keep in mind that this applies only to eddy current testing not to magnetic particle testing.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Direction of Eddy Current: Coils field intensity decreases with distance outside the coil and is assumed to be constant across the diameter inside the coil. Now lets put this intensity to work. Electrical currents are the flow of small negative particles called "electrons." Such electrons are influenced by magnetic fields. And if electrons are placed in an alternating magnetic field the electrons will move. First in one direction then in the opposite direction. That gives us an eddy current. Of course to have eddy currents we need a material that has a few extra electrons ones that are free to move about. Since a conductor has such electrons we can use a conductor or conductive material to get eddy currents. This means that if we place a test coil near a conductor e.g. copper we can expect to move the electrons in the conductor back and forth. In the above illustration we have a test coil positioned above the surface of a specimen. Note that the path of the eddy currents in the specimen forms a circle which is parallel to the surface. Also note that this path is parallel to the windings of the test coil.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Direction of Eddy Current: When a rod is placed inside a coil the flow of eddy current looks like this. You might expect that the distribution of eddy current across the rods cross section is constant and that all areas have the same amount of eddy current. This is not true. Note in the illustration above that the eddy currents are concentrated near the surface and that no eddy currents exist at the center of the rod. A moment ago you learned that the coils field intensity inside the coil is the same across the coil. And perhaps you recall that the amount of eddy current in the specimen is related to the field intensity. Why then is the eddy current greater near the surface The answer you know ... you just dont realize it. A flow of eddy current generates a magnetic field that opposes the coils magnetic field. This of course means the coils magnetic field intensity is decreased. Near the surface the coils full intensity is applied to the rod and this generates large eddy currents. These currents in turn developed a field that opposes the coils field intensity. The difference is then applied to deeper area within the rod. Again eddy currents are developed and the resulting field opposes the coils field. Ultimately the coils field becomes so weak that no further eddy currents are induced into the rod. Makes sense doesnt it We can summarize the distribution of eddy current of a rod within a coil by saying: The eddy current is a maximum at or near the rods surface and decreases in value as you move towards the center of the rod

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Circular Coil Magnetism

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Interaction http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/MIH.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Surface Effect Standard Depth δ ωμσ -½ Perhaps you are wondering why the depth of eddy current penetration decreases as the conductivity σ increases. Lets think it out. When the conductivity increases the flow of current increases. This in turn generates a larger eddy current magnetic field. As this field develops it opposes the test coils magnetic field and the result is a reduction in the intensity of the coils field as applied to the specimen. And as the intensity decreases the depth of penetration into the specimen decreases. Makes sense doesnt it

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Coupling Factors In eddy current testing the distance between the coil and the specimen is a significant factor. If the distance varies the output indication varies. This is true for two conditions: 1.when the coil is placed above the specimen view A 2.when the specimen is placed inside the coil view B Since the specimen is coupled to the coil through the coils magnetic field the relationship between the specimen and the coil can be called a coupling factor.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Note: The standard answer the “Fill Factor” for encircling coil is not “Lift-Off”

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Factors affect the output indication: Two factors affect the output indication in eddy current testing. One factor Is the specimens electrical conductivity the other factor is the coupling between the test coil and the specimen. This coupling has been referred to as the lift-off effect for surface coils and as the fill-factor for the encircling coil. We have also seen that in a properly arranged encircling coil test system mechanical guides are used to ensure proper constant positioning of the rod within the coil. Under these circumstances the only remaining variable would be the dimensional changes of the rod.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Variables – Dimension Changes: It is convenient to classify variables as either electrical or magnetic. Conductivity is an electrical variable dimensional changes are magnetic variables. This is true because the specimen is coupled to the test coil through a magnetic field. With these facts established we can now start looking at the output indication in terms of variables. So far we have learned that the output indication is reflecting two variables: conductivity electrical and dimensional changes magnetic.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Quiz Exercise: Some specimens are not magnetic and only electrical effects of the specimen exist within the specimen. Under these conditions in the test system shown below would you say that the output indication has: 1 Only electrical effects .... Page 4-3 Next Page 2 Both electrical effects and magnetic effects ... Page 4-4 Next-Next Page.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Quiz From page 4-2 Previous Page No you are not correct when you say that the output indication has only electrical effects. True the specimen did not have any magnetic effects however there are still magnetic effects in the system. The coupling between the specimen and the test coil is a magnetic effect and this can change as the dimension of the rod changes. Thus there are dimensional changes magnetic effects still in the system and these will affect the output indication. Thats why the correct answer is "both electrical and magnetic effects."

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Quiz From page 4-2 Previous Previous Page Fine You recognized that the rods dimensional changes a magnetic effect are still in the test system therefore the output indication will have both electrical and magnetic effects... even though the specimen does not have any magnetic effects. Before we discuss specimens with magnetic characteristics magnetic materials lets be sure that you realize that a magnetic field can exist in a nonmagnetic material. We will assume for the moment that you know what a magnetic material is however we will define it later. When an electrical current flows through a wire a magnetic field develops around the wire. The wire can be a nonmagnetic material. In previous chapters you have learned that a test coil will induce an electrical current eddy current into an isolated material. Again the material can be nonmagnetic. The material must of course be able to conduct a current. And you have also learned that a flow of current in such a specimen will develop a magnetic field that reacts against the test coils magnetic field.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Variables - Permeability μ : So far we have identified two variables that are reflected in the output indication. And we have said that conductivity is an electrical variable and dimensional changes are a magnetic variable. If the specimen is a nonmagnetic material these are the only two variables appearing in the output indication. If on the other hand the specimen is a magnetic material we get a third variable. Its called permeability and we use the symbol μ pronounced MU to denote this characteristic. Keep in mind that eddy current testing is concerned with conductivity not permeability therefore permeability is an undesirable variable to us. In later chapters you will see that special equipment is required to separate the permeability variable from the conductivity variable.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Eddy Current Variables

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Non-Ferromagnetic Material’s Magnetic Variable: If you recall we started with a nonmagnetic specimen and placed it in a test coil. Under these conditions the coils field induced eddy currents into the rod specimen and the resulting flow was in the same direction as the windings of the coil. This flow generates a magnetic field that is perpendicular to the current flow. And of course this field will have lines of force and a flux density.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ferromagnetic Material’s Magnetic Variable: Consider now that we use a magnetic specimen instead of a nonmagnetic specimen. Again we have eddy currents and the eddy currents magnetic field. We also have the magnetic field of the magnetic material. Note that we now have two fields within the specimen. One is the eddy currents magnetic field the other is the field developed by the magnetic materials domains. Isnt it also true that we have two flux densities Certainly. One is caused by the eddy current the other by the specimens magnetic properties. The output across a test coil changes as the coils magnetic field changes. The coils magnetic field changes as the flux density of the specimen changes. For a magnetic specimen the output indication reflects: ■ Only conductivity changes .................................. Page 4-17 ■ Both conductivity and magnetic property changes ....................Page 4-18

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Quiz: From page Previous Page Sorry you missed a turn that time. Your answer "For a magnetic specimen the output indication reflects only conductivity changes" is not correct. Both conductivity and magnetic property changes are reflected in the output- indication. The coils magnetic field is affected by the specimens flux changes. These changes come from two areas. The eddy currents develop one set of flux changes the magnetic properties of the specimen develop another set of flux changes. The sum of the two sets of changes affects the coils magnetic field. Of course this is only true when the specimen is a magnetic material. Turn to Next Page.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Quiz: From page Previous Page Fine youre on the right track. For a magnetic specimen the output indication reflects two changes. One is the conductivity change the other is the magnetic change. However before we add the magnetic effects to the output indication lets briefly review the eddy current sequence. 1. An alternating current ac applied to a coil will cause the coil to develop a magnetic field with a definite pattern of flux. Since the current is periodically reversed the flux will periodically reverse. 2. If a non-magnetic rod is placed in the coil the coils flux will enter the rod. Since the coils flux is alternating the flux within the rod will alternate. 3. An alternating flux within the rod will induce eddy currents which flow in a direction that is perpendicular to the flux. 4. A flow of current develops a magnetic field with a definite flux pattern. This is also true for eddy currents. The eddy current flux will oppose the flux established by the coil. 5. The flow of eddy current is influenced by the conductivity of the rod. If the conductivity σ changes the eddy current flow changes. Such changes also cause a change in the flux. 6. An output indication connected across the coil will sense changes in flux through the characteristics of the coil. It thus becomes possible to sense conductivity changes because of the interaction between the coils flux and the eddy currents flux. An alternating current ac is an electrical current that varies. Its value starts at a center value and increases to a maximum in one direction then it decreases to a center value and reverses its direction to a maximum in the opposite direction and then it returns to the center value to start the cycle again. Since the magnetizing force depends upon the current flowing through the coil this means that the magnetizing force varies as the current varies.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Permeability Given the value H magnetizing force you located this value on the horizontal scale. Next you moved vertically to the point were your value H intercepted the curve. Then you moved horizontally from this point to the point where you intercepted the vertical B scale. This gave you the specific value of the specimens flux density B. The ratio of the value of B to the value of H has a name. Its called permeability now you know what it means dont you. And for the specific example we used there would be a definite permeability value. Notice that we used the curve to get this value. Again it is convenient to use a symbol. This time we will use the symbol μ. Its pronounced MU. And MU μ means the ratio of the specimens flux density to the coils magnetizing force. B μH https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/MagParticle/Physics/Permeability.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ferromagnetic Material’s Flux Density B In electromagnetism permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. Hence it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic permeability is typically represented by the Greek letter μ. The term was coined in September 1885 by Oliver Heaviside. The reciprocal of magnetic permeability is magnetic reluctivity. In SI units permeability is measured in henries per meter H·m −1 or newtons per ampere squared N·A −2 . The permeability constant μ 0 also known as the magnetic constant or the permeability of free space is a measure of the amount of resistance encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classical vacuum. The magnetic constant has the exact defined1 value µ 0 4 π×10 −7 H·m −1 ≈ 1.2566370614… ×10 −6 H·m −1 or N·A −2 . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeability_electromagnetism

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang To get permeability like 2000 9000 etc. the magnetic specimens flux density B must be greater than the flux density of the coil. Consider now what this means. Eddy currents develop when flux changes take place within a specimen. For a nonmagnetic material the only source of flux is the test coil. This means that there is a direct relationship between the flux of the coil and the flux in the specimen. The amount of eddy current is directly related to the coils flux and the conductivity of the specimen. You have just learned that the coils flux also enters a magnetic material. Like a nonmagnetic material eddy currents will be induced into the magnetic material. Again the amount of eddy current is directly related to the coils flux and the conductivity of the specimen. In the case of a magnetic material an additional factor exists. Since the material also generates its own flux and this flux changes within the material additional eddy currents will be generated. These currents are directly related to the magnetic properties of the material. The amount of additional flux generated by the magnetic properties is added to the flux generated by the coil and the total value is related to the generation of eddy currents in the material. Thats why we can say that the magnetic properties of the specimen will affect the flow of eddy currents. If these magnetic properties vary the eddy current will vary.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Material’s B Flux Density / H Field Intensity Non-Linearity The magnetic properties of a specimen will affect the flow of eddy currents. In eddy current testing this presents a problem for permeability is not linear. As you recall the current applied to the test coil is an alternating current that varies above and below a center value. This current produces an alternating magnetic force which in turn produces an alternating eddy current within the specimen. Since the system is linear equal changes in alternating current produce equal changes in eddy current. Such a condition is only true for nonmagnetic materials. For a magnetic material equal changes in magnetic force or AC do not produce equal changes in flux density B. This can be seen in the following figure. If the magnetizing force moves from 0 to the value A only a small value of B is developed. If the force now moves from A to C B rises to a large value has more flux density doesnt it. For our purposes we have used two equal changes in magnetizing force i. e. OA AC. Since equal changes in magnetizing force produced unequal changes in flux density we can say that the system is: Non Linear

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Linear Non Linear System For magnetic material the system is not linear. Equal changes in magnetizing force are producing unequal changes in flux density. Note what this means. A nonmagnetic rod passing through a test coil will affect the coil. An indicating device connected across the coil can sense the rods affect on the coil. If we disregard the dimensional changes of the rod the output indication will change as the eddy current changes. These changes are related to the rods conductivity. The total system that we have is essentially a linear system. The use of a magnetic rod changes the picture. Since the flux density in the rod is not linear with relationship to the magnetizing force we now have a varying value in the output indication. Such a value interferes with our eddy current indication. And since the magnetic effects are much stronger than the conductivity effects we cant see the conductivity effects. Suppose that we handed you a rod and did not tell you whether it is magnetic or nonmagnetic. We told you to test the rod. Before you test it must you know if the rod is magnetic or nonmagnetic Yes.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Saturation View A illustrates that equal changes in the magnetizing force can produce unequal changes in the flux density. The change from O to A produces the value B1 therefore the flux change is OB1. The change from A to C produces the flux change B1B2 . Since the change B1B2 is greater than the change OB1 we can say that the permeability is not constant. View B illustrates that equal changes in H can produce equal changes in B. This means that the permeability is the same over this change area of the curve shown in views A and B. Note that change DE change EF and that change B3B change B4B5 Note that in views A and B the curve is actually a straight line over a portion of the curve. And we have seen that in this straight line portion the permeability is constant. If the curve shown in views A and B is the magnetizing curve for a specific specimen would you say that the permeability of the specimen: Varies with the range of the magnetizing force

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Permeability varies with the range of the magnetizing force. If you select a small range of change and use a range in the straight portion of the curve the permeability is constant. On the other hand if you use a range that extends into the bent portion of the curve then the permeability varies. Since permeability changes present a problem in eddy current testing lets see if we cant make the permeability factor a constant. We can do this by saturating the specimen. Notice in the above curve that the magnetizing curve becomes flat or horizontal at the top of the curve. This means that further changes in magnetizing force H will not produce changes in flux density. When such a condition exists we say the specimen is saturated. And under such a condition the permeability is constant. One way to saturate the specimen is to use a direct current dc. Note that a dc coil is positioned on each side of the ac coil used in the rod under test. When a specimen is saturated the magnetic properties of the specimen will not generate further flux changes. The remaining flux changes will be caused solely by the test coil. Electrical variable: conductivity Magnetic variable: Dimension only less permeability variable

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Note The saturated specimen will still:  Form eddy current induced by the primary magnetic field  Induce secondary magnetic field. Just like non-magnetic conductor.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang QUIZ: Magnetic Saturation If you saturated a magnetic specimen would you say that the output indication expresses:  Both the magnetic properties and conductivity properties of the specimen... Page 4-42  Only the conductivity properties of the specimen ......... Page 4-43

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang From page 4-41 4-42 You dont quite have the idea. If the specimen is saturated only conductivity properties will be reflected in the output indication. You apparently believe you will have magnetic properties in the output indication as well. The purpose of saturating the specimen is to eliminate magnetic effects. When a specimen is saturated by applying a strong direct current dc to a coil a strong magnetic field magnetizing force is developed. This causes the specimen to become fully magnetized. Or we can say that the specimen develops all the flux density it can develop. If more magnetizing force is applied nothing else happens. The specimen has developed its maximum amount of flux. Thats why it cant affect the output indication. Turn to page 4-43.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang From page 4-41 4-43 Good You have a major point to your credit. By saturating a magnetic specimen you can get rid of the specimens magnetic effects from the output indication. That leaves only the conductivity effects in the specimen. You started this chapter learning that a specimen had both electrical and magnetic effects. The electrical effect is conductivity the magnetic effect is permeability μ pronounced MU. In terms of an output indication we can say that we have electrical effects and magnetic effects. When we say that by saturating a specimen we can end up with only the conductivity effect in the output indication we are not quite right. The dimensional changes of the specimen still appear in the output indication. Such changes we classify as magnetic effects. Notice that we have three factors: conductivity dimensional changes and permeability. Two of these are in the class called magnetic the other is in the class called electrical. See illustration above A moment ago you responded to a question that said that if you saturated a specimen you would say that the output indication reflected only the conductivity properties of the specimen. For this to be true we assumed that the dimensional factor was constant.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Variables Affecting Eddy Current Signals To successfully interpret eddy current output indications you must learn to view the indication in terms of the variables in the eddy current testing system. One variable is conductivity. Its symbol is σ which means SIGMA. SIGMA stands for the electrical conductivity of the material. And of course electrical conductivity exists in both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The second variable is permeability μ MU which is the ratio B/H. This you have learned varies with the material and the value of the magnetizing force applied to the material. The third variable is dimensional changes of the specimen within the coil. This is the fill-factor variable which we will represent by the letter D. D means dimensional changes. For the probe coil this would be the lift-off factor. D applies to both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Permeability μ MU applies only to magnetic materials and varies in a non linear fashion with the material and the value of the magnetizing force applied to the material.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Eddy Current Analysis we have three basic approaches to learning something about the specimen. These are:  Impedance testing  Phase analysis  Modulation analysis

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Testing The concept of impedance applies to any coil and the coil need not be the primary coil. For example as shown above the primary coil can be used to apply current to the test specimen while a secondary coil can be used to obtain an output indication. The secondary coil will also have an impedance and this will be affected by the specimens properties. When a secondary coil is used the primary coil induces a current into the secondary coil. The changing flux within the specimen also affects the current flow in the secondary coil. The amount of current flow depends upon the impedance of the secondary coil. And this changes as the properties of the specimen change.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Testing- Basic Electrical Circuit View A illustrates an alternate way to get an output indication. In this case the generators current flows through two parallel paths. One path is through the test coil the other path is through an adjustable resistor. The indication is obtained across a portion of the resistor. Total current flow depends upon the combined effect of the coils impedance and the value of the resistor. If the coils impedance changes current flow through both the coil and the resistor will change. Since a flow of current through a resistor develops a voltage across the resistor a portion of this voltage can be used to obtain an output indication. View B illustrates a bridge circuit with current flowing through both branches. Resistors R1 and R2 form one branch resistor R3 and the test coil form the other branch. Note that an indicating device is connected between the two branches. When the current flow through both branches is the same the bridge is balanced and no voltage difference exists between R2 and the coil. An output indication is obtained when the test coils impedance changes and the bridge becomes unbalanced. Under this condition a voltage difference is developed and the indication will denote this change in balance. Resistor R3 is adjustable and provides a means of initially balancing the bridge when a specimen is placed in the test coil.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Testing- Differential Coils The term impedance also applies to coils connected as shown below. In this case two sets of coils are used and the test specimen is compared against a standard specimen. The secondary coils S1 and SO are connected together in such a way that the output of one coil opposes the output of the other coil. If the test specimens properties are the same as the standard specimens properties no output voltage is developed. On the other hand if the properties are not the same an output is obtained. This output is related to the impedance of the coils. If the test specimens properties change the impedance will change. Visualize that you have a test setup as shown below with the specimens positioned in the coils. No output indication is obtained. If you removed the standard specimen from the test coil would the impedance across the two coils connected to the output indication: Change

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Differential Probes Differential probes have two active coils usually wound in opposition although they could be wound in addition with similar results. When the two coils are over a flaw-free area of test sample there is no differential signal developed between the coils since they are both inspecting identical material. However when one coil is over a defect and the other is over good material a differential signal is produced. They have the advantage of being very sensitive to defects yet relatively insensitive to slowly varying properties such as gradual dimensional or temperature variations. Probe wobble signals are also reduced with this probe type. There are also disadvantages to using differential probes. Most notably the signals may be difficult to interpret. For example if a flaw is longer than the spacing between the two coils only the leading and trailing edges will be detected due to signal cancellation when both coils sense the flaw equally. https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/EddyCurrents/ProbesCoilDesign/ProbesModeOp.htm

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Testing- Limitations For many eddy current test purposes impedance testing is adequate however it does have limitations. For example all specimen effects are reflected in the impedance thus it is not possible to separate conductivity effects from permeability or dimensional changes. Of course for many applications this is not a problem. If the specimen is nonmagnetic and dimensional changes are minor then one can say that the impedance changes are being caused by conductivity changes. A change in the indication means a change in conductivity. Visualize that you are using a surface coil on a nonmagnetic specimen. Through a lift-off control on your equipment and through the use of a spring-loaded surface coil you have cancelled out the lift-off effect. The purpose of the test is to measure conductivity. Do you think that you could use impedance testing for measuring the conductivity Yes

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Testing - The Variables there are three variables being reflected in the coils impedance which in turn appears in the output indication. Earlier you learned that two of these variables are magnetic and one variable is electrical.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang When the impedance method of eddy current testing is used three variables can appear in the output indication and it is not possible to know which variable is causing a change in indication. For example when the specimen is placed within the coil three variables can cause a change in the current through the coil. If two variables are constant then we can assume that the third variable is causing the change. If the specimen is non-magnetic the permeability variable is eliminated or can be considered to be a constant and only conductivity and the fill-factor dimensional changes can affect the output indication. When the surface coil system is used the lift-off effect takes the place of the fill factor.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Inductance Resistance If a piece of wire is connected across an alternating current ac generator a current will flow through the wire. The value of the current will depend upon the resistance of the wire. Since the wire has resistance it can be considered to be a resistor. The letter R stands for both resistance and the electrical component called a resistor. If now the same piece of wire is wound into a coil and connected across the generator a different current will flow through the coil. The fact that the two currents are not the same is caused by something called inductance. The letter for inductance is L. The coil can be represented as an inductance and a resistance. Note that the wires original resistance is still present. Resistance is an electrical property. A coils opposition to current flow is called impedance. Would you say that impedance is related to: Both the coils resistance and inductance

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang A coils opposition to current flow is called impedance and this is composed of the coils resistance and inductance. The property of inductance is based on the magnetic field established around the coil when a current flows through the coil. Without getting into the details lets look at this for a moment. Current flow generates a magnetic field. This field will in turn react on the windings of the coil and will generate an effect that opposes the original current change. Thats why the current through the coil will be less than when the coil is only a straight piece of wire. Keep in mind that an alternating current is being used and the current is changing. For our purposes the important thing to remember about inductance is that it is a magnetic property and the field around the coil affects the flow of current within the coil. When a specimen is placed in a test coil the coils magnetic field is changed. Would you say that the specimen affects the coils: Inductance Inductance L is a particular property of the coil and is determined by the number of turns the spacing between turns coil diameter kind of material type of coil winding and the overall shape of the coil. Each coil has a unique value of inductance L.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang In eddy current testing we are not directly interested in the coils inductance. What we are interested in is something called the inductive reactance X L . This is the coils opposition to current flow based on the coils inductance and is determined by the coils inductance and the frequency applied to the coil. X L 6.288fL or 2 π∙fL Where: f the frequency of the alternating current applied to the coil and L the coils inductance. It is not important that you remember the formula for the inductive reactance and that 6.28 2 π. Just remember that the inductive reactance is determined by the frequency as well as by the coils inductance. View A below shows the coils inductance view B shows the coils inductive reactance X L . The inductive reactance and the coils resistance determine the total impedance of the circuit. In view B a certain amount of current will flow when the generator frequency is 1000 Hz. If the frequency is changed to 50000 Hz. the amount of current will change. The factor that is causing the change in current is the coils: Inductive reactance. The factors that is causing the current change is the coils inductive reactance and resistance. The coils Inductance is a constant. Its the coils inductive reactance that varies with frequency.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang When an alternating voltage V from the generator is applied across a coil an alternating current I will flow through the coil. The coils opposition to this current flow is called impedance Z. If you knew the value of Z and the voltage V the actual current value could be calculated by the formula shown above. I V/Z. The impedance can also be calculated by the formula shown above. Impedance Z we have seen is made up of two factors: the coils resistance R and the coils inductive reactance X L . The inductive reactance in turn is determined by two variables: frequency and the coils inductance. Changing either the frequency or the coils inductance L will change the inductive reactance. And finally we have learned that the inductance L will change if the magnetic field around the coil is changed.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Note: we have learned that the inductance L will change if the magnetic field around the coil is changed. X L 2 π∙f∙L L μ r ∙N 2 ∙A ∙l -1 Emf L di/dt RQA/M1-5330.12 V-I Page 5-27

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Phase Analysis Impedance testing cannot separate the variables. This may or may not be a problem. It depends upon the test situation. If we are inspecting a nonmagnetic specimen permeability is not a factor therefore we reduce our variables to two: conductivity and dimensional changes for a specimen in a coil and conductivity and lift-off for a surface coil arrangement. Of course if we are using a specimen within a test coil we use guides to keep the fill-factor constant but this does not cover actual changes in the dimension of the rod specimen. Under some conditions the dimensional changes may be so small compared to conductivity changes that we can disregard the dimensional changes. In other cases the discontinuities may be so small that the resulting change is small. If the dimensional change is also present this may override and mask the discontinuity change. Under such a condition impedance testing would not provide adequate inspection results. Since impedance testing does not separate the variables alternate methods must be used. As you recall we have three methods or approaches. ■ Impedance testing ■ Phase analysis ■ Modulation analysis Lets look into the phase analysis approach

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang We started this chapter with a generator which supplied an alternating voltage and current. Then we learned that this current I will flow through an external circuit at a rate that is determined by the external circuit. If the external circuit is a coil then the opposition to current flow will be an impedance Z which will change if the generators frequency is changed or if the magnetic field around the coil is changed. Testing through a change in impedance we have called impedance testing. You have learned that the disadvantage of impedance testing lies in the fact that it cant separate the variables. All we get is a change in current I as the impedance changes. Since we are measuring a quantity current and getting specific values of current impedance testing is sometimes called impedance-magnitude testing. To separate the variables we need to find another relationship. Such a relationship exists between the voltage V and the current I. Our original relationship was between the current I and the impedance Z and we saw that the current changed as the impedance changed. At the beginning of this chapter we learned that the voltage V alternates above and below a center value and this occurs over a period of time. As the voltage changes the current also changes. If the current rises and falls with the voltage over equal increments of time we say that the current is:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang When the current I rises and falls in time with the voltage V we say that the current is in phase with the voltage. Phase analysis is based on the fact that the current I is out of phase with the voltage V when a coil is connected across a generator. This phase relationship will change as the specimens properties change. To understand how phase changes can be used in eddy current testing lets start with a resistor across the generator. When a resistor is used across the generator the current will be in phase with the voltage. It can be shown that this relationship also is true when two resistors R1 and 2 are used in place of only one resistor. Current flowing through a resistor causes a voltage to appear across the resistor. Thus resistor R1 will have a voltage V1 across it the same is true for resistor R2 . The sum of the two voltages V1 and V2 will equal the voltage of the generator. These two voltages will also be in phase with the current. It is also true that these two voltages will be in phase with the generator‘s voltage.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Inductive Voltage Inductance has a unique property that opposes a change in current. For example if a sudden change in voltage is applied to a coil the current will not immediately change. Instead it lags the voltage or voltage lead by 90º. To get a better feel for this visualize that the voltage rises above and below a center value as shown in view A. To give us a time base lets use a circle with 360 degrees. Then lets agree that the voltage first rises to a maximum value in one direction. At this point we have used 90 degrees of "our time." Now let the voltage fall to the center value 180 degrees and rise to a maximum value in the opposite direction 270 degrees. And finally lets let the voltage return to the center value 360 degrees. Visualize that this 360 degree cycle is repeated again and again. The result is an alternating voltage. If we have a means of measuring how the current I varies as the voltage V varies and if we plot this on our time base 360 degrees we get the following result. This shows us that the current I is lagging the voltage V by 90 degrees. Keep in mind that the sequence from 0 degrees to 360 degrees is time. Note that as the voltage rises to a maximum at 90 degrees the current is decreasing to the center value.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang When a resistor is connected across a generator the current I will be in phase with the voltage V as shown in view A. If the resistor is now replaced by a coil the current will no longer be in phase with the voltage. The coil as you have seen has both resistance and inductance L. The inductance in turn is expressed as the inductive reactance X L which you have learned is determined by the inductance L and by the frequency applied to the coil. X L 6.28fL In some cases the inductive reactance X L is so much greater than the coils resistance that we can disregard the resistance. Under these conditions it can be shown that the current I lags the voltage V by 90 degrees as shown in view B. It can also be shown that when the resistance is a significant value views C and D the current will lag the voltage by a value less than 90 degrees. The current lag shown in view D represents the effect of both the coils inductance reactance and the resistance. A change in either value will change the lag between the current and the voltage. If a change in the coils magnetic field is made by the presence of a specimen will the lag between the current and the voltage: It can also be shown that when the resistance is a significant value views C and D the current will lag the voltage by a value less than 90 degrees. Lag by 90 degrees

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The voltage across the coils inductive reactance X L is out of phase with the current flowing through the coil. Actually the voltage leads the current by 90 degrees. A lead of 90 degrees only occurs however if no resistance is in the circuit. In the practical situation resistance is always present so the lead will be less than 90 degrees. We will get to this in a moment.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Impedance Phase Diagram Impedance is the total opposition to the flow of current and is composed of two values: the coils resistance R and the coils inductive reactance X L . Because of the voltage relationships of these two values we can represent the two values in a graph and show that they are 90 degrees apart. The actual impedance of a circuit is some combination of these two values. One way to determine the impedance is to calculate the value. This formula is based on the relationships of the sides of a right triangle as shown below. Another way is to locate the given value of the inductive reactance on the vertical scale of the graph and the given value of the resistance on the horizontal scale. The value on the vertical scale is then extended to the right while the value on the horizontal scale is extended upwards. The intersection of the two extensions gives us a point. A line drawn from this point to the start of the vertical and horizontal scales point 0 gives us the actual value of the impedance. This line can be related to a scale that give us the real value in the same way that the calculated value was a real value. Note in the above figure that the three values form a triangle with angles. Also note which angle is called the phase angle. Do you think this angle will change if the impedance changes Yes. Its important for you to get a feel for how this phase angle can be changed. For a given value of XL and R a definite phase angle will exist. If the inductive reactance X L increases the phase angle increases. In fact if we didnt have any resistance this phase angle would be 90 degrees wouldnt it Of course since resistance is always present the phase angle will be something less than 90 degrees. Naturally some test coils may not have very much inductive reactance X L so this means that X L is small. The result is a small phase angle. Or one can say that the current lag in the circuit is small. Recall that it is the coils inductive reactance which causes a current lag.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Perhaps you are wondering why you need to understand the phase analysis approach. If you recall our problem was to separate the variables permeability dimensional changes or lift-off and conductivity. And we could not solve our problem with impedance testing. With phase analysis we can solve this problem and the solution is based on the fact that conductivity changes parallel resistance in the coil while permeability and dimensional changes parallel the inductive reactance X L

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation Analysis Modulation is the process of applying a variable effect to something that is constant. We can use your automobile as an example. Imagine that you are riding along in your automobile which is moving over a road with a constant surface. You of course feel a certain amount of vibration which is caused by the automobile and by the roads surface. This vibration is your constant and you are the indicating device. Next imagine that your right front tire picks up a large stone. What happens You get a change in the vibration and this happens each time the tire rotates. One can say that the tire with the stone is the modulating factor or device. If you like we can call this "stone modulation.” In the below view a generator is providing an alternating voltage to a test coil. Through a secondary coil this voltage is being applied to an indicating device. Now imagine that the specimen passing through the test coil is a long rod which has a conductivity variation that occurs at regular intervals along the rod. Would you say that the conductivity effect is modulating the voltage supplied by the secondary coil: Yes

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang View A illustrates a typical arrangement for modulation analysis. A generator supplies an alternating voltage with a fixed frequency to a modulating device. For our case this device is a test coil with a long rod passing through the coil. The output indicating device is a strip of paper moving at a steady rate and a pen that provides a means of marking indications on the paper. Circuits related to the indicating device are arranged so that only the modulations from the standard output of the secondary coil are shown in the paper. These modulations are also treated so that only vertical marks in one direction are used. Thus we get a series of vertical lines moving from a baseline as shown in view A. In view A each vertical mark represents something about the specimen that is causing a variation. For example the marks in view A could represent periodic changes in conductivity. Note that these marks are evenly spaced. One can say that the distance between two adjacent marks represents one cycle. Frequency is defined as the number of times something happens in one second. The marks in our example thus represent a frequency. If four marks appear in one second we can say the frequency of the modulation is four cycles per second. View B illustrates a typical display. Note that two factors are causing modulations. Would you say that the indication shows:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation Analysis

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation Analysis

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation analysis provides the means of removing unwanted variables from the output display. It thus becomes possible to separate the desired variable from the unwanted effects which are producing variations. An electronic filter will pass only certain frequencies through the filter. Thus by using the proper filter one can suppress all frequencies except those in a narrow band of frequencies. Using this technique the display can then show only very low frequencies low and very low frequencies intermediate frequencies or very high frequencies. In the last view only very high frequencies are being displayed. Note that these have very little height thus the line is almost horizontal. Under these conditions the appearance of a crack can be clearly seen. You have Just seen how the output changes when different electronic filters are used in the modulation analysis method. In the first view only very low frequencies were being displayed. This meant that a crack could not be detected. The gradual charge you-see in the first view might represent a variation in the specimen as a result of a change in heat treatment. In the next view a number of effects are seen and one of these is the crack. The presence of the other factors makes it impossible to detect the crack. In the last view all low and intermediate frequencies are filtered out and only high frequencies are being displayed. Under this condition the crack can be detected. In the modulation analysis method the specimen is moving through the coil at a constant rate. A speed between 40 and 300 feet per minute is normally used. For a given test the speed must be constant. Imagine that you are testing a specimen for cracks by using the modulation analysis method. A slight wobble exists as the specimen passes through the test coil and this is causing an output indication. Do you think that this wobble effect can be eliminated from the output indication by the use of the proper electronic filter: Yes

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Testing Methods You have learned that impedance testing is based on the fact that the current through a coil will change if the coils impedance changes and of course the specimen will change the coils impedance. Impedance was defined as the coils opposition to a flow of electrical current. Next we looked at phase analysis. In this method you saw that the coils properties caused the current through the coil to be out of phase with the voltage applied across the coil. You also learned that the voltage across a secondary coil will be out of phase with the current induced into the secondary coil by the primary coil and by the specimen. The phase changes as the specimens properties change. And finally we examined the modulation analysis method. In this case the coils fundamental frequency is being modulated by a number of effects. This means that the output voltage is a family of frequencies. By the use of filters we can separate the variable we are interested in and eliminate the unwanted effects.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Coils In eddy current testing we find that there are three commonly used test coils:  Encircling coil  Inside coil  Surface coil Probe Each of these is a coil of wire wound such that it can be used for a specific application.The following illustrations will giv you a general idea as to their appearance:

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang μσ∝ωΩπ θ■√ρ φ

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Differential Coils The double coil arrangement can be used on all three encircling coils inside coils and surface coils. Lets try another step now in our study of coils. A close look at the illustration below will reveal that we still have only two coils but they are wound such that they are in opposition to each other. As you can see "PRIMARY 1" winding is wound opposite to "PRIMARY 2".Thusthe electrical fields oppose each other. The same situation exists with "SECONDARY 1"and "SECONDARY 2". This seems rather strange dont you think that they would be wound such that they are in opposition. Do you suppose that under such circumstances that these coils would.. cancel each other

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Self Comparison Differential Method: With primary 1 - primary 2 in opposition and secondary 1secondary 2in opposition the coils cancel each other. That is their fields being equally strongin both directions one will nullify the other.So when a specimen with no dis-discontinuities is placed within the coils there will be no indication. Actually as seen in the next illustration primary 1 P1 and secondary 1 S1 arewound together primary 2 P2 and secondary 2 S2 likewise. The reason for thisis:P1-S1 form a coil and inspect one part of the specimen and P2-S2 form a coil andinspect a different part of the specimen. We now have what is referred to asdifferential coils. If in a situation like that illustrated above there was a discontinuity in the specimen under coil 1 P1-S1 while the specimen under coil 2 P2-S2 was discontinuity freed o you think there would be an output indication on the indicator Yes. Oh how right you are Thats good thinking. There will be an output indication with a discontinuity under the coil. Here is how it works. Assume that the differential coils are set up with a bar or tube specimen moving through them. With no discontinuities under either of the coils the induced magnetic fields will balance or cancel each other. Now when a discontinuity comes along it passes through one of the coils. This changes the magnetic field about the coil and the balance no longer exists there is a difference between the two coils and they no longer cancel each other. Thus an output indication will appear on the indicator. Hence the term differential. The two coils actually sense a difference and give a signal that a discontinuity has been observed.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The method described is called the self-comparison method. As you can see the two coils are testing different places onthe specimen. In so doing they actually compare the two places and only when adifference occurs will there be an indication. You see one coil will nearly always beinspecting an acceptable part of the specimen. Only when a discontinuity occurs willthe other coil detect it.Lets have a look: In the first illustration the specimen under both coils is acceptable discontinuity free. With no difference detected between the coils there is of course no indication. However when the discontinuity passes under one of the coils a comparison is made with the acceptable portion and a difference is detected. Now of course we will have an indication.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang External Reference Differential Method: Another comparison type - differential coil arrangement - using a separate discontinuity free standard would be called: External Reference. If we use a separate test standard we will have an external reference. We can do this with a coil arrangement exactly the same as the self-comparison coil only set up slightly different. A differential coil arrangement can be set up with a carefully chosen discontinuity free test specimen held stationary in one coil while the specimen being tested is moving through the other coil. Here as you can see coil P2-S2 and the discontinuity free specimen are set up as a standard. As the specimen being examined test specimen passes through coil P1-S1a comparison is made between the two. No indication is observed of course unless a discontinuity appears in the test specimen being examined. If a discontinuity passes through coil P1 –S1 it causes a change in the coil impedance and thus an indication is exhibited.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Absolute Method change in size or dimension will change the fill-factor ratio of coildiameter to specimen diameter such that an indication is exhibited.With this conceptin mind you can see how dimensional changes can be detected by eddy current methods. There are various arrangements of the three major types of coils that are divided intodifferent classes. Some of these we discussed earlier. As you recall from the previouspages we started with a single coil around the specimen. This single coil will inspect only the area under the coil and does not compare it with itself self-comparison or with a standard external reference. Because it tests the specimen without a comparison we call it "absolute". In the illustration below the coil system is: "absolute". When a comparison is net made with a differential coil it is termed: Absolute

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang μσ∝ωΩπ θ■√ρ φ

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Note: Signal Detection  Differential - When there is a comparison between 2 parts  Absolute – No comparison what so ever. Eddy Current Energizing/ Receiving  Single coil  Double or reflection coils

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Coil Type: Sing Coil/ Double Coils Absolute

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Coil Type: Single Coils Differential Self Comparison Coil Type: Double Coils Differential Self Comparison

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Coil Type: Double Coils Differential External Reference

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Testing Method: Impedance Testing From Volume I you learned that impedance the sum of reactance and resistance is the total opposition to current flow in an ac circuit. Some of the eddy current test equipment is designed such in its electrical circuitry that it indicates the magnitude of the impedance changes in the circuit.In other words it senses variations in magnitude of the circuit impedance. These variations in magnitude areof course caused by changes in the test specimen being evaluated. Any change in the specimen conductivity magnetic permeability or dimension will effect changes in the test coil impedance. The magnitude of these changes is then sensed and displayed ona test meter or cathode ray tube CRT. Generally speaking most discontinuities such as cracks holes inclusions porosity dents or unwanted dimensioh changes will change the test coil impedance. The meter or CRT deflection is proportional to the magnitude of the variation. This means that if the defect is small a small indication is received and a large discontinuity will give a correspondingly large indication at the meter or CRT. The greatest disadvantage to impedance testing is that because of equipment design characteristics it is much more sensitive to dimensional changes than it is to conductivity or magnetic permeability. Thus an indication may be caused by a very small dimensional change or a fairly large conductivity change. For example a 1diameter change in a cylinder would give the same indication as a 20 conductivity change. Since a 1 dimensional change is usually acceptable a 20 conductivity change usually is not and it would seer.. hat the use of such equipment would be primarily in the search for dimensional changes or if used for conductivity variations the specimen dimension would have to be very constant. A very important factor that must be remembered is that the indication reveals only one thing that a change in impedance has taken place .It is not possible using the impedance testing method to identify from the test indicator which property of the specimen caused the impedance change. It could have been a crack change in specimen size change in alloy or many other characteristics of the specimen but the indicator still only sees an impedance change.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Reactance Testing Modulation Analysis Set up a fundamental frequency in the oscillator separate from the ac input. This is no problem but for the time being forget the ac input and concentrate on the fundamental frequency at the oscillator. Our indicator will monitor this fundamental frequency and display any changes on a meter or CRT. Very good now lets see what could cause this frequency change. Lets start by saying that all physical discontinuities of the test specimen which register a change in the test coil will change the frequency in the oscillator. This change will then be displayed by the indicator. Now its time that we define the term reactance. You had an exposure to reactance in Volume I so you should know something about it. To refresh your memory - reactance is an opposition to the change in current flow. Lets see what happens. When we get a discontinuity or dimension change in the test specimen we will get a change in eddy current flow in the area of the discontinuity. Now since reactance opposes changes in current flow the whole arrangement is effected and the fundamental frequency at the oscillator will change. This in turn causes an indication on the meter or CRT. This type testing will indicate by a change in frequency any variation of from 1 up changes in conductivity dimension or permeability. Here is an example to give you some feel for reactance testing: With the oscillator on our test coil set at a frequency of about 2900 Hz cycles per second and an aluminum rod 1 inch in diameter being passed through the coil a temperature change of 2 °C to 3 °C in the rod will change the frequency about 3 or 4 Hz. This is due primarily to the conductivity change in the aluminum brought about by the change in temperature.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Feed back Control Testing in the impedance method the equipmentis sensitive to the impedance changes. But in reactance testing the equipment indicates any significant change in oscillator frequency. The limitations of reactance testing like impedance testing make it impossible to distinguish between conductivity permeability and dimensional changes. Also at certain frequencies insignificant diameter changes of only 1 would give the same indication as a very significant crack with 5 depth. With the information that you now have which of the methods listed do you think coulddistinguish conductivity changes from dimension and permeability Feed back Control Testing outdated The following Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang CRT Display In the three methods that follow:  Vector Point  Ellipse and  Linear Time-Base The relative position shape or phase of the test signal can be meaningful in the evalua-tion of a test specimen. Each of these three methods display the test informationonthe screen of the cathode ray tube.This type of equipment is designed to reveal asmuch as possible about the test specimen and its discontinuities. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Vector Point Method. First on the list of the three cathode ray tube methods is thevector point.This as the name implies displays on the cathode ray tube a point rather than the expected wave shape. The circuit design for vector point equipment is such that the signal from the test coils will always be displayed as a point of light. Do you suppose that if a discontinuity appears in the specimen that the point of light would change to a line or wave form The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The output of the test coil appears as two voltages V1and V2 and they are 90° out of phase. If these voltages were combined by a special vector addition their resultant VR would give a point thus: The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Vector Point Method. You should now remember that vertical upand down changes are dimension and permeability changes in the specimen. Obviouslyconductivity changes in the specimen will produce horizontal movements of the point.If there is no discontinuity in the specimen the point will not move. This point as we have said before is displayed on the cathode ray tube as a point oflight. The lines crossing at the center of the cathode ray tube make it possible to evaluatethe type of discontinuity in the specimen and its magnitude. In the Vector-Point Method the indication then is on the CRT and is a point of lightwhose position will vary as the properties of the test specimen vary. The point willmove vertically and horizontally. If the vertical movement represents dimensional and permeability variations and thehorizontal movement represents conductivity variations is it possible to separate the conductivity properties of the specimen from other properites by observing the pointon the CRT Yes. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Vector Point Method. It is possible to separate the conductivity properties from the other properties of the specimen. For exampleIf we have a discontinuity conductivitychange in the specimen the point on the CRT will move. The Discussion may be Outdated If we have a dimension change the point may move So you see it may move anywhere on the CRT and its movement will help identify the discontinuity in the specimen. As mentioned if there is no discontinuity detected the point will not move. Is it possible to separate dimension changes from permeability changes No

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang You remembered that dimension and permeability changes cannot be separated.They both move the vector point in the vertical up and down direction. Since the conductivity is perpendicular 90 degrees out of phase it can be separatedfrom the other properties. Lets consider a situation where we want to test for conductivity variables and nothing else. First we have to eliminate the other variables dimension and permeability sowe can easily identify conductivity discontinuities. If you recall we can by magnetic saturation of the specimen eliminate permeability. Now all we have left are conductivity and dimension. Our next step is to do something about the dimensional properties. This is how it is done. The illustration below shows a simplified diagram of our test set up. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Vector Point Method - Conductivity Checks σ Discontinuities With the standard and test specimen inside the test coils as shown and permeability eliminated by magnetic saturation we get a point on the CRT. With the use of the PHASE SHIFTER control we can position the point of light so that it is on the vertical line. Now any change in conductivity will move the point of light horizontally. The distance it moves will indicate the magnitude of the discontinuity. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ellipse method Dimension changes in the specimen will move the point up or downon the vertical line. This same general method could be used when testing for dimensional variations by a simple re- arrangement of the equipment. Ellipse Method. If you recall in Volume I you were shown that the cathode ray tube had two vertical plates and two horizontal plates. With the Vector-Point Method thevalue V1 was placed on the vertical plates and the value V2 was placed on the horizontal plates. The resultant VR by special vector addition was resolved and displayed as a point on the cathode ray tube. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang In the ellipse method the voltage VR resultant is placed on the vertical plates ofthe cathode ray tube. When the two specimens are the same a zero differential output will give us a point of light in the center of the cathode ray tube between the two vertical plates. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang "PHASE SHIFTER“ The phase shifter serves the samepurpose for the ellipse method as it did for the vector-point method.It positions thedisplay horizontally on the cathode ray tube. And with the PHASE SHIFTER addedour illustration is complete. Lets see how good your memory is. Will the ellipse method of eddy current testing separate or distinguish conductivity from dimension - permeability. No The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ellipse Methods - dimensional change in the specimen will display an inclined straight line on the cathode ray tube and a conductivity change in the specimen will display an ellipse on the cathode ray tube. At this point then we have the following displays that have definite meaning.: The Discussion may be Outdated NO DISCONTINUITIES DIFFERENTIAL COIL BALANCE DIMENSIONAL DISCONTINUITIES VOLTAGE CHANGE CONDUCTIVITY DISCONTINUITIES PHASE CHANGE If a display on the cathode ray tube looked like this would you suspect – both a dimension and a conductivity discontinuity

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ellipse Method – Straight Line Conductivity and dimension are the only variables left when magnetic saturation is used to eliminate the permeability variable. As you may recall from a few pages back the display on the CRT will be a straight line. This condition indicates that there is an acsignal on the horizontal plates and zero differential voltage standard and test specimen are the same from the test coils onthe vertical plates. Now lets see what happens when we get a change in dimension. After all of our dis-cussion you probably expect to see an ellipse on the CRT - but not yet. A change indimension will just tilt the horizontal line asshown in this illustration. A dimension change will not noticably change the phase of the signal on the test coil but itwill give a difference in voltage. So now weno longer have a zero differential from the test coil. We have a voltage difference but the test signal is still in phase with the signal on the horizontal plates. Thus our straight line remains straight but is inclined. A straight line results because when two voltages having the same phase are applied simultaneously to the horizontal andvertical plates of the CRT a straight line will result. A dimension change will display an inclined straight line. The Discussion may be Outdated

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ellipse Method – Ellipse dimension change tube diameter thickness or shape will give an inclined straight line on the cathode ray tube. Suppose that rather than a dimension change we have a crack or discontinuity in thespecimen that gives us a conductivity change in the coil. Now we get an ellipse finally. Yes an ellipse is displayed on the cathode ray tube when the specimen discontinuity gives a conductivity change in the coils. However unlike the dimension change we now get a phase change on the signal to the vertical plates rather than a voltage change.This phase change causes the horizontal straight line to open up into an ellipse. At this point would you say that by using the ellipse method it is possible to separate the conductivity variable from the dimension variable Note: why Dimensional changes – Signal in phase The conductivity change Cracks/ Discontinuities affect the inductance L thus the X L ωL inductive reactance – Signal out of phase

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Ellipse Methods An ellipse indicates conductivity changes and the inclined axis of the ellipse indicates a dimension change so we must therefore have both. Without spending too much more time it would be well to mention here that a great deal can be learned about the specimen by an experienced operator using the ellipse method. For example by observing the relative position and shape of the CRT display it is possible to determine just how much the dimension has changed. It is also possible to determine the approximate depth and length of a discontinuity. This is done by observing the angle of inclination for dimension changes and the size of the opening of the ellipse for conductivity.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Linear Time-Base Method In Volume I you had a good introduction to the linear time-base method of eddy current testing. If you recall this method in some respects is like the ellipse method in that two separate signals were placed on the vertical and horizontal plates of the cathode ray tube. Assuming a similar condition that of using differential coils coils in opposition we will have a signal from the coils that will indicate the presence of any discontinuity in the test specimen. This signal will be placed on the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube just as it was in the ellipse method. However a different type of signal will be placed on the horizontal plates in the linear time-base method. This different type of signal is a saw-tooth shaped signal. NOTE - These illustrations are signals placed on the horizontal plates they are not displayed on the CRT. Linear Time-Base Method

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation analysis In this section we will be looking at lines made by thechart recorder. Each signal received from the test coils will be transmitted to theink filled needle. The signals cause the needle to move back and forth across thepaper leaving a tracing of the signal magnitude. With the various signals that are generated at the coils by such properties as perme-ability dimension variations in hardness stresses in the material and others it isvery hard to distinguish discontinuities such as cracks or holes in the specimen.Under normal conditions without modulation analysis a chart recording with all ofthe signals from the specimen will look like this. Keep in mind that there is a required relative constant velocity between the test specimen and the probe or coil to produce an acceptable chart recording. From the above chart record can you identify which peaks are cracks holes dimension changes or conductivity changes No

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Thats right With all of those peaks it would be impossible to decide which peak is which. Lets assume that only one of the peaks on the chart recorder paper was caused by a crack or discontinuity. The rest of the marks or peaks are caused by what we call noise. This is very similar to the noise we get on a radio receiver. When we have noise on a radio it hides the sounds that we wish to hear. Our problem is to get rid of the other peaks or noise so we can see the signal caused by the discontinuity. So we place filters in the electronic circuits to filter out the noise and allow only those signals we want to come through. This is what is done in modulation analysis. By placing filters in the equipment we can eliminate the noise that hides the discontinuities.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Magnetic Saturation When tests are being made of metals that are subject to magnetic forces or are considered ferromagnetic the applied stresses in the metals will have a definite effecton the permeability or magnetic properties of the specimen. These applied stresses within the metals will then because of their effect on magnetic permeability indirectly affect the test responses. In some instances these applied stresses in the specimenwill have greater effect on the test instrument than the discontinuityor other variables that may appear in the specimen. The illustration below shows how stresses inamagnetic material can hide discontinuities that may be present in the specimen. It is possible to eliminate these permeability or magnetic effects with the use of a simple "Saturation Coil". A direct current dc is applied to a coil that surrounds the test specimen. This: coil will magnetically saturate the specimen such that the permeability variables completely disappear. When the test is complete the magnetic saturation is removed from the specimen.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Modulation Analysis Modulation analysis possibly the most revealing method for a well qualified inspector is widely used in eddy current testing. The automatic scanning of a metal specimen is very successfully carried out with the test coil voltage being frequency modulated by the variations in the test specimen. It has been found that discontinuities such as cracks seams holes and inclusions will produce relatively high modulating frequencies. Stress and dimension variations produce intermediate frequencies while heat treatment and temperature variations produce low frequencies. With the use of adjustable filters it is possible to reject certain of these modulating frequencies and pass only those that are desired. This method often with reference to the signal/noise ratio will eliminate the noise unwanted frequencies leaving only the signal variables of interest.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Test capabilities of the eddy current methods are generally very good that is ofcourse depending on the test required.Conducitivity testing can be done on any con-ducting metal. Tests relating to specimen thickness can be performed where speci-men is less than 1/8th inch thick. It can be seen that the shape of the test object mustbe considered. Some of the common shapes that can be tested by eddy current are:  Cylinders  Tubing  Sheets Cylinders of course include a number of items such as wire rods and bars. Theseare all cylindrical in shape and so are usually tested with an encircling coil. Someitems that can be tested for in cylinders are:  Cracks - surface cracks inside cracks laps seams.  Conductivity - alloy composition sorting heat treatment hardness aging and fatigue.  DimensionDiameter wear shape coating andplating thickness.

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Good Luck

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Good Luck

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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang https://www.yumpu.com/en/browse/user/charliechong

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