organic farming

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D. Jaganathan Roll No. 9276

Advisory Committee : 

Advisory Committee Chairman Dr. Ram Bahal Members Dr. R.N.Padaria Dr. Pramod kumar Dr. Krishan lal

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Nature and man are interdependent; protection of the environment will be in the interest of man himself. – Mahatma Gandhi “ Industrial agriculture is inefficient and wasteful because it consumes and destroys more resources than it produces.” “ We can have our cake and eat it too if we return to nature what we take from her.” - Dr. Vandana Shiva

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Share of agriculture in national income Contribution to employment livelihood to about 64% of the total population employment to 58.4% of country’s work force Indian Agricultural Scenario Source of Industrial development Source: Economic Survey of India, 2006-07

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Food grain production Total geographical area : 328 m.ha Gross cropped area : 193 m ha Net sown area : 143 m.ha Cropping Intensity : 136 % Source: Economic Survey of India, 2006-07

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Reduced genetic diversity Increased vulnerability to pests Soil erosion Water shortages Reduced soil fertility Micronutrient deficiencies Soil contamination Reduced availability of nutritious food crops The displacement of vast numbers of small farmers Rural impoverishment and increased tensions and conflicts. Problems created by Green revolution

History of organic farming : 

History of organic farming Origin: Asian countries 1905-1924: Albert Howard (British) worked as agrl. Advisor in Pusa documented traditional farming practices, Book: Agricultural Testament 1939: Eve Balfour (England) Haughley experiment compared organic and conventional farming, Book: Living soil 1940: Rudolf Steiner (Germany) Biodynamic agriculture 1940: Masanobu Fukoka (Japan) 1950: J.I. Rodale(US) popularize through organic gardening 1962: Rachel Carson: Silent Spring Effect of pesticides on environment\ 1970: Global movements 1972: IFOAM 1980- till date:

Need for Organic Farming : 

Need for Organic Farming World Food Summit, Rome, (1996) Food security is achieved when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet their direct needs and food preferences for an active and active healthy life Sabharwal, Secretary, APEDA (2002): Developed countries are dependent on developing countries like India to the extent of 30-50% for their requirements of organic food products and India should seize the opportunity to tap these markets FAO (2002) Price premium of organic products about 20-30% Organic farming is the only way farmers can escape from the vicious cycle of debt and a negative economy. It is growing everywhere, because consumers don’t want to be poisoned with toxic residues from agrochemicals. It is also necessary from the point of view of small producers (Vandana, 2003) Between 1998 and 2002, the compound annual growth rate of the organic food market was 17.7 percent. In 2004, the market for organic products was valued at US$27.8 billion, the largest share of organic products being marketed in Europe and North America, followed by Brazil and Middle East (IFOAM, 2006).

Definition : 

Definition Organic farming is a production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides , growth regulators and livestock feed additives . To the maximum extent feasible it relies upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal wastes, mechanical cultivation, mineral bearing rocks and aspects of biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilth to supply plant nutrients and to control insects, weeds and other pests (Lampkin, 1990) Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro eco-system health, including bio- diversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off -farm inputs (FAO, 1993).

Promotion for production and trade of organic products in India : 

Promotion for production and trade of organic products in India Planning commission (2000): Steering group on agriculture and organic farming as a national challenge NAP(2000): promotion of traditional knowledge MOA(2000): Task force on organic farming, DAC has formulated a scheme for giving a major importance to organic farming by setting up a NIOF MOC(2000): NPOP National centre for organic farming, Ghaziabad ICAR & SAUs International Food and Vegetable Marketing Association in India Association for promotion of organic farming (APOF), Bangalore APEDA, Coffee Board, Spices Board, Tea Board, Coconut Development Board Cocoa and cashew nut board

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Agriculture Man Ecology (AME), Bangalore Agricultural Renewal in India for a Sustainable Environment (ARISE), Puduchery All India Federation of Organic Farmers (AIFOF), Thane 30,000 organic farmers and 8,000 organic farms. In Tamil Nadu alone, about 500 organic farms and 3,000 organic farmers (Ranganathan, 2005) President of poison free food and VP of LEISA 43000 ha (0.03 %) is under organic farming 30 per cent of Indian farmers are organic.

Research gap : 

Research gap What are the different principles, techniques and the characteristics of the organic farming? What are the reasons for practicing organic farming? What are the alternative ways for modern agricultural practices to make the agriculture sustainable?

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What are the productivity and economic viability of the organic farms? What are the training needs and perception of organic farmers towards organic farming? What are the constraints in organic farming and recommendations to solve them? Contd…

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To identify and document the organic farming practices followed by the organic farmers for major two crops To investigate the unique characteristics of the organic farmers and the reasons for practicing organic farming To assess the productivity and economic viability of organic farms Objectives of the Study

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To study the training needs and perception of organic farmers towards organic farming To find out the constraints in organic farming with special emphasis on marketing and to make suitable recommendations as perceived by the farmers Contd….

Previous work done : 

Previous work done Priya (2003): Organic farming in vegetable cultivation was considered as the key for quality maintenance Ramesh and Santha (2001) Adoption of organic farming practices in paddy cultivation (majority belonged to high adoption) Laxmi Narain Modi (1999): DOA, MOA Study on the viability of organic farming (2-21 September, 1993) Rob White (1999) Case studies in India for IFOAM in 1996. He compared the sustainability of organic, conventional and traditional farms AME (1999) Characteristics of conventional, ecological and traditional farming

Organic farming practices : 

Organic farming practices Khan et al.(1996) listed out the organic farming practices in general starting from the land preparation to harvest Singh and Shekhawat (2000) reported different organic farming practices Manjusha(1999): Eco friendly practices in bittergourd cultivation Majjusha (2000): Eco friendly practices in cowpea cultivation Nandini et al (1996) : Indigenous soil and water conservation practices Chengappa and Prakash (1996) : Stressed the need for appropriate POP for production and marketing of organic food

Unique characteristics : 

Unique characteristics Padel and Lampkin(1994) : in Uk, Denmark, Canada, and the Us organic farms are typically smaller, farmers belonged to young age, well educated, urban background and had little farming experience Sreevalsan (1995) reported that nearly two-third of the farmers were less environmentally oriented Brad Brummond, (1999) very observant and patient, good understanding of the ecological system, good marketing skills and devote much effort and time, very open and caring people Kaur and Kalra(2005) reported that majority of the respondents were middle age group, matriculate, 1-6 acres for area under organic farming, gross income of Rs. 18959-23642/ year/ acre from organic farming

Reasons for practicing organic farming : 

Reasons for practicing organic farming Kaur and Kalra (2005) : Easy marketing(65%), additional benefits( certification of organic farm & premium)(43.33%), availability of inputs and technical guidance from firms (48.33%)

Cost benefit analysis : 

Cost benefit analysis Joint committee for ecological and Biodynamic farming (1991) : A conversion to organic agriculture can reduce energy consumption by 50% Vander Werf and de Jager (1992) : Ecological Agriculture in South India. Ecological farms achieve similar economic results as conventional farms for gross margin/ha (Rs. 10620 and Rs.11515 respectively) Nicanor Perlas (1994) : Long term study by Washington University at St. Louis showed that alternative agriculturists using only 40% of the energy made as much net income as conventional farmers Lampkin and Padel (1994) Economics of organic agriculture in many developed countries (yield fall within an acceptable range) Venkataramani(1995) case studies on organic farming in rice revealed that the net returns from the ecological farming was Rs. 8179.50 and it was Rs. 7500 in chemical farming Margasagayam & Norman (1997) : Cost benefit analysis, impact of organic farming on yield, soil, income and expenditure, ecology, debt, health etc

Training needs : 

Training needs Ramandeep Singh and Arneja(2005) : majority of the farmers needed a medium to high level of training in areas like soil management, seed rate, sowing, application of fertilizers, irrigation of drainage, weed control, pest management, harvesting and marketing Bhagat and Khurana (1991): Training needs was high in different areas of horticultural technologies

Perception of organic farmers : 

Perception of organic farmers Loganandhan(2002): increase in demand for organic products(56%), future of sustainable development (19%), Awareness would be increased (15%) Raab and Grobe(2005): Perceptions of "organic" are both positive (such as chemical free) and negative (such as cost). Maintaining good product quality can enhance positive consumer perceptions.

Constraints in organic farming : 

Constraints in organic farming Sherief (1998) : lack of information, low yield, high cost of organic inputs, high labour cost, problem of pests and diseases, skilled labour requirement, lack of credit facilities, lack of government support, low premium for organic products and lack of extension support were found to be the major constraints faced by the homestead respondents in the adoption of resource sustaining agricultural practices. Ranganatha et al. (2001) : more cost and risk involvement in getting organic manures (vermicompost, oil cakes, etc.) transportation of green manures, lack of ready packages for growing rice organically and lack of knowledge on crop rotation, water management and biological control of pests and diseases were the major constraints faced by 60 per cent of the small farmers Balachandran (2004) reported that climatic changes, erratic rains, unavailability of labour and high labour wage rate, pests and disease infestations, unavailability of good indigenous seeds, artificially created price slump in the harvest season forces small scale farmer to sell at under price, lack of support during transition to organic farming and lack of market facilities/consumer awareness regarding organic produce were major problems faced by the farmers’ in organic farming.

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Conceptual frame work of the study status of organic farming Literature review  Researcher – Extensionists – Scientists interaction  Organic farmers  Training needs Perception Age Education Farming experience Social participation Extension orientation Mass media exposure Farm size Area under organic farming Livestock possession Annual income Innovativeness Economic motivation Scientific orientation Risk orientation Market orientation Decision making behavior Self confidence Achievement motivation Value orientation Environmental orientation Independent variable s Independent variable s

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METHODOLOGY Research design: Ex-post facto design Locale of the study

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MSSRF, Chennai NGO: Chanard, Dindigul and Theni Elephant Valley, 100 acre Palni hills An Ecological and organic farming research and training centre, Nagapattinam TamilNadu organic farmers movement led by Dr. Nammalvar Organic farmers Association in TamilNadu State Department of Agriculture and Horticulture Organic farming research Centre, Okkur, Shivagangai Tamil Nadu Organic farmers Technology Association, Sathiyamanaglam Organic farming in Tamil Nadu

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Sampling procedure Multistage purposive sampling Crop I Crop II District District District District Block Block Block Block Village Village Village Village Respondents (n=50) Respondents (n=50) Respondents (n=50) Respondents (n=50) Total 200 respondents

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Case Study One case study for each district: Total 4 cases

1. To identify and document the organic farming practices followed by the organic farmers for major two crops : 

1. To identify and document the organic farming practices followed by the organic farmers for major two crops

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Independent variables: 2. To investigate the unique characteristics of the organic farmers and the reasons for practicing organic farming Contd….

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Reasons for practicing organic farming Review of literature Schedule will be developed Ranking based on three point continuum

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3. To assess the productivity and economic viability of organic farms Schedule will be developed In depth interview of farmers Cost benefit analysis

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4.To study the training needs and perception of organic farmers towards organic farming Training needs The training needs will be identified using structured schedule covering the following Areas in which training needed (three point continuum) Place of training Season and Duration of training Training methods Contd…

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Perception of organic farmers towards organic farming Schedule will be developed Primary data collection

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5.To find out the constraints in organic farming with special emphasis on marketing and to make suitable recommendations as perceived by the farmers to overcome them Constraints under the following headings Input constraints Information seeking and sharing constraints Socio cultural constraints Marketing constraints Miscellaneous constraints Measurement : Ranking based on three point continuum

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Methods used for data collection Well structured interview schedule Focus group interview Case study

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Statistical tools Mean Standard deviation Frequency Percentage analysis Correlation analysis Regression analysis SPSS package will be used

Scope of the study : 

Scope of the study Great help to the Tamil Nadu State Department of Agriculture, ICAR and other Development Departments for the formulation and implementation of various developmental programmes and schemes on organic farming practices. Information on the reasons for practicing organic farming, cost benefit analysis, training needs and perception of organic farmers will reveal the efficacy of the ongoing activities for popularizing organic farming practices. Help the development officers to modify their strategies to motivate farmers to adopt organic farming practices and to overcome the constraints. Immense help for the planners, administrators, researchers and extension functionaries to develop and implement suitable policies and strategies for sustainable agriculture development in Tamil Nadu and India.

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Thank you

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