Integumentary system By: Chaman Lal Karotia (CK)

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SKIN, INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM, APPENDAGES OF SKIN

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The Integumentary System :

T he Integumentary System By: Chaman Lal -B.S.PT, DPT, Dip. in sports Injuries, MPPS(PAK), -PG in Clinical Electroneurophysiology (AKUH), -Registered.EEGT (USA), -Member of AANEM & ASET (USA). Federal Institute of Health Sciences Multan

Study Outlines :

Study Outlines Introduction to Skin & organs Microscopic picture of skin & its layers Appendages of the Skin Skin, its tissues and functions of skin Applied Anatomy of Skin 2 The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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3 Introduction: Organs are body structures composed of two or more different tissues. -Because of large no of functions the skin is regarded as an important organ of the body. -The skin and its accessory organs make up the integumentary system . The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

Surface Area:-:

Surface Area:- In an adult the surface area of the skin is 1.5-2 (1.7) sq.meters. In order to assess the area involved in burns, one can follow the rule of nine: Head & Neck 9% The front of the trunk, the back of trunk (including buttocks), and each lower limb= 18% each, and perineum 1%. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 4

Calculation of Surface Area:-:

Calculation of Surface Area:- The surface area of an individual can be calculated by Du Bois Formula; A = W X H X 71.84 Where , A= Surface area in sq.cm, W= Weight in Kg, & H= Height in cm The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 5

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6 The skin consists of; 1. An outer epidermis , 2. A dermis , connected to underlying tissue by the 3. Subcutaneous layer ( hypodermis ). The thickness of the skin varies from about 0.5-3mm. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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7 1. Epidermis The epidermis is made up of stratified squamous epithelium and lacks blood vessels. The layer of reproducing cells (the stratum basale), which lies at the base of the epidermis, is well-nourished by blood vessels from the deeper dermal layer. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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8 - Cells are pushed outward as new cells are formed, and become keratinized as they die. Layers of the Epidermis: 1 .Stratum Corneum 2 .Stratum Lucidum 3 .Stratum Granulosum 4 .Stratum Spinosum 5 .Stratum Basale The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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10 Skin Color:- The colour of the skin is determined by at least five pigments present at different levels and places of the skin, these are: 1.Melanin , Its brown in colour, present in the germinative zone of the epidermis. 2. Melanoid , its resembles melanin, present diffusely through out the epidermis. 3.Carotene, its yellow to orange in colour, present in stratum corneum and the fat cells of dermis and superficial fascia. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

Skin pigments. . . . cont’d:

Skin pigments. . . . cont’d 4.Haemoglobin (purple) ; and, 5.Oxyhaemoglobin (red); its present in the cutaneous vessels. The amounts of first three pigments vary with the race, age, and part of the body. In white races, the colour of the skin depends chiefly on the vascularity of the dermis and thickness (translucency) of the keratin. The colour is red where keratin in thin (lips), and it is white where keratin is thick (palms & soles). The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 11

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13 2. Dermis The dermis binds the epidermis to underlying tissues. It consists of dense connective tissue with tough collagen and elastic fibers within a gel-like ground substance. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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14 -Dermal blood vessels carry nutrients to upper layers of skin and help to regulate temperature. -The dermis also contains nerve fibers, sensory fibers, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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16 3 . Subcutaneous Layer The subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) is composed of loose connective tissue and insulating adipose tissue. It binds the skin to underlying organs and contains the major blood vessels that supply the skin. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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17 Appendages of Skin or Accessory Organs of Skin 1. Hair :- Hair can be found in nearly all regions of the skin. Hairs develop from cells at the base of the hair follicle, an area of the lower epidermis that dips down into the dermis. As new cells are formed, old cells are pushed outward, become keratinized, and die forming the hair shaft. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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18 Hair colour is determined by genetics; melanin from melanocytes is responsible for most hair colors; red hair contains an additional pigment. A bundle of smooth muscle cells, called the arrector pili muscle (supplied by sympathetic muscles), attaches to each hair follicle. These muscles cause goose bumps when cold or frightened. Hair growth rate is 1.5-2.2 mm per week. Life span of the hair varies from 4 months (eyelashes, axillary hair) to 4 years (scalp hair). The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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Hair follicle & hair shaft:-:

Hair follicle & hair shaft:- The hair follicle is made up of an outer dermal coat and inner epidermal coat. The shaft of hair is made up, from within out; Medulla [Found only in coarse hairs, airways contains air-spaces] Cortex [Main part with pigment in dark hair or air-spaces in white hair] Cuticle [overlapping scales] The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 20

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21 2.Sebaceous Glands:- Associated with hair follicles and secrete an oily substance that waterproofs and moisturizes the hair shafts. These are present all over dermis except for palm & soles. 3.Nails:- Synonyms ( Onych or onycho ) (G): Ungues (L); Nails consist of stratified squamous epithelial cells overlying the nail bed. As new cells are produced, older ones are pushed outward and become keratinized. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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Parts of nail & Nail bed:-:

Parts of nail & Nail bed:- Each nail has 3 parts; 1. Root: Its proximal hidden part which is buried into the nail grooves and is overlapped by the nail fold of the skin. 2. Free border: It’s the distal part free from skin. 3. Body: It’s the exposed part of the body presents a white opaque crescent called lunule. Nail Wall Nail Bed:- The skin (germinative zone + cornium zone) beneath the root and boy of the nail is called nail bed. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 23

-:Skin Glands:-:

-:Skin Glands:- Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called sebum which prevents dehydration of hair and skin, and inhibits growth of certain bacteria Sudoriferous (sweat) glands -- 2 types: Eccrine sweat glands Apocrine sweat glands The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 24

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands:-:

Sudoriferous ( Sweat) Glands:- Numerous eccrine (or merocrine ) sweat glands helps to cool the body by evaporating, and also eliminates small amounts of wastes Apocrine sweat glands , located mainly in the skin of the axilla, groin, areolae, and bearded facial regions of adult males. their excretory ducts open into hair follicles- this sweat is secreted during emotional stress and sexual excitement. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 25

Sweat glands cont’d. . . . :

26 Each gland consists of a tiny tube that originates as a ball shaped coil lined with sweat secreting epithelial cells. -Cells respond to body temperature and stress On an average one liter of sweat is secreted per day; another 400 ml of water is lost through the lungs, and 100 ml through the faces. This makes a total of about 1500ml, a rough estimate. In hot climate secretion of sweat may amount 3-10 liters per day with maximum of 1-2 liters per hour. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) Sweat glands cont’d. . . .

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Modified Sweat Glands:- Ceruminous Glands are modified sweat glands because these secrete wax called cerumen in the ear canal. Mammary glands, another modified type of sweat glands, secrete milk. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 27

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28 Skin and Its Tissues' functions The skin is a large organ responsible for: Temperature regulation Protection of underlying tissues Slowing the rate of water loss Housing sensory receptors Synthesizing certain chemicals ( Vit.D ) Excreting wastes Absorption of oily substances Regulation of pH Storage of chlorides Repairative The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

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Types of Skin:-:

30 Types of Skin:- There are two major types of skin: Thin (hairy) skin covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles Thick (hairless) skin covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS)

Applied Anatomy of Skin:-:

Applied Anatomy of Skin:- Skin is pale in anemia, yellow in jaundice, and blue in cyanosis. Boil (Furuncle) is an infection and suppuration of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Skin incisions should be made parallel to the lines of cleavage. This will result in smallest scars. Sebaceous cyst is common in the scalp. It is due to obstruction of the mouth of a sebaceous duct, caused either by trauma or infection. The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 31

Applied Anatomy of Skin. . . Cont’d:

Applied Anatomy of Skin. . . Cont’d Skin is dry in “Dhatura” poisoning, heart stroke, and diabetic coma; Skin is usually moist in hypoglycaemic coma. The common skin diseases are fungal=like ringworm, allergic = eczema, dermatitis etc, & parasitic like scabies. The usual complaints to skin are itching, burning, tingling, numbness etc Anesthesia, Analgesia, Thermanaesthesia; Hyperaesthesia & perverted sensibility, the paraesthesia. Skin grafting a) Split thickness, b) full thickness The Integumentary System By:CK (FIHS) 32

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