The Roman Empire

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PowerPoint covering the Roman Empires.

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ms. garland. please let me download this presentation I'l introduce it with the members of the historian club in our school

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The Roman Empire:

The Roman Empire

PowerPoint Presentation:

Timeline

The Roman Empire:

The Roman Empire E xtends through 16 centuries and includes several stages in the evolution of the Roman state. It encompasses the period of the ancient Roman Empire , the period in which it was divided into western and eastern halves, and the history of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire that continued through the Middle Ages and to the beginning of the Modern Era . Timeline

The Age of Augustus (31 B.C. – A. D. 14):

The Age of Augustus ( 31 B.C. – A. D. 14) The New Order Army 28 Legions – 150,000 men Auxiliaries – 130,000 men Praetorian Guard Imperator Provincial Government Attempts to Conquer Germany Battle of Teutoburg Forest (9 A.D.) Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor Octavian , the grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar , had made himself a central military figure during the chaotic period following Caesar's assassination. In 43 BC at the age of twenty he became one of the three members of the Second Triumvirate , a political alliance with Marcus Lepidus and Mark Antony . The triumvirate ended in 32 BC, torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was forced into exile and Antony, who had allied himself with his lover Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt , committed suicide in 30 BC following his defeat at the Battle of Actium (31 BC) by the fleet of Octavian. Octavian subsequently annexed Egypt to the empire. Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 63. Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor Now sole ruler of Rome, Octavian began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters. The Senate granted him power over appointing its membership and over the governors of the provinces. In doing so, the Senate had created for Octavian what would become the office of Roman emperor . In 27 BC, Octavian made a show of offering to transfer control of the state back to the Senate. The senate duly refused the offer, in effect ratifying his position within the state and the new political order. Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor Octavian was then granted the title of " Augustus " by the Senate and took the title of Princeps or "first citizen”. Augustus (as modern scholars usually refer to him from this point) took the official position that he had saved the Republic, and carefully framed his powers within republican constitutional principles . He thus rejected titles that Romans associated with monarchy, such as rex . The dictatorship , a military office in the early Republic typically lasting only for the six-month military campaigning season, had been resurrected and abused first by Sulla in the late 80s BC and then by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s; the title dictator had been formally abolished thereafter. As the adopted heir of Julius Caesar, Augustus had taken Caesar as a component of his name, and handed down the name to his heirs of the Julio-Claudian dynasty . With Vespasian , the first emperor outside the dynasty, Caesar evolved from a family name to a formal title . Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor The Senate re-classified the provinces at the frontiers (where the vast majority of the legions were stationed) as imperial provinces , and gave control of them to Augustus. The peaceful provinces were re-classified as senatorial provinces , governed as they had been during the Republic by members of the Senate sent out annually by the central government. Senators were prohibited from even visiting Roman Egypt , given its great wealth and history as a base of power for opposition to the new emperor. Taxes from the Imperial provinces went into the fiscus , the fund administrated by persons chosen by and answerable to Augustus. The revenue from senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the state treasury ( aerarium ), under the supervision of the Senate. Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács . (2003) The Age of Augustus Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor Augustus completed the conquest of Hispania , while subordinate generals expanded Roman possessions in Africa and Asia Minor . Augustus' final task was to ensure an orderly succession of his powers. His stepson Tiberius had conquered Pannonia , Dalmatia , Raetia , and temporarily Germania for the Empire, and was thus a prime candidate. In 6 BC, Augustus granted some of his powers to his stepson , and soon after he recognized Tiberius as his heir. In 13 AD, a law was passed which extended Augustus' powers over the provinces to Tiberius , so that Tiberius' legal powers were equivalent to, and independent from, those of Augustus . Roman Empire

Creation of an Emperor:

Creation of an Emperor Attempting to secure the borders of the empire upon the rivers Danube and Elbe , Augustus ordered the invasions of Illyria , Moesia , and Pannonia (south of the Danube), and Germania (west of the Elbe). At first everything went as planned, but then disaster struck. The Illyrian tribes revolted and had to be crushed, and three full legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and destroyed at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9 by Germanic tribes led by Arminius . Being cautious, Augustus secured all territories west of Rhine and contented himself with retaliatory raids. The rivers Rhine and Danube became the permanent borders of the Roman empire in the North. In 14 AD Augustus died at the age of seventy-five, having ruled the empire for forty years, and was succeeded as emperor by Tiberius. Roman Empire

The Early Empire (14 – 180):

The Early Empire (14 – 180) Julio- Claudian Dynasty (14 – 68) Tiberius (14-37) – started in peace, but ended in paranoid trials and executions Caligula (37-41) – started in peace, but then likely went mad, carried out murders until he was killed by the commander of the guard Note: The Senate debated for two days after his death about the merits of restoring the Republic. ( Abbott, 293) Claudius (41-54) – neither paranoid nor insane, administered the empire with relative stability; likely poisoned by his second wife/niece; deified after death Nero (54-68) – successful diplomat, increased cultural capital of Rome; had his overbearing mother stabbed, rather than facing execution by Senate went into hiding and likely committed suicide Roman Empire

Year of the Four Emperors:

Year of the Four Emperors Since he had no heir, Nero's suicide was followed by a brief period of civil war, known as the " Year of the Four Emperors ". Between June 68 and December 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba , Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian , first ruler of the Flavian dynasty . Through his sound fiscal policy, the emperor Vespasian was able to build up a surplus in the treasury, and began construction on the Colosseum . Titus , Vespasian's successor, quickly proved his merit, although his short reign was marked by disaster, including the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii . He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished Colosseum , but died in 81 . His brother Domitian succeeded him. Having exceedingly poor relations with the Senate, Domitian was murdered in September 96. Roman Empire

Year of the Four Emperors:

Year of the Four Emperors The Flavians , although a relatively short-lived dynasty, helped restore stability to an empire on its knees. Although all three have been criticized , especially based on their more centralized style of rule, they issued reforms that created a stable enough empire to last well into the 3rd century. However, their background as a military dynasty led to further marginalization of the senate, and a conclusive move away from princeps , or first citizen, and toward imperator , or emperor. Roman Empire

The Five Good Emperors:

The Five Good Emperors The next century came to be known as the period of the " Five Good Emperors ", in which the succession was peaceful though not dynastic and the Empire was prosperous. The emperors of this period were: Nerva (96–98 ) Trajan (98–117 ) Hadrian (117–138 ) Antoninus Pius (138–161 ) Marcus Aurelius (161–180 ) Roman Empire

The Five Good Emperors:

The Five Good Emperors Each were adopted by his predecessor as his successor during the former's lifetime. While their respective choices of successor were based upon the merits of the individual men they selected, it has been argued that the real reason for the lasting success of the adoptive scheme of succession lay more with the fact that none but the last had a natural heir. The last 2 of the "Five Good Emperors" and Commodus are also called Antonines . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_the_Roman_Empire Roman Empire

Severan Dynasty:

Severan Dynasty The Severan Dynasty includes the increasingly troubled reigns of Septimius Severus (193–211), Caracalla (211–217), Macrinus (217–218), Elagabalus (218–222), and Alexander Severus (222–235) . The founder of the dynasty, Lucius Septimius Severus, belonged to a leading native family of Leptis Magna in Africa who allied himself with a prominent Syrian family by his marriage to Julia Domna . A generally successful ruler, Septimius Severus cultivated the army 's support with substantial remuneration in return for total loyalty to the emperor and substituted equestrian officers for senators in key administrative positions. In this way, he successfully broadened the power base of the imperial administration throughout the empire. Abolished the regular standing jury courts of Republican times Roman Empire

Severan Dynasty:

Severan Dynasty Septimius Severus's son, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus —nicknamed " Caracalla "—removed all legal and political distinction between Italians and provincials, enacting the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212 which extended full Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Caracalla was also responsible for erecting the famous Baths of Caracalla in Rome , their design serving as an architectural model for many subsequent monumental public buildings. Increasingly unstable and autocratic, Caracalla was assassinated by the praetorian prefect Macrinus in 217, who succeeded him briefly as the first emperor not of senatorial rank . Roman Empire

Severan Dynasty:

Severan Dynasty The imperial court, however, was dominated by formidable women ( Julia Maesa , Julia Soaemias , Julia Avita Mamaea ) who arranged the succession of Elagabalus in 218, and Alexander Severus , the last of the dynasty, in 222. In the last phase of the Severan principate , the power of the Senate was somewhat revived and a number of fiscal reforms were enacted. Despite early successes against the Sassanid Empire in the East, Alexander Severus's increasing inability to control the army led eventually to its mutiny and his assassination in 235. The death of Alexander Severus ushered in a subsequent period of soldier-emperors and almost a half-century of civil war and strife. Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women The Women Behind the Thrones

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia Domna (170–217) was a member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire . Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus and mother of Emperors Geta and Caracalla , Julia was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman Empire. Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia was from a Syrian family, thought to be of Arab descent, of the city of Emesa , Homs today. She was the youngest daughter of the high-priest Gaius Julius Bassianus and her eldest sister was Julia Maesa . Her ancestors were Priest Kings of the famous temple of Elagabalus . The family had enormous wealth and was promoted to Roma senatorial aristocracy. Before her marriage , Julia inherited the estate of her paternal great- uncle Julius Agrippa , a former leading Centurion . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women In the late 180s, Julia married future Emperor Septimius Severus , usually considered to be of Punic background. The marriage proved to be a happy one and Severus cherished his wife and her political opinions, since she was very well read and keen on philosophy. Together, they had two sons , Lucius Septimius Bassianus ( Caracalla ) in 188 and Publius Septimius Geta in 189. Because of her love of philosophy, Julia protected philosophers and helped philosophy to flourish in Rome, despite the hostile attitude toward it displayed by previous emperors . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women When Severus became emperor in 193 he had a civil war waiting for him, against rivals such as Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus . Julia accompanied him in his campaigns in the East, an uncommon event in a time when women were expected to wait in Rome for their husbands. Nevertheless , she remained with the emperor and among the several proofs of affection and favor are the minting of coins with her portrait and the title mater castrorum (mother of the camp) . May have committed suicide or died of breast cancer; later deified. http ://www.women-philosophers.com/Julia-Domna.html Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia Maesa (ca. 7 May 165 –ca. 3 August 226) was a Roman citizen and daughter of Gaius Julius Bassianus , priest of the sun god Heliogabalus , the patron god of Emesa (modern Homs ) in the Roman province of Syria . Grandmother of both the Roman emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus , she figured prominently in the ascension of each to the title at the age of fourteen . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus , son of her daughter Julia Soaemias , in his place. In order to legitimize this pretension, mother and daughter spread the rumor that the 14 year old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The two Julias were successful, mainly because Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections and Elagabalus became emperor. Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus , son of her daughter Julia Soaemias , in his place. In order to legitimize this pretension, mother and daughter spread the rumor that the 14 year old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The two Julias were successful, mainly because Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections and Elagabalus became emperor. Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). The teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor, scorning Roman values with both religious and sexual scandals. Julia Maesa decided to promote instead her fourteen year-old grandson Alexander Severus . She convinced Elagabalus to adopt Alexander as his heir. Elagabulus was murdered shortly afterwards by the Praetorian Guard alongside his mother. Both were thrown into the Tiber river in contempt after being dragged from the palace through the streets . Julia Maesa died on an uncertain date around 226. Like her sister Domna before her, she was deified. Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia Soaemias Bassiana (180–March 11, 222) was a Syrian noblewoman and the mother of Roman emperor Elagabalus who ruled over the Roman Empire during the minority of her son's rule . Together with her mother, Julia plotted to replace Macrinus with her second son, Bassianus . To legitimise this plot, Julia and her mother spread the rumour that the thirteen-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. In 218 Macrinus was killed and Bassianus became emperor with the name of Elagabalus . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia became the de facto ruler of Rome, since the teenaged emperor was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular, and soon discontent arose, mainly because of the strange sexual behaviour and the Eastern religious practices of Elagabalus. Julia and Elagabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222 . Julia was later declared public enemy and her name erased from all records . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia Avita Mamaea (14 or 29 August after 180–235) was the second daughter of Julia Maesa . Julia's first husband was a former consul (whose name is unknown) who died. Julia married as her second husband Syrian Promagistrate Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus . Julia bore two children during her marriage to Marcianus , a daughter Theoclia and a son , Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus Alexianus , later emperor Alexander Severus . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Unlike her sister, Julia was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. Julia was attentive to the education of her son, Alexander, who she prepared adequately for becoming emperor of Rome . Alexander thought much of his mother's advice and followed what she told him to do . When Elagabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favor fell on Alexander , Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Elagabalus' murder by the Praetorian Guard . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. He never managed to escape her maternal domination, but at first Julia ruled very effectively. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort) . It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women Meanwhile , Julia had become madly jealous of her son's wife, Barbia Orbiana , whom Alexander married in 225, and whose father had been made Caesar or co-ruler. Julia had Barbia thrown out of the palace and had her father executed. Julia called on Origen , the Alexandrian Christian leader , to provide her with instruction in Christian doctrine . Roman Empire

Julias: Formidable Women:

Julias : Formidable Women After an inconclusive expedition to repel a Persian invasion in 232, mother and son were sent north to deal with a German attack. Alexander so alienated the Rhine legions by his lack of military prowess and his inflexibility towards pay that the troops proclaimed the giant Maximinus Thrax as emperor in 235 . Troops sent to kill Alexander found him clinging to his mother in a tent. Mother and son were butchered together, ending the Severan dynasty. Roman Empire

Augustan Society:

Augustan Society Social Stratification Senators Own property worth 1 million sesterces Equestrians Own property worth 400,000 sesterces Lower Class Little political power Moral Legislation Roman Empire

Roman Law:

Roman Law The “ Classical Age of Roman Law ” Natural Rights Basis for laws of present-day Western civilization Roman Empire

Roman Culture and Society in the Early Empire:

Roman Culture and Society in the Early Empire The Golden Age of Latin Literature Virgil (70 – 19 B.C.) Aeneid Horace (65 – 8 B.C.) Satires Ovid (43 B.C. – A.D. 18) Amores The Art of Love Livy (59 B.C. – A.D. 17) History of Rome The Silver Age of Latin Literature Seneca (4 B.C. – A.D. 65) Stoicism Tacitus (56 – 120) Annals Histories Germania Roman Empire

Imperial Rome:

Imperial Rome 1 million people Overcrowded and Noisy City Insulae – Apartment Blocks Dangers – Fire and Building Collapse Public Buildings Temples, Forums, Markets, Baths, Theaters, Govt. Buildings and Amphitheaters Food for the Poor Entertainment Bread and Circuses Roman Empire

Crisis and the Third Century:

Crisis and the Third Century The Terrible Third Century Septimius Severus (193 – 211) Severan Rulers (193 – 235) Military Monarchy Military Anarchy (235 – 284) Civil Wars 22 Emperors in five decades Germanic and Persian Invasions Decline in Trade and Agriculture Financial Weakness/Debt/Hyperinflation Roman Empire

Crisis and the Third Century:

Crisis and the Third Century The Crisis of the Third Century is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284. It is also called the period of the "military anarchy". After Augustus declared an end to the Civil Wars of the 1st century BC, the Empire had enjoyed a period of limited external invasion, internal peace and economic prosperity (the Pax Romana ). In the 3rd century, however, the Empire underwent military, political and economic crises and began to collapse. There was constant barbarian invasion, civil war, and hyperinflation . Part of the problem had its origins in the nature of the Augustan settlement. Augustus, intending to downplay his position, had not established rules for the succession of emperors . Roman Empire

Crisis and the Third Century:

Crisis and the Third Century Already in the 1st and 2nd century, disputes about the succession had led to short civil wars, but in the 3rd century these civil wars became a constant factor, as no single candidate succeeded in quickly overcoming his opponents or holding on to the Imperial position for very long. Between 235 and 284 no fewer than 25 different emperors ruled Rome (the Soldier-Emperors). All but two of these emperors were either murdered or killed in battle. The organization of the Roman military, concentrated on the borders, could provide no remedy against foreign invasions once the invaders had broken through. A decline in citizens' participation in local administration forced the Emperors to step in, gradually increasing the central government's responsibility . Roman Empire

Diocletian & Tetrarchy:

Diocletian & Tetrarchy The crisis period ended with the accession of Diocletian . Diocletian, either by skill or sheer luck, solved many of the acute problems experienced during this crisis. However, the core problems would remain and cause the eventual destruction of the western empire. The transitions of this period mark the beginnings of Late Antiquity and the end of Classical Antiquity . The transition from a single united empire to the later divided Western and Eastern empires was a gradual transformation. In July 285, Diocletian defeated rival Emperor Carinus and briefly became sole emperor of the Roman Empire . Roman Empire

Diocletian & Tetrarchy:

Diocletian & Tetrarchy Diocletian saw that the vast Roman Empire was ungovernable by a single emperor in the face of internal pressures and military threats on two fronts. He therefore split the Empire in half along a northwest axis just east of Italy, and created two equal Emperors to rule under the title of Augustus . Diocletian himself was the Augustus of the eastern half, and he made his long-time friend Maximian Augustus of the western half. In doing so, he effectively created what would become the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire . Roman Empire

Diocletian & Tetrarchy:

Diocletian & Tetrarchy In 293 authority was further divided, as each Augustus took a junior Emperor called a Caesar to aid him in administrative matters, and to provide a line of succession; Galerius became Caesar under Diocletian and Constantius Chlorus Caesar under Maximian . This constituted what is called the Tetrarchy (in Greek : "leadership of four") by modern scholars. After Rome had been plagued by bloody disputes about the supreme authority, this finally formalized a peaceful succession of the emperor: in each half a Caesar would rise up to replace the Augustus and select a new Caesar . On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian peacefully abdicated in favor of their Caesars . Galerius named the two new Caesars : his nephew Maximinus for himself, and Flavius Valerius Severus for Constantius . Roman Empire

Diocletian & Tetrarchy:

Diocletian & Tetrarchy The arrangement worked well under Diocletian and Maximian and shortly thereafter. The internal tensions within the Roman government were less acute than they had been. In The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Edward Gibbon notes that this arrangement worked well because of the affinity the four rulers had for each other. Gibbon says that this arrangement has been compared to a "chorus of music". With the withdrawal of Diocletian and Maximian , this harmony disappeared. After an initial period of tolerance, Diocletian, who was a fervent pagan and was worried about the ever-increasing numbers of Christians in the Empire, persecuted them with zeal unknown since the time of Nero; this was to be one of the greatest persecutions the Christians endured in history. Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty The Tetrarchy would effectively collapse with the death of Constantius Chlorus on July 25, 306. Constantius's troops in Eboracum immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as Augustus . In August 306, Galerius promoted Severus to the position of Augustus . A revolt in Rome supported another claimant to the same title: Maxentius , son of Maximian , who was proclaimed Augustus on October 28, 306. His election was supported by the Praetorian Guard . This left the Empire with five rulers: four Augusti (Galerius, Constantine, Severus and Maxentius ) and one Caesar ( Maximinus ) . Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty The year 307 saw the return of Maximian to the rank of Augustus alongside his son Maxentius , creating a total of six rulers of the Empire. Galerius and Severus campaigned against them in Italy. Severus was killed under command of Maxentius on September 16, 307. The two Augusti of Italy also managed to ally themselves with Constantine by having Constantine marry Fausta , the daughter of Maximian and sister of Maxentius . At the end of 307, the Empire had four Augusti ( Maximian , Galerius, Constantine and Maxentius ) and a sole Caesar . In 311 Galerius officially put an end to the persecution of Christians, and Constantine legalized Christianity definitively in 313 as evidenced in the so-called Edict of Milan . Constantine defeated his brother-in-law Licinius in 324, unifying the Empire under his control. He would rule until his death on 22 May 337 . Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty The Empire was parted again among his three surviving sons. The Western Roman Empire was divided among the eldest son Constantine II and the youngest son Constans . The Eastern Roman Empire along with Constantinople were the share of middle son Constantius II . Constantine II was killed in conflict with his youngest brother in 340. Constans was himself killed in conflict with the army-proclaimed Augustus Magnentius on January 18, 350. Magnentius was at first opposed in the city of Rome by self-proclaimed Augustus Nepotianus , a paternal first cousin of Constans . Nepotianus was killed alongside his mother Eutropia . His other first cousin Constantia convinced Vetriano to proclaim himself Caesar in opposition to Magnentius . Vetriano served a brief term from March 1 to December 25, 350. He was then forced to abdicate by the legitimate Augustus Constantius . The usurper Magnentius would continue to rule the Western Roman Empire until 353 while in conflict with Constantius . His eventual defeat and suicide left Constantius as sole Emperor . Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty Constantius's rule would however be opposed again in 360. He had named his paternal half-cousin and brother-in-law Julian as his Caesar of the Western Roman Empire in 355 . During the following five years, Julian had a series of victories against invading Germanic tribes , including the Alamanni . This allowed him to secure the Rhine frontier. His victorious Gallic troops thus ceased campaigning. Constantius sent orders for the troops to be transferred to the east as reinforcements for his own currently unsuccessful campaign against Shapur II of Persia. This order led the Gallic troops to an insurrection . They proclaimed their commanding officer Julian to be an Augustus. Both Augusti readied their troops for another Roman Civil War , but the timely demise of Constantius on 3 November 361 prevented this war from occurring. Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty Julian would serve as the sole Emperor for two years. He had received his baptism as a Christian years before, but no longer considered himself one. His reign would see the ending of restriction and persecution of paganism introduced by his uncle and father-in-law Constantine I and his cousins and brothers-in-law Constantine II, Constans and Constantius II. He instead placed similar restrictions and unofficial persecution of Christianity . His edict of toleration in 362 ordered the reopening of pagan temples and the reinstitution of alienated temple properties, and, more problematically for the Christian Church , the recalling of previously exiled Christian bishops . Returning Orthodox and Arian bishops resumed their conflicts, thus further weakening the Church as a whole . Roman Empire

Constantian Dynasty:

Constantian Dynasty Julian himself was not a traditional pagan. His personal beliefs were largely influenced by Neoplatonism and Theurgy ; he reputedly believed he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great . He produced works of philosophy arguing his beliefs. His brief renaissance of paganism would, however, end with his death. Julian eventually resumed the war against Shapur II of Persia. He received a mortal wound in battle and died on June 26, 363 . Julian died childless and with no designated successor. The officers of his army elected the rather obscure officer Jovian emperor. He is remembered for signing an unfavorable peace treaty with Persia , ceding territories won from the Persians, dating back to Trajan . He restored the privileges of Christianity. He is considered a Christian himself, though little is known of his beliefs. Jovian himself died on February 17, 364. Roman Empire

Valentinian Dynasty:

Valentinian Dynasty The role of choosing a new Augustus fell again to army officers. On February 28, 364, Pannonian officer Valentinian I was elected Augustus in Nicaea , Bithynia . However, the army had been left leaderless twice in less than a year, and the officers demanded Valentinian choose a co-ruler. On March 28 Valentinian chose his own younger brother Valens and the two new Augusti parted the Empire in the pattern established by Diocletian: Valentinian would administer the Western Roman Empire, while Valens took control over the Eastern Roman Empire . Roman Empire

Valentinian Dynasty:

Valentinian Dynasty The election of Valens was soon disputed. Procopius , a Cilician maternal cousin of Julian, had been considered a likely heir to his cousin but was never designated as such. He had been in hiding since the election of Jovian. In 365, while Valentinian was at Paris and then at Rheims to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni , Procopius managed to bribe two legions assigned to Constantinople and take control of the Eastern Roman capital. He was proclaimed Augustus on September 28 and soon extended his control to both Thrace and Bithynia. War between the two rival Eastern Roman Emperors continued until Procopius was defeated. Valens had him executed on May 27, 366 . Roman Empire

Valentinian Dynasty:

Valentinian Dynasty On August 4, 367, the eight-year-old Gratian was proclaimed as a third Augustus by his father Valentinian and uncle Valens, a nominal co-ruler and means to secure succession. In April 375 Valentinian I led his army in a campaign against the Quadi , a Germanic tribe which had invaded his native province of Pannonia. During an audience with an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube , a town now part of modern-day Komárno , Slovak republic , Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375 . Roman Empire

Valentinian Dynasty:

Valentinian Dynasty Succession did not go as planned. Gratian was then a 16-year-old and arguably ready to act as Emperor, but the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant half-brother emperor under the title Valentinian II . Gratian acquiesced in their choice and administered the Gallic part of the Western Roman Empire. Italy, Illyria and Africa were officially administrated by his brother and his stepmother Justina . However the division was merely nominal as the actual authority still rested with Gratian. Roman Empire

Theodosian Dynasty:

Theodosian Dynasty Gratian governed the Western Roman Empire with energy and success for some years, but he gradually sank into indolence. Gratian lost favor with factions of the Roman Senate by prohibiting traditional paganism at Rome and relinquishing his title of Pontifex Maximus . The senior Augustus also became unpopular with his own Roman troops because of his close association with so-called barbarians . He reportedly recruited Alans to his personal service and adopted the guise of a Scythian warrior for public appearances. Meanwhile Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius were joined by a fourth Augustus. Theodosius proclaimed his oldest son Arcadius an Augustus in January 383 in an obvious attempt to secure succession. The boy was still only five or six years old and held no actual authority. Nevertheless he was recognized as a co-ruler by all three Augusti . Roman Empire

Theodosian Dynasty:

Theodosian Dynasty The increasing unpopularity of Gratian would cause the four Augusti problems later that same year. Magnus Maximus , a general from Hispania , stationed in Roman Britain , was proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 383 and rebelling against Gratian he invaded Gaul . Gratian fled from Lutetia ( Paris ) to Lugdunum ( Lyon ), where he was assassinated on August 25, 383 at the age of 25. Maximus was a firm believer of the Nicene Creed and introduced state persecution on charges of heresy , which brought him into conflict with Pope Siricius who argued that the Augustus had no authority over church matters. But he was an Emperor with popular support, as is attested in Romano-British tradition, where he gained a place in the Mabinogion , compiled about a thousand years after his death . Roman Empire

Theodosian Dynasty:

Theodosian Dynasty Following Gratian's death, Maximus had to deal with Valentinian II, at the time only twelve years old, as the senior Augustus. The first few years the Alps would serve as the borders between the respective territories of the two rival Western Roman Emperors. Maximus controlled Britain, Gaul, Hispania and Africa. He chose Augusta Treverorum ( Trier ) as his capital. Maximus soon entered negotiations with Valentinian II and Theodosius, attempting to gain their official recognition. By 384, negotiations were unfruitful and Maximus tried to press the matter by settling succession as only a legitimate Emperor could do: proclaiming his own infant son Flavius Victor an Augustus. The end of the year found the Empire having five Augusti ( Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius , Magnus Maximus and Flavius Victor) with relations between them yet to be determined . Roman Empire

Theodosian Dynasty:

Theodosian Dynasty Theodosius was left a widower in 385, following the sudden death of Aelia Flaccilla , his Augusta . He was remarried, to the sister of Valentinean II, Galla , and the marriage secured closer relations between the two “legitimate” Augusti . In 386 Maximus and Victor finally received official recognition by Theodosius but not by Valentinian . In 387, Maximus apparently decided to rid himself of his Italian rival. He crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan . Valentinian and his mother fled to Thessaloniki from where they sought the support of Theodosius. Roman Empire

Theodosian Dynasty:

Theodosian Dynasty Theodosius indeed campaigned west in 388 and was victorious against Maximus. Maximus himself was captured and executed in Aquileia on July 28, 388. Magister militum Arbogast was sent to Trier with orders to also kill Flavius Victor. Theodosius restored Valentinian to power and through his influence had him converted to Orthodox Catholicism. Theodosius continued supporting Valentinian and protecting him from a variety of usurpations. Roman Empire

Final Partition of the Empire:

Final Partition of the Empire In 392 Valentinian II was murdered in Vienne . Arbogast arranged for the appointment of Eugenius as emperor. However, the eastern emperor Theodosius refused to recognize Eugenius as emperor and invaded the West, defeating and killing Arbogast and Eugenius at the Battle of the Frigidus . He thus reunited the entire Roman Empire under his rule. Theodosius had two sons and a daughter, Pulcheria , from his first wife, Aelia Flacilla . His daughter and wife died in 385. By his second wife, Galla , he had a daughter, Galla Placidia , the mother of Valentinian III , who would be Emperor of the West . Roman Empire

Final Partition of the Empire:

Final Partition of the Empire Theodosius was the last Emperor who ruled over the whole Empire. After his death in 395, he gave the two halves of the Empire to his two sons Arcadius and Honorius ; Arcadius became ruler in the East, with his capital in Constantinople , and Honorius became ruler in the West, with his capital in Milan and later Ravenna . The Roman state would continue to have two different emperors with different seats of power throughout the 5th century, though the Eastern Romans considered themselves Roman in full. Latin was used in official writings as much as, if not more than, Greek. The two halves were nominally, culturally and historically, if not politically, the same state . Roman Empire

Religion in the Roman World:

Religion in the Roman World The Religious World of the Roman Empire State Religion focused on gods and goddesses Cult of the Emperors Mystery Religions Mithraism Roman Empire

The Jewish Background:

The Jewish Background Judaea Made Roman Province in 6 A.D. Jewish Groups Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Zealots Roman Empire

The Origins of Christianity:

The Origins of Christianity Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah (c. 6 B.C. – A.D. 29) Preached humility, charity and brotherly love Paul of Tarsus (c. 5 – c. 67) Father of Christianity Spread of Christianity Pauline Epistles Early Christians mostly Jews Increasing number of non-Jews converted in the second century Counter-culture (Roman culture) to all areas Romans p ersecute Christians Roman Empire

The Growth of Christianity:

The Growth of Christianity Centralized Organization Bishops Reasons for Growth Message of Salvation Familiarity Universality – Open to men and women Fulfilled human need to belong/answered fundamental human questions Systematic Persecutions in the Third Century Constantine Edict of Milan grants toleration (313) Roman Empire

Web Links:

Web Links Illustrated History of the Roman Empire Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors The Perseus Digital Library The Roman Gladiator Roman Britain The Jewish Roman World of Jesus The Early Church

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